Article

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 6 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology with Solutions Set 6 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 6 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. The question paper is divided into four sections.
  2. There are 38 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  3. Section A includes question No. 1-20. These are MCQ type questions. As per the question, there can be one answer.
  4. Section B includes question No. 21-29. These are very short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  5. Section C includes question No. 30-35. They are short answer type questions carrying 4marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
  6. Section D includes question No. 36-38. They are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words each. Question no. 36 is to be answered with the help of the given graphics.
  7. Question no. 37 is to be answered with the help of the given passage.

Section A
Section A consists of 20 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer. (1)

Assertion (A) ‘Upper’ caste Hindu communities have often denied entry into temples for the ‘lower’ castes and specially the Dalits.
Reason (R) Prolonged experience of discriminatory or insulting behaviour often produces a reaction on the part of the excluded who then stop trying for inclusion.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 2.
Who coined the term ‘Sanskritisation’? (1)
(a) M N Srinivas
(b) Vishnu Shastri
(c) Jyotiba Phule
(d) Swami Vivekananda
Answer:
(a) M N Srinivas

Question 3.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer. (1)

Assertion (A) The age structure of the population refers to the proportion of persons in different age groups relative to the total population.
Reason (R) The age structure changes in response to changes in levels of development and the average life expectancy.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the j correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
Which of the following statements is invalid regarding social movements? (1)
(a) Social movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue.
(b) Social movement activists hold meetings to mobilise people around the issues that concern them.
(c) Social movements also chart out campaigns that include lobbying with the government, media and other important makers of public opinion.
(d) Poetry is not a mode of protest.
Answer:
(d) Poetry is not a mode of protest.

Question 5.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer. (1)

Assertion (A) Women workers in most regions in our country are usually excluded from ownership of land because of the prevailing patrilineal kinship system and mode of inheritance.
Reason (R) The exploitative nature and decreasing level of women participation, leads to decrease in their social position and more exploitation.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 6.
‘This was the most visible in the hiring of casual labour for work on construction sites and brickyards. The contractor went to villages for employing people in various occupations. He gave loans to them in the form of money and this loan included the cost of transport of the work site. The loaned money was treated as an advance wage and the worker worked without wages until the loan was repaid. Which one of the following systems is associated with the above mentioned statements? (1)
(a) Contractor system
(b) Slave system
(c) Jazmani system
(d) Credit system
Answer:
(a) Contractor system

Question 7.
Which of the following is correct about Karl Marx and Mahatma Gandhi? (1)
(a) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi supported machinery.
(b) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanisation as a danger to employment.
(c) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi believed in alienation of work.
(d) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw unemployment as a big concern.
Answer:
(b) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanisation as a danger to employment.

Question 8.
The areas where non-sanskritic castes weretheir influence was very strong. It is known as …….(1)
(a) backward, de-sanskritisation
(b) dominant, modernisation
(c) dominant, de-sanskritisation
(d) backward, development
Answer:
(c) dominant, de-sanskritisation

Question 9.
Which of the following statements are incorrect about the population studies? (1)
(a) The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of babies before the age of one year per 1000
live births.
(b) The maternal mortality rate is the number of women who die in childbirth per 1,00,000 live births.
(c) The life expectancy refers to the estimated number of years that an average person is expected to survive.
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(d) None of the above

Question 10.
‘A particular seed is genetically modified to produce ten times more crops than regular seeds. It was developed by scientists to meet the food supply during famines.(1)
Mention the name of this seed?
(a) High Yielding Variety (HYV)
(b) Moderate Yielding Variety (MYV)
(c) Low Yielding Variety (LYV)
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) High Yielding Variety (HYV)

Question 11.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer. (1)

Assertion (A) The Dalit movement is said to be a struggle for recognition as fellow human beings.
Reason (R) There has been a growing body of Dalit literature.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 12.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer. (1)

Assertion (A) Kin terms are role terms. Reason (R) Kin terms designate a biological as well as a social relationship.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Question 13.
Which of the following statements is/are correct about the Halpati system? (1)
(a) It represents a kind of bonded labour, where the poor workers were involved in hereditary labour relationships with the landowners
(b) This system shows how landowners controlled the poor through land ownership by exploiting their dependence on land for survival.
(c) Jeeta system is the name given to Halpati system
practiced in Karnataka.
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 14.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer. (1)

Assertion (A) Policies that promote assimilation are aimed at persuading, encouraging or forcing all citizens to adopt a uniform set of cultural values and norms.
Reason (R) Policies promoting integration insist that the public culture be restricted to a common national pattern, while all ‘non-national cultures’ are to be relegated to the private sphere.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 15.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer. (1)
Assertion (A) Social movements is a collection of a large group of people. Reason (R) Through social interactions, individuals communicate and show their concern on various issues where they feel it necessary to change.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 16.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct answer. (1)

