What is Computer : History Working Types
Computer is an electronic device that processes data to provide information. It consists of both hardware and software. Hardware refers to the computer’s physical components, such as keyboard, mouse, monitor, etc. Software includes programs and operating systems that instruct the computer on what to do.
We input data into the computer, and then it processes that input to generate output. Nowadays, with the help of computers, we can perform various activities such as internet browsing, email, games, programming, graphic design, etc. Computers have significantly simplified our lives. You can learn more about supercomputers and quantum computers from here.
History Of computer
The journey of our computers in history began with calculation devices like abacus, which were used for simple arithmetic calculations. Then, in the 17th and 18th centuries, more advanced mechanical machines like Pascal’s calculator and Jacquard loom were developed.
However, the real development of modern computers began in the 20th century. The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), introduced in 1946, is considered the precursor of modern computers. From there, computers rapidly progressed, from large machines with mainframes in the 1970s to personal computers, and now to the powerful machines we have today.
Working of Computer
The functioning of a computer is based on following digital instructions. These instructions are organized in a specific sequence, which we call Software. Various types of software are used to optimize the computer’s capabilities.
The main component of a computer is the CPU (Central Processing Unit), which processes data. It consists of two parts – the Control Unit and the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). The Control Unit manages all input and output devices, while the ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations.
When we need to perform a task, we provide input through devices like the Keyboard or Mouse. This input is converted into binary code, which the computer can understand. This binary code is sent to the CPU, where it is processed.
The data processed by the CPU is then displayed on Output Devices such as a Monitor or Printer. In this way, the various components of the computer work together, following our instructions.
What is Full Form Of Computer
Technically, a computer doesn’t have a full name. The complete form of “computer” is, nonetheless, an imaginative acronym:
C – Commonly
O – Operated
M – Machine
P – Particularly
U – Used for
T – Technical and
E – Educational
R – Research
If translated into English, it would be something like this: a Commonly Operated Machine, Particularly Used for Technical and Educational Research.
Who invented the computer?
Who is considered the father of modern computers? Many people have contributed to the field of computing. However, the most significant contribution came from Charles Babbage. He introduced the Analytical Engine in 1837, which incorporated the concepts of ALU, Basic Flow Control, and Integrated Memory. Today’s computers are designed based on this model, making his contribution paramount. That’s why he is also known as the father of computers.
Parts of Computer
If you have ever looked inside a computer case, you must have noticed that there are many small components inside it. They might seem very complicated, but they are not as complicated as they appear. Now, I will give you some information about these components.
The main circuit board of any computer is called the motherboard. It looks like a thin plate, but it holds many things, such as the CPU, memory, connectors for hard drives and optical drives, expansion cards to control video and audio, and all the ports of the computer. Essentially, the motherboard is directly or indirectly connected to all parts of the computer.
Do you know what Central Processing Unit, or CPU, means? It is also called the brain of the computer. It is found inside the motherboard within the computer case. It oversees all activities happening inside a computer. The faster the processor’s speed, the quicker it can process information.
RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It serves as the system’s short-term memory. Whenever the computer performs calculations, it temporarily saves the results in RAM. If the computer shuts down, this data is lost. When we are working on a document, we should save our data periodically to prevent it from being lost. Saving the data stores it in the hard drive, preserving it for a long time.
RAM is measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). The more RAM, the better for us.
The hard drive is a component where software, documents, and other files are saved. Data stored here remains for a long time.
Power Supply Unit
The power supply unit takes power from the main power supply and distributes it to other components as needed.
All computers have expansion slots where we can add expansion cards in the future. These are also known as PCI (Peripheral Components Interconnect) cards. However, modern motherboards often come with built-in slots. Here are some names of expansion cards we can use to upgrade older computers:
- Video Card
- Sound Card
- Network Card
- Bluetooth Card (Adapter)
What is Computer hardware & Software
Computer hardware refers to any physical device that we use in our computers. On the other hand, computer software refers to a collection of codes that we install on the hard drive of our machines to make the hardware function.
For example, computer hardware includes the monitor that we use for reading, and the mouse that we use for navigation. Internet browsers, which we use to visit websites, and the operating system on which the internet browser runs, are examples of software.
We can say that a computer is a combination of software and hardware. Both have crucial roles, and they can work together to accomplish tasks.
Types of computers
A computer is an advanced electronic device (or you can say a digital device) that takes raw data from the user as input, processes it under the control of a set of instructions (referred to as software), produces an output (result), and saves it for future use. Before we begin this article, you need to know that not all developed computers are the same; they have different designs and specifications.
Some computers operate at high speeds and have high processing capabilities, while others are slower. In other words, computers are developed based on requirements.
Depending on the types of computers, there can also be changes in our usage. Computers can be classified into three types based on their data handling capabilities:
- Analog Computers
- Digital Computers
- Hybrid Computers
Types of Computers Based on Size
Computers can be categorized into three types based on their data handling capabilities:
Supercomputers – These are the most powerful computers and are used only in large government institutions.
Mainframe Computers – While not as powerful as supercomputers, mainframe computers have high processing capabilities. They are used by large business organizations and are kept in specialized air-conditioned rooms. Large information systems use these computers for processing.
Minicomputers – These computers, larger in capacity and size than personal computers, are used by companies and various institutions for specific tasks.
Microcomputers – The most commonly used category, which includes personal computers, laptops, smartphones, digital assistants, etc. These computers have lower processing capabilities and size compared to other types of computers.