The Unity Of Indian Culture Summary, Explanation, Difficult Words



Bihar Board Class 10 English Lesson 7 The Unity Of Indian Culture Summary, Lesson Explanation with difficult word meanings and Question Answer from Panorama-II Book


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The Unity Of Indian Culture Bihar Board Class 10 English 

Humayun Kabir 



The Unity Of Indian Culture Introduction

In this chapter, Indian culture and how it is a blend of many different things is discussed. It explains that before, people thought the Aryans were the first people in India, but now we know there were others before them. Early people built up a civilization that was even more advanced than the Aryans. Over time, different groups of people came to India, bringing new ideas and customs. But despite all these changes, Indian culture has stayed strong and unified.

The narrator also talks about how Indian culture is different from other cultures and how it has survived for a long time. He says that Indian culture has a unique continuity, meaning it has kept going without any big breaks. This is because of the Indian people’s ability to adapt to changes while still holding onto their shared values.

The chapter shows how Indian culture is a mix of many influences but has a strong sense of unity and continuity that has kept it alive for centuries.




Theme of the Lesson The Unity Of Indian Culture

The theme of the chapter is about unity, resilience, and continuity of Indian culture. It explores how Indian culture, despite being a blend of diverse influences and elements, has a remarkable sense of unity and continuity throughout its history. The chapter highlights the stability of Indian culture amidst various challenges and changes, emphasizing its ability to adapt while preserving its primary characteristics. It discusses the interconnectedness of culture and civilization, stating the important role that culture plays in shaping a society’s structure and culture.




The Unity Of Indian Culture Summary

The chapter “The Unity of Indian Culture” by Humayun Kabir talks about Indian civilization and its unity. It looks at where it came from, how it changed, and what makes it special. At first, Kabir questions the idea that the Aryans were the first people in India. He says there were civilizations before them. These early people were quite advanced, even more than the Aryans who came later. Later different groups like the Greeks and Huns came to India, adding new things to Indian culture. Despite all these changes, Indian culture stayed strong and united. Indian culture has been around for a long time, even when other ancient civilizations disappeared. This is because Indian society is good at adapting to changes while keeping its core identity. Even though Indian culture has been influenced by many different things, Kabir says it has always had a strong sense of unity. He believes that even though Indian culture is made up of lots of different parts, there’s something about being Indian that brings it all together. This unity, Kabir thinks, is what makes Indian culture special and different from other cultures.While other ancient civilizations have disappeared, Indian culture has stayed strong, growing and changing without losing its unity.

He also talks about what culture really means. It’s not just one thing, but a mix of many different parts of society like language, art, religion, and how people behave. Kabir believes that culture grows from civilization, which creates the right conditions for culture to develop and thrive.

Kabir also talks about how Indian civilization is different from Europe. He says that in Europe, there’s a big difference in quality between different groups of people. But in India, everyone has a more equal quality of life. This shows how strong and connected Indian culture is over time.




The Unity Of Indian Culture Summary in Hindi

हुमायूँ कबीर का अध्याय “भारतीय संस्कृति की एकता” भारतीय सभ्यता के बारे में बात करता है। यह देखता है कि यह कहां से आया, यह कैसे बदल गया, और क्या इसे विशेष बनाता है। सबसे पहले, कबीर इस विचार पर सवाल उठाते हैं कि आर्य भारत के पहले लोग थे। उनका कहना है कि उनसे पहले भी सभ्यताएं थीं। ये आरंभिक लोग काफ़ी उन्नत थे, यहाँ तक कि बाद में आये आर्यों से भी अधिक उन्नत थे। बाद में यूनानी और हूण जैसे विभिन्न समूह भारत आए, और भारतीय संस्कृति में नई चीजें जोड़ीं। इन सभी परिवर्तनों के बावजूद, भारतीय संस्कृति मजबूत और एकजुट रही। भारतीय संस्कृति लंबे समय से अस्तित्व में है, तब भी जब अन्य प्राचीन सभ्यताएँ लुप्त हो गईं। ऐसा इसलिए है क्योंकि भारतीय समाज अपनी मूल पहचान को बनाए रखते हुए परिवर्तनों को अपनाने में अच्छा है। भले ही भारतीय संस्कृति कई अलग-अलग चीजों से प्रभावित रही है, कबीर कहते हैं कि इसमें हमेशा एकता की मजबूत भावना रही है। उनका मानना ​​है कि भले ही भारतीय संस्कृति कई अलग-अलग हिस्सों से बनी है, भारतीय होने के बारे में कुछ ऐसा है जो इसे एक साथ लाता है। कबीर का मानना ​​है कि यह एकता ही भारतीय संस्कृति को अन्य संस्कृतियों से विशेष और अलग बनाती है। जबकि अन्य प्राचीन सभ्यताएँ लुप्त हो गई हैं, भारतीय संस्कृति अपनी एकता को खोए बिना मजबूत, विकसित और बदलती रही है।