Assertion (A) Modernisation goes hand in . hand with education, mass Communication, Urbanisation and Political Participation.
Reason (R) Dominance of the cultural influences from the west changes traditions elsewhere.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 17.
……. refers to the number of live births per 1000 women in the child-bearing age group, usually taken to be 15 to 49 years. (1)
(a) Rate of natural increase
(b) Birth rate
(c) Fertility rate
(d) Death rate
Answer:
(c) Fertility rate

Question 18.
If prejudice describes attitudes and opinions, ……. refers to actual behaviour towards another group or individual. (1)
(a) discrimination
(b) stereotype
(c) social injustice
(d) social change
Answer:
(a) discrimination

Question 19.
Which of the following is not a reason for cultural diversity? (1)
(a) Arouses intense passions.
(b) Mobilises large numbers of people.
(c) Not significant cultural identities.
(d) Economic and social inequalities accompany cultural differences.
Answer:
(c) Not significant cultural identities.

Question 20.
The fish processing plants along the coastline employ mostly single women from …….. and …….(1)
(a) Maharashtra and Kerala
(b) Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
(c) Tamil Nadu and Kerala
(d) Tamil Nadu and Punjab
Answer:
(d) Tamil Nadu and Punjab

Section B
Section B consists of 9 questions of 2 marks each

Question 21.
OBC are are neither part of the ‘forward’ castes
at the upper end of the status spectrum, nor of the Dalits at the lower end. But since caste has entered all the major Indian religions and is not confined to Hinduism alone, there are also members of other religions who belong to the backward castes and share the traditional occupational identification and similar or worse socio-economic status.’ Based on the given passage, elaborate the term OBC with special reference to Indian Constitution. (2)
Or
‘The dominant classification of tribes as used in academic sociology as well as public and political affair is the extent of assimilation in Hindu mainstream. This assimilation can further be seen from the point of view of tribes and from the Hindu mainstream. Based on the given passage, how did tribal communities assimilated into the mainstream? (2)
Answer:
The term OBC means a large group of castes that are of low status and are also subjected to varying levels of discrimination but were not untouchables. They are the service and artisanal castes who occupied the lower ranks of the caste hierarchy.
Or
From the mainstream point of view, tribes may be viewed according to their status in the Hindu society, wherein high status is given to some, and low status accorded to most.

Question 22.
Who coined the term ‘Footloose labour’? What is meant by it? ( 1 + 1 )
Answer:
Jan Breman coined the term ‘footloose labour. Theterm ‘footloose labour’ refers to those labourers who are pushed out of agriculture and rely on casual labour. These workers migrate to other states in search of seasonal occupation.

Question 23.
Define the term ‘Regionalism’ with regard to Indian context. (2)
Answer:
The term ‘Regionalism’ refers to the ideology of commitment to particular regional identity which could be based on language, ethnicity and other characteristics. Regionalism in India is rooted in India’s diversity of languages, cultures, tribes and religions.

Question 24.
Write a brief note on nuclear family. ( 1 + 1 )
Answer:
The term ‘nuclear family’ refers to the family that consists of only one set of parents and their children. The nuclear family is social group characterised by common residence, economic co-operation and reproduction. It contain adult of both sexes at least two of whom maintains a socially approved relationship and one or more children, own or adopted of the sexually cohabiting adult.

Question 25.
Who invented ‘Scientific Management’? Elaborate the term Taylorism or Industrial engineering. ( 1 + 1 )
Answer:
Frederick Winslow Taylor, an American, invented a new system in 1890s which he called ‘Scientific Management’.
Taylorism or Industrial engineering refers to all work that was broken down into its smallest repetitive elements and was divided between workers. Each worker then sat along a conveyor belt and assembled only one part of the final product. The speed of work could be set by adjusting the speed of conveyor belt.

Question 26.
Sanskritisation process has been criticised due to various reasons. State two reasons.(2)
Answer:
Sanskritisation process has been criticised due to various reasons such as

  1. It exaggerates the social mobility or the scope of lower castes to achieve higher social status.
  2. It justifies a practice that is based on inequality and exclusion.

Question 27.
Write a brief note on the role of political parties in the old social movements in India. (2)
Answer:
In the old social movements, the role of political parties was central. It is noteworthy that the institutions of the state have been captured by elites. Due to this, electoral representation by political parties is no longer an effective way for the poor to get their voices heard. People left out by the formal political system join social movements or non party political formations in order to put pressure on the state from outside.

Question 28.
What are some problems faced by the mine workers? (2)
Answer:
Some problems faced by the mine workers are as follows

  • Rules are not followed in smaller mines and quarries. Labourers are kept under contractual system and are not given proper wages.
  • Many contractors do not maintain proper register of workers, thus avoiding any responsibility for accident and benefits.

