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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 8 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology with Solutions Set 8 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 8 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. The question paper is divided into four sections.
  2. There are 38 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  3. Section A includes question No. 1-20. These are MCQ type questions. As per the question, there can be one answer.
  4. Section B includes question No. 21-29. These are very short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  5. Section C includes question No. 30-35. They are short answer type questions carrying 4marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
  6. Section D includes question No. 36-38. They are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words each. Question no. 36 is to be answered with the help of the given graphics.
  7. Question no. 37 is to be answered with the help of the given passage.

Section A
Section A consists of 20 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and ehoose the correct options. (1)
Assertion (A) There are lists of ‘subjects’ or areas of governance which are the exclusive responsibility of either State or Centre, along with a Concurrent List of areas where both are allowed to operate.
Reason (R) Constitutional provisions decide the powers of the States and the Centre. (1)
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 2.
Which one of the following social reformers is named as Saraswati after being examined by faculty of the University of Calcutta? (1)
(a) Irawati Karve
(b) Savitribai Phule
(c) Pandita Ramabai
(d) Neera Desai
Answer:
(c) Pandita Ramabai

Question 3.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) New technologies in the form of printing press, telegraph and later microphone helped in communicating the ideas at a faster pace from one place to another.
Reason (R) Movement of people and goods through steamships and railways also helped in the movement of new ideas across different parts of the country.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct I explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
Which one of the following social organisations filed the petition to the British government against the legislation of Sati?
(a) Swatantra Sabha
(b) Brahmo Samaj
(c) Arya Samaj
(d) Dharma Sabha
Answer:
(d) Dharma Sabha

Question 5.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements
and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Jats and Rajputs of Uttar Pradesh are dominant castes.
Reason (R) The dominant castes are the most economically and politically powerful groups, who dominate local society.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 6.
‘Green Revolution was a government programme of agricultural modernisation. It was funded by international agencies that were based on providing High Yielding Variety (HYV) or hybrid seeds along with pesticides, fertilisers and other inputs to farmers.’ (1)
Which one of the following Indian agricultural scientists led the above mentioned initiative programmes? (1)
(a) R S Paroda
(b) M S Swaminathan
(c) Verghese Kurien
(d) GS Kalkat
Answer:
(b) M S Swaminathan

Question 7.
The change in customs, traditions, beliefs, lifestyle, behaviour is known as ……. (1)
(a) secularisation
(b) modernisation
(c) structural change
(d) cultural change
Answer:
(d) cultural change

Question 8.
There is no historically fixed or logically necessary relationship between a …….. and the varied forms of ……. (1)
(a) nation-state, community
(b) nation, ideology
(c) state-nation, society
(d) community, nation-state
Answer:
(a) nation-state, community

Question 9.
Which of the following inequalities are reducing due to industrialisation? (1)
(a) Judicial
(b) Economic
(c) Caste based
(d) Social
Answer:
(d) Social

Question 10.
Which Yojana was initiated by the government regarding the transformation of rural development? (1)
(a) National Urban Mission
(b) Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bhima Yojana
(c) Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan
(d) Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
Answer:
(d) Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana

Question 11.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Initially, the lack of proper medical facilities and the prevalence of diseases led to a relatively short life span. Reason (R) The age structure of any society changes in response to the changes in the levels of development and the average life expectancy.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 12.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options.

Assertion (A) Rules are strictly followed in smaller mines and quarries.
Reason (R) Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and sides, emission of gases and ventilation failures.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Question 13.
Which state ent properly defines corporate culture? (1)
(a) Creation of unique organisational culture including all members of a firm.
(b) It includes events, rituals and traditions.
(c) Management theory that seeks to encourage competitiveness and productivity.
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 14.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Urbanisation process increased in. post-independent period and many villages came under the urban influences. Reason (R) Urbanisation occurs either organically or planned as a result of individual, collective and state action. Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 15.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)
“Everyone recognises that the traditional social system in India was organised around caste structures and caste identities.”

