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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 9 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology with Solutions Set 9 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 9 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. The question paper is divided into four sections.
  2. There are 38 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  3. Section A includes question No. 1-20. These are MCQ type questions. As per the question, there can be one answer.
  4. Section B includes question No. 21-29. These are very short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  5. Section C includes question No. 30-35. They are short answer type questions carrying 4marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
  6. Section D includes question No. 36-38. They are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words each. Question no. 36 is to be answered with the help of the given graphics.
  7. Question no. 37 is to be answered with the help of the given passage.

Section A
Section A consists of 20 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)
Assertion (A) An American called Johnson Taylor invented a new system in the 1890s, which he called ‘Scientific Management.’ Reason (R) Under this system, all work was broken down into its smallest repetitive elements and divided between workers.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Question 2.
Which one of the following statements is incorrect about India’s Demographic Transition? (1)
(a) According to Registrar of India, Census data from India suggests that population growth is on the decline since 1991.
(b) India’s population is projected to increase from 1.2 billion today to an estimated 1.6 billion by 2030 due to population momentum.
(c) The drop in Crude Death (CDR) and Birth Rates (CBR) for the past four decades indicates that India is progressing towards a post-transitional phase.
(d) From 1950 to 1990, the drop in CBR was less steep than the drop in the CDR.
Answer:
(b) India’s population is projected to increase from 1.2 billion today to an estimated 1.6 billion by 2030 due to population momentum.

Question 3.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Migrant workers come mainly from drought-prone and less productive regions and they go to work for part of the year on farms in the Punjab and Haryana, or on brick in U.P., kilns or construction sites in cities such as New Delhi or Bangalore.
Reason (R) Labourers migrate due to the increasing inequalities in rural areas from the mid-1990s, which have forced many households to combine multiple occupations to sustain themselves. (1)
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
In regions where the non-Sanskritic castes
were dominant, it was their influence that was stronger. Identify the most appropriate concept to refer this phenomenon. (1)
(a) Sanskritisation
(b) De-Sanskritisation
(c) Westernisation
(d) Modernisation
Answer:
(b) De-Sanskritisation

Question 5.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) India has had an official population policy for more than a half century.
Reason (R) India was perhaps the first country to explicitly announce such a policy in 1952.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 6.
“When as a nation we adopt the spinning wheel, we not only solve the question of unemployment but we declare that we have no intention of exploiting any nation, and we also end the exploitation of the poor by the rich.” Who said this above mentioned statement? (1)
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Vallabhbhai Patel
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Vinoba Bhave
Answer:
(c) Mahatma Gandhi

Question 7.
Identify the concept that does not agree with Sanskritisation. (1)
(a) Cultural imitation
(b) Self-consciousness
(c) Reference model
(d) Modernisation
Answer:
(d) Modernisation

Question 8.
Stereotypes fix whole groups into single, categories, they refuse to recognise the ……… across individuals and across contexts or across time. (1)
(a) heterogenous, similarities
(b) diverse, similarities
(c) broad, similarities
(d) homogenous, variation
Answer:
(d) homogenous, variation

Question 9.
Which of the following is/are the negative impact of globalisation on economic growth? (1)
(a) Threat to sovereignty
(b) Interdependence
(c) Inequitable distribution
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 10.
Which of the following is not a feature of caste system in India? (1)
(a) Caste is determined by birth.
(b) Caste groups are endogamous.
(c) Caste groups are exogamous.
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Caste groups are exogamous.

Question 11.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) India’s structural and cultural diversity is self-evident.
Reason (R) This diversity shapes the different ways that Modernisation or Westernisation, Sanskritisation or Secularisation effects or does not affect different groups of people. (1)
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 12.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Contract farming has sociological significance in that it disengage many people from the production process. Reason (R) Contract farming focuses on export oriented products such as flowers and gherkins. (1)
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 13.
Everyone has a motherland, a mother tongue, a family, a faith. This signifies another feature of community identity i.e(l)
(a) universal correct
(b) achieved
(c) localised
(d) conditional
Answer:
(c) localised

Question 14.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) India is culturally diverse, comparative surveys of long-standing democracies including India show that it has been very cohesive, despite its diversity.
Reason (R) Modem India is facing a grave challenge to its constitutional commitment to multiple and complementary identities with the rise of groups that seek to impose a singular Hindu identity on the country. Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) Eure true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 15.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)
Nationalism in India is marked by the dominant trend of inclusive and democratic vision. It is inclusive because it recognises diversity and plurality.