Question 29.
Indian society is a melting pot of cultures. The history of Indian society gives enough evidence of the process of accommodation. From early times migrants integrated into Indian society and influenced its culture. Our historical past is testimony to this fact of cultural diffusion.

Today, we describe our society as a composite whole that includes tribal, rural, and urban communities. The way of life in . these segments have their unique characteristics. However, is it also an observation that no one segment or community can be seen in its ‘pure’ state. On the one hand, there is interdependence between communities and on the other, this would imply a certain extent of loss of cultural elements such as language, beli efs, customary practices, etc. What constitutes ‘Indian culture’, discuss with respect to cultural diffusion in Indian society? (2)
Or
How interdependence between communities has resulted to a certain extent in loss of cultural elements?
Answer:
Culture in India is a dimension that has been composed by its long history and its unique way of accepting customs and traditions, right since the Indus valley civilization took birth. India is a melting pot of various religions and cultures and it is the very nature of the unity in diversity, which has largely shaped the growth of Indian culture as a whole. The property of togetherness among people of various cultures and traditions has made India, a unique country.
Or
The interdependence of communities has weakened cultural bonds of tribal and rural communities and also lead to the loss of cultural identity. It makes one forget their own values, customs, and traditions. Although it has played an immense role in the unification of our country, a great amount of cultural identity and traditional values have also been lost.

Section C
Section C consists of 6 questions of 4 marks each

Question 30.
Why does sociology have a keen interest in study of social movements? (4)
Or
Imagine a society where there has been no social movement. Can you also describe how you imagine such a society to be. ( 2 + 2)
Answer:
Sociology have always been interested in studying social movements.The following points will express reasons behind this interest which are as follows:

  1. Sociology took birth as a discipline due to three major revolutions, the French Revolution, The Industrial Revolution and the Enlightenment. Since the inception of Sociology, it has always studied and analysed social movements as it impacts the social order of society.
  2. Classical sociologists have shown keen interest in maintaining the social order. Emile Durkheim was keen to protect the social order of society, whereas Karl Marx promoted social movements to bring revolution. Max Weber studied the capitalist society and the changes it brought along.
  3. The transformative power of the social movements renders sociology to take a keen interest in analysing and studying the same as it brings reforms or changes in the societal status quo.

Or
A society where there is no social movement should have been an inclusive society where every section be it workers, women, tribals or Dalits, etc. will be enjoying benefits of development. The society will be based on egalitarian principles. This society will be free from exploitation of any kind and people will enjoy certain in alien able rights. This kind of society can also be referred to as one with continuous and ongoing social change but free from social movements.

This type of society can be imagined by choosing a welfare state approach in which society will be free from discrimination. The government should provide minimum basic amenities to the people. This type of approach will not allow the people to go for social movement as the’ interest of every group will be taken care of.

Question 31.
How are the Other Backward Castes different from the Dalits or Schedule Castes? (4)
Or
Elaborate the term ‘Stereotype’ in context of sociological study. (4)
Answer:
Other Backward Castes (OBCs) are different from the Dalits or Scheduled Castes (SCs) in the following ways

  1. OBCs are not any particular group like SCs and STs but individuals from all communities whose standard of living is below poverty line.
  2. There is a tough procedure for OBC candidate to establish themself in this category while SCs and STs and unconditionally recognised.
  3. The proportion of reserved seats is equal to the percentage share of the Scheduled castes and Tribes in the total population but for OBCs this proportion is decided differently.
  4. OBC’s have been scheduled in Constitution of India through 93rd Amendment, 2006 and these classes are recognised since the early 1990s.

Or
The term ‘stereotype’ is widely held, fixed and over simplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing. It is often applied to ethnic and racial groups and to women in context of sociological study. In a country such as India, which was colonised for a long time, many of these stereotypes are partly colonial creations.

For example, some communities were characterised as ‘martial races’ and others were treated as coward and untrustworthy. It may be true that some individuals are sometimes lazy or cunning, brave or cowardly. Even for such individuals, it is not true all time, because the same individual may be both lazy and hardworking at different times. Stereotypes fix whole group into single, homogeneous categories. Sometimes, the entire community is characterised by an all encompassing trait or characteristic.

Question 32.
What is meant by the term ‘secularism’ in both Indian and Western contexts? Explain. (4)
Answer:
Secularism in Indian Context
In the Indian context, secularism or the word secular refers to a state that does not favour the religious beliefs and practices of any particular religion or sect over others. In everyday language, secular is considered opposite of communal. It implies equal respect of all religions rather than separation or distancing. For example, the secular Indian state declares public holidays to mark the festivals of all religions.

Secularism in Western Context
In Western context, secularism is the progressive retreat of religion from public life. It is a result of arrival of modernity and the rise of reasons and rational thinking. Thus, it promotes a new way of understanding. Presently secularism in India also includes the Western understanding of secularism also.