वह इस बारे में भी बात करते हैं कि संस्कृति का वास्तव में क्या मतलब है। यह सिर्फ एक चीज़ नहीं है, बल्कि समाज के कई अलग-अलग हिस्सों जैसे भाषा, कला, धर्म और लोग कैसे व्यवहार करते हैं, का मिश्रण है। कबीर का मानना ​​है कि संस्कृति सभ्यता से विकसित होती है, जो संस्कृति के विकास और पनपने के लिए सही परिस्थितियाँ बनाती है।

कबीर यह भी बताते हैं कि भारतीय सभ्यता यूरोप से किस प्रकार भिन्न है। उनका कहना है कि यूरोप में विभिन्न समूहों के लोगों के बीच गुणवत्ता में बड़ा अंतर है। लेकिन भारत में, हर किसी के पास जीवन की समान गुणवत्ता है। इससे पता चलता है कि भारतीय संस्कृति समय के साथ कितनी मजबूत और जुड़ी हुई है।




The Unity Of Indian Culture Lesson Explanation


Passage: Till recently, the Aryans were regarded as the earliest invaders of the land. It was thought that they came to a country which was uncivilized and barbarian, but modern research has proved that there were invaders even before the Aryans poured into this land. They had evolved a civilization higher than that of the Aryan hordes who came in their wake. These Pre-Aryans had displaced still earlier people and built up a new civilization which has astonished modern scholars by its extent and depth. The Aryan invasion repeated the process and led to fresh infusion of the old with the new. This continued with the successive inroads of fighting races who came to conquer but remained to lose themselves in the Indian racial cauldron. The Greek invaders were followed by Sakas and Huns and a hundred other nameless tribes. They all appeared on the scene as victors but were soon absorbed in the ranks of the vanquished.

Word Meanings:
invader (n): one who attacks or enters (a country) so as to occupy.
infusion (n): the act or process of infusing, the act of adding something to something else in order to make it stronger or more successful
barbarian (adj): rude, uncultured
astonish (v): to amaze, to surprise
cauldron (n): here, a situation or place where different races or ethnicities mix and interact, often resulting in a blending or merging of cultures and identities.
absorb (v): to incorporate
vanquish (v): to defeat, to conquer

Explanation: Long ago, people used to think that the Aryans were the first ones to come to India. They believed that when they arrived, India was a wild and uncivilized place. But now, new research shows that there were other groups who had come before the Aryans. These earlier people had a more advanced civilization than the Aryans. They built up a whole new way of life in India. When the Aryans came, they mixed with these earlier people, and this happened again and again with other groups who came later. Even though these groups conquered parts of India, they eventually became part of Indian society themselves. So, while they may have seemed like winners at first, they ended up being absorbed into the larger Indian culture.

Passage: Today, whatever is Indian, whether it be an idea, a word, a form of art, a political institution or a social custom, is a blend of many different strains and elements.

In spite of this derivation from any sources and the consequent variety of forms and types we find a remarkable unity of spirit informing Indian culture throughout the ages. In fact, it is this underlying unity which is one of the most remarkable features of Indian culture. In volume and duration no civilization (with the possible exception of the Chinese) can bear comparison with the civilization of India. The area of the land, the number of the people, the variety of the races and the length of India’s history are hardly repeated elsewhere. The vitality of Indian culture is equally amazing. In spite of a thousand vicissitudes, it has survived to the modern day. This has been possible only on account of a sense of Indianness which imposed unity on all diversity and wove into one fabric of national life the many strands of different texture, color and quality which have entered here.

Word Meanings:
bear (v): to support or hold up, here, can match up to
derivation (n): the source, origin, or descent of something
vitality (n): the power or the ability to continue to exist, grow
vicissitude (n): variation, changes
diversity (n): unlikeness, variety
strands (n): a set of or one of the individual fibers or threads of string, wire, etc, here the fabric of national life
wove (v): to make or construct by such a process

Explanation: In today’s India, everything—like ideas, words, art, politics, and customs—is a mix of many different things. Even though these things come from different places, they all come together to make Indian culture. Despite being made up of so many different parts, Indian culture has always had a strong sense of unity. This unity is one of the most special things about Indian culture. Indian civilization is also really big and has been around for a long time. It is unique because of the large land area, the many people, the different kinds of people, and the rich history. Indian culture is rich and has survived many challenges over time. This is because of the strong sense of being Indian, which brings together all the different parts of Indian life into one unified whole.

Passage: The ancient world threw up fine flowers of civilization in many lands. With the exception of India and China, they are all dead and gone. It is only in India and to some extent in China that the old civilization and culture have grown and changed but never grown or changed at the expense of an underlying unity. This has been possible only through the capacity of readjustment exhibited by the Indian society. One ground of this adjustment is found in the spirit of toleration that has characterized Indian history throughout the ages. “Live and let live” has been the policy of the Indians in all spheres of life. Sometimes this has been carried so far that contrary, if not contradictory, attitudes have been allowed to survive simultaneously. Toleration has led to the sufferance of civil and even indifference to the values of life. This however, is at worst the defect of a virtue. Such toleration is perhaps preferable to the fanatic devotion which leads to the denial and persecution of all other values but its own. 