Assertion (A) Religious or cultural minority need special protection.
Reason (R) States shall protect the existence and the national or ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic identity of minorities within their respective territories.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 16.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) The environmental movement is a diverse scientific, social and political movement for addressing environmental issues.
Reason (R) The Chipko Movement is an example of the Ecological Movement in the Himalayan foot hills.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 17.
……… is the non-state and non-market part of the public domain in which individuals get together voluntarily to create institutions and organisations. (1)
(a) Civil society
(b) Nation
(c) Political Party
(d) Military
Answer:
(a) Civil society

Question 18.
The Right to Information campaign is an example of …….. (1)
(a) Redemptive Movements
(b) Reformist Movements
(c) Revolutionary Movements
(d) Old Social Movements
Answer:
(b) Reformist Movements

Question 19.
“To diehards who have developed a kind of fanaticism against minority protection I would like to say two things. One is that minorities are an explosive force which, if it erupts, can blow up the whole fabric of the state. The history of Europe bears ample and appalling testimony to this fact. The other is that the minorities in India have agreed to place their existence in the hands of the majority.”
Or
Which one of the following leaders of India expressed his opinion on issues of minority?
(a) Dr B R Ambedkar
(b) Pt Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Syama Prasad Mukheijee
(d) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Answer:
(a) Dr B R Ambedkar

Question 20.
The second phase of the Green Revolution in India began in ………(1)
(a) 1960s
(b) 1970s
(c) 1980s
(d) 1990s
Answer:
(c) 1980s

Section B
Section B consists of 9 questions of 2 marks each

Question 21.
Based on the given passage, answer the following.
Some changes that took place in India can be understood in terms of process of Sanskritisation, Modernisation,
Secularisation and Westernisation. Sanskritisation, existed before colonial rule in India. While the other three processes were developed to respond to the change that were brought about by Colonialism. How is Sanskritisation a process of social change? (2)
Or
Based upon below passage, answer the following question. Kumudtai’s journey into Sanskrit began with great interest and eagerness with Gokhale Guruji, her teacher at school. At the University, Head of Department was a well known scholar and he took great please in taunting Kumudtai. Despite all odds she successfully completed her Masters in Sanskrit. Do you think Sanskritisation is a gendered process? Give a reason for your answer.
Answer:
Sanskritisation is a process of social change by which a low caste or tribe takes to the customs, rituals, beliefs, ideology and the style of life of a high and in particular a ‘twice born caste’.
Or
Yes, Sanskritisation is a gendered process. According to passage, Kumud Pawade felt that the study of Sanskrit can help her break into a field that was not possible for her to enter on grounds of gender and caste. As she proceeds with her studies, she meets with varied reactions ranging from surprise to hostility from guarded acceptance to brutal rejection.

Question 22.
Mention the positive and negative sides of contract farming. (2)
Answer:
The positive side of contract farming is that the company associated provides guarantee of purchase from the farmers just at the time of produce and that too at a pre-determined fixed price. The negative side associated with contract farming is that it can lead to greater insecurity as farmers become dependent on companies for their livelihoods.

Question 23.
With what objectives did New Farmers Movements began in the 1970s? (2)
Answer:
The New Farmers Movement began in the 1970’s, in Punjab and Tamil Nadu. The objectives of this movement are as follows:

  1. The basic ideology of the movement was strongly anti-state and anti-urban.
  2. Novel methods of agitation were used such as blocking of roads and railways, banning politicans and bureaucrats entry to villages.

Question 24.
Explain some defining features of caste system in India. (2)
Answer:
Some defining features of caste system in India are as follows:

  1. Caste is determined by birth.
  2. Caste groups are endogamous, i.e. marriage is restricted to members of the group.
  3. Caste involves a system consisting of many caste arranged in a hierarchy.
  4. Castes were traditionally linked to occupations.