Assertion (A) Politicians mobilise caste groupings in order to organise their power.
Reason (R) Caste is one of the organisation in society in which large population lives and becomes easy for politician to see the support.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 16.
……… popularised the term ‘Harijan’ which literally means ‘Children of God’ in 1930. He used this term to counter the pejorative charge carried by caste names. (1)
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Dr BR Ambedkar
(c) Jyotirao Phule
(d) Swami Vivekananda
Answer:
(a) Mahatma Gandhi

Question 17.
…….. refers to a situation, where a large cohort of women of reproductive age will fuel population growth over the next generation, even if each woman has fewer children than previous generations did. (1)
(a) Demographic dividend
(b) Population change
(c) Population momentum
(d) Population growth
Answer:
(c) Population momentum

Question 18.
Adivasis and their struggles are different from the Dalit struggle because …….(1)
(a) they were not discriminated against like the Dalits.
(b) they did not face social exclusion like the Dalits.
(c) adivasis were concentrated in contiguous areas r and could demand statehood.
(d) their social and economic conditions were better than the Dalits.
Answer:
(c) adivasis were concentrated in contiguous areas r and could demand statehood.

Question 19.
Which of the following is/are the characteristics of the agricultural labour? (1)
(a) They own no land of their own.
(b) They are more often paid less wages i.e. below the statutory minimum wages.
(c) They work for others.
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 20.
……… is a number of deaths of babies before the age of one year per 1000 live births. (l)
(a) Fertility Rate
(b) Maternal Mortality Rate
(c) Life Expectancy
(d) Infant Mortality Rate
Answer:
(d) Infant Mortality Rate

Section B
Section B consists of 9 questions of 2 marks each

Question 21.
Based on the given passage, answer the following question.
The term Modernisation was associated with positive and desirable values in the 19th and 20th century. In the earlier period, modernisation referred to the improvement in technology and production process, but now it refers to the path of development that much of the West Europe or North America has taken.
What are the two characteristics of rpodernisation? (2)
Or
How the term ‘tradition’ and ‘modernity’ are expressions of values? (2)
Answer:
Modernisation is a conceptual tool which social scientists have widely used in analysing the process as well as the quality of social change. The two main characteristics of modernisation are as follows:

  1. Modernisation assumes that local ties and narrow thinking give way to universal values and commitments.
  2. The principles of rationality and science are favoured over emotions and religious tendencies.

Or
The term ‘tradition’ and ‘modernity’ are expressions of values which helps us in observing the process of social and cultural transformation in societies as they pass from the ‘primitive’ to ‘pre-industrial’ to ‘industrial’ and ‘post-industrial’ phases of social development. The passage from traditional to modern stage of society initiates major social and cultural transformation.

Question 22.
Highlight the basic reason for the rise of old social movements during 1970s in India. (2)
Answer:
The basic reason for the rise of old social movements in India in the 1970s is to people’s growing dissatisfaction with parliamentary democracy. The institutions of the state have been captured by elites. Due to this, electoral representation by political parties is no longer an effective way for the poor to get their voices heard. People left out by the formal political system join social movements or non-party political formations in order to put pressure on the state from outside.

Question 23.
Elaborate the term ecological movement with giving an example. (2)
Answer:
The ecological movement is a diverse scientific, social and a political movement for addressing environmental issues. The Chipko Movement is an example of the ecological movement in the Himalayan foothills. It not only raised the issue of social inequality between the villagers and government, but also raised the issue of ecological sustainability.

Question 24.
State two examples of Dalits experience forms of exclusion that are unique and not practiced against other groups. (2)
Answer:
There are two examples of Dalits experience forms of exclusion that are unique and not practiced against other groups are as follows
(i) Being prohibited from sharing drinking water sources or participating in collective religious worship, social ceremonies and festivals.
(ii) Untouchability may also involve forced ‘inclusion’ in a subordinated role, such as beating the drum at a religious event,

Question 25.
Castes are traditionally linked to occupation. Explain. (2)
Answer:
Castes are traditionally linked to occupation because a person born into a caste would have to practice prescribed occupation. Thus, occupations became hereditary as a result of which occupation could only be pursued by one caste. Members of other caste could not enter the occupation.