Word Meanings:
toleration (n): to not interfere with, or to recognize and respect (others’ beliefs, practices, etc.) without sharing them
fanatic (adj): unreasonably enthusiastic in religion
persecution (n): to drive away people because of their race, beliefs or religion
virtue (n): practice of moral excellence or righteousness

Explanation: Many civilizations have come up around the world in the past. But now, most of them have disappeared, except for India and China. In these two places, the old civilizations have changed and adapted over time, but they have always kept a strong sense of unity. This unity has been possible because Indian society has been able to adjust to new situations. One reason for this is that Indians have always been tolerant, meaning they accept and respect different beliefs and ways of life. This tolerance has helped them adjust to new situations without losing their basic unity as a society.They believe in “live and let live,” meaning they allow others to live their lives as they wish. This tolerance often even lets conflicting ideas exist together. While this might seem like a weakness, it’s actually better than being so devoted to one idea that you ignore or hurt others who believe differently. India’s ability to be tolerant has been a big reason why its culture has stayed strong and adaptable over time.

Passage: Throughout the changes of Indian history, we therefore find a spirit of underlying unity which informs the diverse expressions of its life but the unity was never a dead uniformity, a living unity never is. Unity and universality must belong to any culture that is true and vital. Now culture is a concept which cannot be simply or unitarily defined. There is no single character or mark which can be regarded as the essence or distinctive feature of culture. It is always a complex of many strands of varying importance and vitality. If we attempt to differentiate between culture and civilization of life which makes civil society possible, culture, on the other hand, is the resultant of such organization and expression. Itself through languages. And art, through philosophy and religion, through social habits and customs and through political institutions and economics organizations. Not one of them is separate from culture, but collectively they constitute the expression of life which we describe as culture.

Word Meanings:
civilization (n): the total culture and way of life of a particular people, nation, region, or period
cultured (adj): refined in speech or behavior
fervent (adj): warm, zealous
universality (n): the state of quality of being universal
uniformity (n): a state or quality of being uniform

Explanation: Even though there has always been a sense of unity that runs beneath the surface, the expression of this unity has been diverse. This unity is not rigid or lifeless but is dynamic and alive. This unity isn’t about everyone being the same, but rather about having a shared essence that ties everything together.In any genuine and thriving culture, unity and universality are essential. Culture is a complex concept that cannot be easily defined with a single characteristic.It consists of various aspects of society, such as language, art, philosophy, religion, social customs, and political institutions. India’s unity is not about everyone being identical, but about having a common thread that runs through its diverse cultures and ways of life. And culture, with all its different aspects, plays a big role in defining what makes India, well, India.

Passage:  Culture is the efflorescence of civilization. Civilization is the organization of society which creates the condition of culture. There can, therefore, be no culture without civilization, but there may be civilization which have not yet developed their culture. Perhaps what is more often the case is that there are civilized people among whom only a small section has achieved culture. We have, therefore, had and still have races and nations that are civilized; but except for India, we have not yet had any nation or race that could be regarded as cultured in all its sections and classes, for here in India, culture is almost as extensive as civilization……

Word Meanings:
efflorescence (n): the peak or fulfillment, blooming
extensive (adj.): having a large extent, area, scope; widespread

Explanation: Culture is the result of the organization and expression of civilization. Civilization, in turn, is the structure of society that enables culture to flourish. While every culture needs a civilization to grow, not all civilizations have fully developed cultures. Some societies may have advanced in terms of organization and civilization, but they haven’t fully embraced or developed their cultural expressions. In some places, only a small portion of society has achieved a cultured status. However, in India, culture is widespread and almost as extensive as civilization itself. India is unique because its culture is nearly as widespread and deep-rooted as its civilization. This means that in India, cultural traditions and expressions are present across different sections and classes of society. 

Passage: The experience of European countries gives us cases of civilization without culture. In India, on the other hand, even the casual tourist has observed that the difference between the masses and classes is not one of quality and can be explained in terms of information and opportunity. It is often otherwise in Europe. There the difference in quality between the masses and the classes is at times so great that it has shaken the faith of the most fervent of democrats.

The remarkable phenomenon can be explained only in terms of the unity and continuity of Indian culture. Unity is, in one sense, the common characteristic of all cultures. What especially distinguishes the culture of India is its unbroken continuity. Here, there have been no violent or sudden breaks, but on the contrary, a steady growth and extension of culture which has gradually permeated every class and section of society.

Word Meanings:
continuity (n): logical sequence or connection
phenomenon (n):  any remarkable occurrence or a person
permeated (v): to pass into or through and affect every part of 

Explanation: In European countries, there are examples of societies that have developed without a strong cultural foundation. However, in India, even a casual visitor can see that there is not a significant difference in quality between different social groups. This is unlike Europe, where sometimes the gap between the rich and the poor is so vast that it challenges the beliefs of even the strongest supporters of democracy. This unique aspect of Indian society can only be explained by looking at the unity and continuity of Indian culture. Unity is a common feature of all cultures, but what makes Indian culture stand out is its unbroken continuity. Unlike other places, India has not experienced abrupt or violent breaks in its culture. Instead, there has been a steady growth and expansion of culture that has reached every level of society.



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