Question 25.
What is meant by the term ‘Untouchability’? Explain. (2)
Answer:
The term ‘Untouchability’ defines as an extreme aspect of the caste system where members of certains castes are considered as untouchable by upper castes. The three main dimensions of untouchability i.e. exclusion, humiliation-subordination and exploitation are equally important.

Question 26.
In response to the harsh working conditions workers have expressed anger through trade unions. Differentiate between strike and lockout in the light of the above statement. (2)
Answer:
In light of the above statement, the difference between a strike and a lockout is given below A strike is a situation where the workers do not work because they want to have better wages. It is a risky move on the part of the workers because the management may not decide to take them back after the strike and they may employ substitute labours. On the other hand, a lockout is a situation when the management closes down the factory or industry for a particular period of time. They shutdown the gate of the factory and do not allow any worker to enter.

Question 27.
Modernisation and secularisation are part of a set of modem ideas. How are the two processes linked ? (2)
Answer:
Modernisation and secularisation are pan of a set of modern ideas. There was a close connection or “een the modernisation and secularisation. Modemisaue refers to the improvement in technology, production process, etc. This was the part of  evelopment taken by West Europe or North American countries. Secularisation is a process of decline in the influence of religion in the public sphere.

Question 28.
Is caste system exclusionary and exploitative? Explain. (2)
Answer:
exploitative in nature. It takes multiple forms based on the underlying notions of purity and pollution. It includes social and economic exclusion, segregation in housing, denial and restrictions of access to public and private services and employment.

Question 29.
Anti Caste Movement which began in the 19th century under the inspiration of Jyotiba Phule and was carried out in the 1920s by the non-Brahmin movements in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu and then developed under the leadership of Dr. BR Ambedkar had characteristics of all types. It was revolutionary in terms of society and redemptive in terms of individuals. In partial context, the post Ambedkar Dalit Movement has had revolutionary practice. It has focused on changes in the entire society, from radical revolutionary goals of abolishing caste oppression and economic exploitation to the limited goals of providing scope for members of scheduled caste to achieve social mobility. Distinguish between social change and social movements. (2)
Or
What is the relationship between caste and economic inequality today?
Answer:
Social change is continuous and ongoing. The broad historical processes of social change are the sum total of countless individual and collective actions gathered across time and space break. Whereas, social movements are directed towards some specific goals. It involve long and continuous social effort and action by people. Sanskritisation and Westernisation as social change and 19th century social reformers effect to change society as social movements.
Or
In today’s scenario of hierarchy of caste system, each caste has a specific place and social status. There has been a correlation between social or caste status and economic status. The high castes were almost invariably of high economic status. However, in the 19th century the link between caste and occupation had become less rigid. At the macro level, things have not changed much.

Section C
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 30.
Who was Thomas Robert Malthus? Elaborate his theory about the population growth. ( 1 + 3 )
Or
Describe the theory of demographic transition. Why is the transition period associated with a ‘population explosion’? ( 3+1 )
Answer:
Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834 AD) was an English cleric, scholar and influential economist in the field of political economy and demography. Malthus’s theory about the population growth is outlined in his book ‘Essay on Population’ (1798). He argued that human populations tend to grow at a much faster rate than the rate at which the means of human subsistence (especially food, but also clothing and other agriculture-based products) can grow.

Therefore, humanity is condemned to live in poverty forever because the growth of agricultural production will always be overtaken by population growth. Because population growth always outstrips growth in production of subsistence resources, the only way to increase prosperity is by controlling the growth of population. He believed that a balance between population growth and food supply can be established through preventive and positive checks.
Or
The theory of demographic transition proposes that population growth is linked to overall levels of economic development and that every society follows a typical pattern of development related population growth. There are three basic stages of population growth which are as follows:

  1. Primitive Stage This stage shows low and slow population growth in a society. In this stage, a society is underpriviledged and technologically backward. People suffer from malnutrition and ailments resulting in higher death rate.
  2. Second Stage This is the phase of transition from underdeveloped to developing countries. Birth rate is high due to the presence of the patriarchal society and death rate is low due to the availability of medical facilities.
  3. Third Stage This is the stage of low population growth rate in developed countries, where both birth rate and death rate have been reduced. Birth rate is low due to awareness and high literacy. Death rate is low due to availability of medical facilities.