Question 26.
Define the term ‘Redemptive’ in context of social movement in India. (2)
Answer:
The term ‘Redemptive’ or transformatory in context of social movement aims to bring about a change in the personal consciousness and actions of its individual members. For example, people in the Ezhava community in Kerala were led by Narayana Guru to change their social practices.

Question 27.
Write a short note on Rites and Secularisation. (2)
Answer:
The customs and the activities associated with a religion are categorised as rites or rituals whereas securalism means a process of decline in the influence of religion. A considerable part of ritual in India has direct reference to the pursuit of secular ends. Rituals have secular dimensions i.e. they provide men and women occasions for socialising with their peers and superiors.

Question 28.
What is the role and value of civil society? (2)
Answer:
Civil society is the non-state and non-market part of the public domain in which individuals get together voluntarily to create institutions and organisations. The role of civil society includes:

  1. advocate/campaignes or lobbying government or business on issues including indigenous rights or the environment.
  2. building active citizenship; participating in global governance processes.

Question 29.
The harsh working conditions suffered by laboureres in rural India were an outcome of the combined effect of the economic power of the maliks as a class and their overwhelming power as members of a dominant caste. A significant aspect of the social power of the maliks was their ability to secure the intervention of various arms of the state to advance their interests. Thus, political factors decissively contributed to widening the gulf between the dominant class and the under class. What measures do you think the government has taken, or should take, to protect the rights of landless agricultural labourers and migrant workers? (2)
Or
There are direct linkage between the situation of agriculture workers and then lack of upward socio-economic mobility. Name some of them.
Answer:
Measures taken by government to protect the rights of landless agricultural labourers and migrant workers are:

  1. Abolition of bonded labour legally
  2. Abolition of zamindari system
  3. Abolition and Regulation Act for Tenancy
  4. Imposition of Land Ceiling Act
  5. Consolidation of Land

Or
There are direct linkage between the agriculture workers and upward socio-economic mobility as

  1.  Indian rural society has patrilineal kinship system.
  2. Most of the people in villages are landless and for their livelihood they become agriculture workers.
  3. The tenants also have lower income because they have to pay a large amount of production to the landowner.

Section C
Section C consists of 6 questions of 4 marks each

Question 30.
What is meant by the term agrarian structure? Explain. (4)
Or
Explain major types of land holdings. Elaborate your answer in context of agricultural structure of Indian rural society ……
Answer:
The term agrarian structure refers to the structure or distribution of land holdings. Indian rural society is marked by different social and agrarian structures. Here in, agricultural land is the single most important resource and form of property, but it is not equally distributed.

In some parts of India, some people hold majority of land and some people own a small plot, there are also people who don’t own any land at all. As the rural society is based on the agrarian structure, access to land shapes, the rural class structure. It determines the roles that an individual plays in the agricultural production.
Or
In context of agricultural structure of Indian rural society, major types of land holdings are as follows:

  1. Medium and Large Landowners They own a sufficient amount of land from which they get large incomes by virtue of cultivation.
  2. Agricultural Labourers They have no land of their own and they work for others. They are more often than not paid below the statutory minimum wages and earn very little. Their employment is also insecure and they do not work for most of the days of the year.
  3. Tenants They are the cultivators who lease their land from landowners. They have lower incomes than owner cultivators as they have to pay the landowner a share of their profit, often as much as 50 to 75 per cent as rent.
  4. Women They are usually excluded from ownership of land in most regions of India because of the patrilineal kinship systems and the mode of inheritance.