The transitional period (second stage) is associated with ‘population explosion’. It is characterised by the movement from a backward to an advanced stage. In this stage, population growth rate is very high and death rates are brought down relatively quickly through advanced methods of disease control, public health and better nutrition.

Question 31.
Express the correlation between agriculture and culture. (4)
Or
Discuss the consequences of commercialisation of agriculture. (4)
Answer:
The nature and practice of agriculture varies greatly across the different regions of the country. These variations are reflected in the different region cultures. Both the culture and social structure in rural India are closely bound up with agricultural and agrarian way of life.

Agriculture is the single most important source of livelihood for the majority of the rural population. Many activities that support agriculture and village life are also sources of livelihood for people in rural India. Rural life supported many other specialists and craft persons, ‘ storytellers, astrologers, priests, water distributers and oil pressers. Thus, we can say that there is a close connection between agriculture and culture.
Or
The consequences of commercialisation of agriculture are:

  1. The commercialisation of agriculture was beneficial to the British planters, traders and manufacture, who were provided with opportunity to make huge profits by getting the commercialised agricultural products at throw away prices.
  2. The poor peasants were forced to sell their produce just after harvest at whatever prices they could get as they had to meet in time the demands of the government, the landlord, the moneylender and their family members requirements.
  3. Commercialisation of agriculture did not encourage growth of land market because major profit of co mmercialisation went to company traders and mediators.
  4. Commercialisation effected traditional relations between agriculture and industry. In India, traditional relations acted as factors for each other’s development which were hampered.

Question 32.
What is Taylorism? Would Gandhiji have supported the idea of Taylorism? ( 3 + 1 )
Answer:
Taylorism is a production system that divides the manufacturing process in small steps that reduce the degree of skills required to perform each activity. This system was invented by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1890s, which was also referred to as scientific management or industrial engineering.

The aim of Taylorism is to increase productivity and to reduce training times to increase output levels. It was a system broken down into its smallest repetitive elements and divided between workers. Workers were allotted time-based tasks where they had to finish the task within the stipulated time. No, Gandhiji would not have supported the idea of Taylorism because he opposed the time saving labour, which eventually led to mechanisation,

Question 33.
Write briefly about ‘Contract Farming’. (4)
Answer:
Under the Contract Farming System, the company identifies the crops to be grown, provide the seeds and other inputs as well as technical know how and also the working capital to a farmer. In this type of farming, the farmer is assured of the market because the company guarantees that it will purchase the product at a pre-determined fixed price.

It is very common now in the production of specialised items such as cut flowers, fruits like grapes, figs, etc. While contract farming appears to provide financial security, it can also lead to greater insecurity as farmers become dependent on these companies for their livelihoods. In contract farming, the export-oriented products such as flowers and gherkins also means that agricultural land is diverted away from foodgrain production. The commitment of the protection of minorities also . proves to be a challenge to the state because they are often accused of favouritism to particular sections of the society.

Question 34.
How can commitment to the protection of minorities also be a challenge to the state? (4)
Answer:
Commitment to the protection of minorities can be a challenge to the state because the Constitution of India declared the state as a secular state. However, in practice, minorities are often hurt by the actions of the state. There are many religious minorities which may be better economically but a disadvantaged group in the cultural sense because of their small numbers. It is important to provide them with protection due to the following reasons

  1. Religious and cultural minority groups need protection because of the demographic dominance of the majority.
  2. They should be given special consideration so that they are not considered a minority in the political sphere.
  3. These groups are vulnerable and can face major risk by the majority community. They can use their power to suppress their religion and cultural Institution and eventually forcing them to completely abandon their identity.

Question 35.
Why did Malthus believe that catastrophic events like famines and epidemics which cause mass deaths were inevitable? (4)
Answer:
English political economist Thomas Robert Malthus suggested that catastrophic events like famines and diseases were inevitable because they were nature’s way of dealing with the imbalance between food supply and increasing population. Malthus argued that human population tends to grow at a much faster rate than the rate at which the means of human subsistence (food, clothes, etc) can grow.

According to him, population rises in geometric progression, whereas agricultural production can only grow in arithmetic progression. He believed that humans are unable to observe any preventive checks. In such cases, catastrophic events like famines are positive checks or natural process of population control that maintains balance by removing any imbalances

Section D
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 36.
Analyse the given table and answer the following questions

(a) What was the difference between the rural and urban population in the year 2001? (2)
(b) As per the table, how much the percentage of rural population decreased between the years 2001 and 2011? (2)
(c) What is the total rural and urban population in the year 2011? (2)
Answer:
(a) Difference between rural and urban population in the year 2001 was 457 million . According to 2001 Census, in India, out of the total population of 1029 million, about 743 million (72.2 per cent) live in rural areas and 286 million (27.8 per cent) live in urban areas.

(b) The 3.4 per cent of rural population decreased between the years 2001 and 2011. According to 2011 Census, the rural population is 833 and 743 in the years 2001 and 2011 respectively.

(c) In the year 2011, the total rural and urban population of India is 1210 million. Percentage of rural and urban population in the year 2011 is 68.8 and 31.2 respectively.

Question 37.
Westernisation is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values. The encounter between the Indian tradition and Western culture was of immense sociological significance. The Western tradition had a meaningful impact upon the cultural, political and social systems of India to such an enormous extent that it has been told that such a contact had initiated a new era of change in the Indian cultural tradition.

The mode of the Western cultural impact on the Indian tradition had distinctive features. Historically, various western traditions came to India with differing political and cultural orientations and exerted variegated influences upon Indian society and culture.
(a) What do you mean by Westernisation? Explain its different aspects. (3)
(b) Do you think Westernisation is one of the reasons for generation conflict? (3)
Answer:
(a) Westernisation is the spread of the Western cultural traits such as use of new gadgets and technology, cuisine, dress and changes in habits and styles of people. In India, Westernisation has been the result of long period of British colonialism in India. Different aspects of Westernisation are

  1. The impact and influence of Western culture is seen at different levels such as technology, institutions, ideologies, values, cuisine, clothing, etc. For example, many middle class homes in India have a television set, fridge, dining table, sofa set that are very much a part of Western living.
  2. There is a subculture of people and mainly intellectuals in India who not only adopt Western ways of thinking but also support its growth and expansion.
  3. There are also individuals who are Western in clothing and appearances but they do not process democratic, egalitarian and modern thinking of the West.

(b) Westernisation is one of the reasons for generation conflict, as younger people are faster in adoptig Western lifestyle, while older people believe more in Indian cultural ethos and practices. It leads to differences between them. Old and young generation of people have many things uncommon to them due to Westernisation. Old people often love Indian classical music or spiritual songs but youth likes pop songs and Western songs. Mutuality between the old and the young is becoming difficult day-by-day. Sometimes the parents and children become strangers in a family due to different tastes and likings in various areas of life. Therefore, Westernisation is one of the reasons for generation conflict.

Question 38.
Explain some of the policies designed to address caste inequality in context of contemporary India.
Answer:
Untouchability is an extreme aspect of the caste system where members of certains castes are considered as untouchable by upper castes. The three main dimensions of untouchability i.e. exclusion, humiliation- subordination and exploitation are equally important in defining the phenomenon of untouchability.

There are some of the policies designed to address caste inequality in context of contemporary India. At the state level, there are special programmes for Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Scheduled Castes (SC). The OBCs have also been added to these special provisions. Some laws passed to end, prohibit and punish caste discrimination are

  1. Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850, disallowed the curtailment of rights of citizens due solely to change of religion or caste. It allowed entry of Dalit to government schools.
  2. Constitution Amendment (93rd Amendment) Act of 2005, for introducing reservation for OBCs in institutions of higher education.
  3. Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989, to abolish untouchability (Article 17) and introduced reservation provisions.
  4. Prevention of Atrocities of 1989 Act revised and strengthened the legal provisions against Dalits and Adivasis.


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