Question 31.
Elaborate the two major sets of principles of caste system in India. (4)
Or
Compare and contrast the socio-conomic conditions of tribals before and after Independence. (4)
Answer:
The two major sets of principles of caste system in India are as follows:

  1. Based on Difference and Separation Each caste is different and is strictly separated from every other caste. Many scriptural rules prevent the mixing of castes. These rules include marriage, food sharing social interaction, occupation, etc.
  2. Based on Wholism and Hierarchy The different and separated castes do not have an individual existence. In other words, they do not exist in isolation, but can only exist in relation to the whole society that is comprised of all other castes. Further,the caste-based society is not based on equality. It is essentially hierarchical wherein each individual caste occupies a distinct place in the ordered rank.

Or
Tribals have faced difficulties and discrimination during the British rule. During the Pre-independence period, tribal societies faced incursion of moneylenders. They also lost their land to non-tribal immigrant settlers. Their access to forests was restricted because of the British government’s policy of reservation of forests and the introduction of mining operations. In this way, their source of livelihood was snatched by the British government.

Post-independent era, involved the building of large dams, factories and mines. The tribal areas were located in mineral rich and forest covered parts of the country. Thus, their places of dwelling was either destroyed or snatched away in the name of development. This kind of development has benefitted the mainstream at the expense of the tribes.

Question 32.
Write short notes on Women’s Movement in Indian context. (4)
Answer:
The early 20th century saw the growth of women’s organisations at a national and local level. For example, the Women’s India Association (WIA) (1917), All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926) and National Council for Women in India (NCWI) (1925). Women participated along with men in struggles and revolts originating in tribal and rural areas in the colonial period.

The AIWC began with the idea that women’s welfare and politics were mutually exclusive. Over the years, there have been numerous campaigns that have been taken up towards violence against women. Important legal changes have taken place because of the women’s movement. In the mid 1970s, there was growth of autonomous women’s movements. Apart from organisational changes, there were new issues that were focused upon by women’s movements. For example, violence against women, issues of land rights, employment for women and rights against sexual harassment and dowry.

Question 33.
Highlight two common features of ‘ascriptive’ identity. (4)
Answer:
The two common features of ’ascriptive’ identity are as follows:
1. Expanding and overlapping circles of communities (family, kinship, caste, ethnicity, language, region or religion) give meaning to our world and give us a sense of identity. That is the reason why people often react emotionally or even violently whenever there is a perceived threat to their community identity.

2.  Ascriptive identity is universal. Everyone has a motherland, a mother tongue, a family or faith. This may not necessarily be strictly true of every individual, but it is true in a general sense and we are all equally committed and loyal to our respective identities. This may not necessarily be strictly true of every individual, but it is true in a general sense and we are all equally committed and loyal to our respective identities

Question 34.
‘Social stratification persists over generations.’ Explain. (4)
Answer:
Social stratification persists over generations because it is closely linked to the family and the inheritance of social resources from one generation to another. A person’s social position is ascribed. It means children assume the social positions of their parents.

Within the caste system, birth dictates occupational opportunities. A dalit is likely to be confined to traditional occupations such as agricultural labour, scavenging or leather work, with little chance of being able to get high-paying white collar or professional work.

The ascribed aspect of social inequality is reinforced by the practice of endogamy. In this system, marriage is usually restricted to members of the same caste, ruling out the potential for blurring caste lines through inter-marriage.

Question 35.
What was Gandhiji viewpoint on the growing relevance of machinery? (4)
Answer:
Gandhiji’s viewpoint on the growing relevance of machinery included the following points:

  1. He was deeply critical of the modern age in which machines enslaved human beings and displaced workers.
  2. He argued that the growing importance of machinery would lead to mechanisation and mechanisation possess a threat to the labourers by substituting them for the machines.
  3. He also pointed out how the craze of mechanisation and machinery took exploitative profit. These exploitative measures impacted the workers directly.
  4. He believed that modern machinery would lead to a concentration of wealth in a few hands.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 36.
Literacy Rate in India
Img-1
(a) What is the male-female gap in literacy rate in the year 2011?
(b) How much the female literacy rate increased as compared to the rise in male literacy rate between the years 2001 and 2011?
(c) Is literacy as a pre-requisite to education, an instrument of empowerment? What is the difference of male and female literacy rates between 1951 and 2011? (6)
Answer:
(a) In the year 2011, the male-female gap in literacy rate is 16.3%. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels.

(b) Female literacy rate rose by about 10.4 per cent between 2001 and 2011 compared to the rise in male
literacy of 7.6 per cent in the same period.

(c) Literacy as a pre-requisite to education is an instrument of empowerment. If there would be more literate population, it would increase the consciousness of career options and participation in knowledge economy. Literacy can lead to health awareness and fuller {participation in the cultural and economic well-being of the community. The differences of male and female literacy rates are 53.7 % and 55.7% respectively between 1951 and 2011.

Question 37.
Gandhiji on machinery, in Hind Swaraj 1924 “What I object to is craze for machinery, not machinery as such.
The craze is for what they call labour saving machinery. Men go on ‘saving labour’ till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation. I want to save time and labour, not for a fraction of mankind, but for all. I want the concentration of wealth, not in the hands of the few, but in the hands of all.

When as a nation we adopt the spinning wheel, we not only solve the question of unemployment but we declare that we have no intention of exploiting any nation, and we also end the exploitation of the power by the rich”. Based on the given passage, answer the following.
(a) Given an example of how machinery creates a problem for workers.
(b) Discuss industrial society and different views of theorist on it. (6)
Answer:
(a) Machinery creates a problem for workers. For example, an automatic printing machine prints books automatically with the help of two or three persons. Without the use of big automatic printing machine nearly two hundred labourers are required to do the same work or produce the same volume of production. It means due to use of big automatic machine unemployment is generated.

Gandhiji was opposed of all types of exploitation. He opposed exploitation of the poor people by the rich people. Gandhiji had alternative in his mind that India should be labour intensive modern industrial unit or . firms. Adopting spinning wheel as tool to solve the problem of unemployment by providing employment to thousand villagers, poor urban people, farmers and labourers.

(b) Industrial society refers to society that is driven by the use of technology to enable mass production. It generally supports a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.
Views of theorists on industrial society are as follows Social theorists like Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of features with industrialisation such as urbanisation, loss of face to face relationships in rural areas and their substitution by anonymous professional relationships in modern work places.

According to them, industrialisation involves a detailed division of labour and their work is often exhaustive and repetitive but it was much better from being unemployed. Marx specifically emphasised upon his concept of alienation of labour, whereby he illustrated how a labour or worker is disconnected with the product he is producing and working only for survival and to meet his needs.

There were eventually mixed views of the theorists on the effects of industrialisation. But eventually, they agreed upon the positive impact of industrialisation on modernisation and the benefit that industrialisation led to modernisation.

Question 38.
What do you mean by urbanisation? What are the situations according to sociologist MSA Rao under which village experiences the urban impact in India?
Answer:
Urbanisation is a process in which more and more people opt for urban life and live in cities. In this phenomenon, the villages or small towns are gradually transformed into bigger towns or cities.Sociologist MSA Rao describes three situations under which a village experiences the urban impact in India, which are as follows:

  1. Firstly, lot of people migrates from villages to far off cities or overseas towns for employment apportunities. They send money to their native villages. Besides, they invest money on land and industry and donate for educational institutions. They build fashionable houses at their villages and have invested on land and industry.
  2. Secondly, some villages are situated near the industrial town (for example, Bhilai). Demand for houses and the market inside the village increases but at times it lead to hatred between immigrants and native population.
  3. Thirdly, growth of metropolitan cities does have influence over the rural areas or villages. Some villages are completely absorbed in the process of expansion of these cities. On the other hand, some villages lose their uninhabited land for urban development.


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