Question 33.
State the two reforms programmes related to land reforms in Independence India. (4)
Answer:
There are two major reforms related to land reforms which were carried out in 1950s to the 1970s after India’s independence. These are as follows
(a) Abolition of Zamindari system The first step taken by the Indian government under land reforms post-Independence was passing the Zamindari Abolition act. It removed the layer of intermediaries who stood between the cultivators and the state. In many areas, superior rights were taken away from the zamindars and weakened their economic and political power. However, Abolition of such intermediaries not only improved conditions of farmers by establishing their direct connection with government but also improved agricultural production.

(b) Land Ceilings Act The another reform which the government passed the Land Ceiling act in order to bring uniformity across states. These laws imposed an upper limit on the amount of land that a family could own. The ceiling varies from region to region, depending on kind of land, its productivity etc. Very productive land has a low ceiling while unproductive dry land has higher ceiling limit.

Question 34.
How have been tribes classified in India? (4)
Answer:
Tribes in India have been classified according to their ‘permanent’ and ‘acquired’ traits as follows

  1. Permanent Traits : Permanent traits include region, language, physical characteristics and ecological habitat as follows
    • In terms of language:
      Tribes are categorised into four categories as Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austric and Tibeto-Burman.
    • In physical-racial terms:
      Tribes are classified as Negrito, Australoid, Mongoloid, Dravidian and Aryan.
    • In terms of size:
      Tribes range from about seven million to some Andamanese islanders who are less than a hundred persons. The biggest tribes of India are Gonds, Bhils, Santhals, Oraons, Minas, Bodos and Mundas.
  2. Acquired Traits: Acquired traits include criterias i.e. mode of livelihood, and extent of incorporation into Hindu society as follows
    • On the basis of livelihood :
      Tribes can be categorised into fishermen, food gatherers/hunters, shifting cultivators, peasants and plantation and industrial workers.
    • Extent of incorporation into the Hindu society:
      The dominant classification of tribes is based on the extent of their assimilation in the Hindu mainstream. From the tribe point of view, attitude of the tribe towards Hindu mainstream is important as there are tribes that are positively inclined towards Hinduism and others who oppose it. From the Hindu mainstream point of view, tribes may be viewed according to their status in the Hindu society which is generally low

Value Points:
For getting maximum marks, following value points can be included in the answer . Classification according to permanent traits. Classification according to acquired traits.

Question 35.
What are the major factors behind existence of the hierarchy in caste system? Explain.
Answer:
There are several factors behind the existence of hierarchy in caste system. As, the hierarchical order of caste is based on the distinction between purity and pollution. The word ‘purity’ connects division between something believed to be closer to the sacred and the word ‘pollution’ represents something which is distant from or opposed to the sacred.

Castes that are considered to be ritually pure have high status, while those considered less pure have low status. Apart from purity, material power, economic power or military power is also associated with social status. Therefore, those in power have higher status and those defeated have lower status. Castes in the past were not only unequal to each other in ritual terms, but also complementary and non-competing. Thus, each caste has its own place in the system which cannot be taken by any other castes. Further, as castes are associated with occupation. The caste system often functions as the social division of labour wherein there is no movement or mobility.

Question 36.

(a) What was the total population of India as per the census of 2011? (2)
(b) What was percentage of the average annual growt h rate between 1901-1951 and 1911 and 1921? (2)
(c) What was the percentage of decreasing decadal growth rate from 2001 to 2011? (2)
Answer:
(a) India is the second most populous country in the world, with a total population of 1.21 billion according to the census of India 2011.

(b) Between 1901-1951, the percentage of the average annual growth rate was approximately 1.33%, a modest rate of growth and between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative growth rate i.e. 0.03%, because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19.

(c) The percentage of decreasing decadal growth rate from 2001 to 2011 is 3.8 %.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 37.
‘Economists often make a distinction between organised or formal and unorganised or informal sector. According to one definition, the organised sector consists of all units employing to ten or more people throughout the year. These have to be registered with the government to ensure that their employees get proper salaries or wages, pensions and other benefits.
Answer:
(a) The organised sector comprises certain companies or work places in which the employment term is regular and employees are also guaranteed employment. They are authorised by the government and must comply with the laws and regulations set out in various laws, including the Minimum Wages act, Factories act, the Gratuity Payment act, the Shops and Establishments act, and so on. The following are the four organised sector examples:

  1. Government employees
  2. Government schools and colleges
  3. Registered industrial workers
  4. Banks

(b) Some major social implications of organised sector in India are as follows:

  1. Only a few people work in large firms where they get to meet people from various backgrounds and regions. Unlike urban regions, large firms have well-defined rules with a transparent recruitment process along with provisions for complaints and redressals.
  2. Few Indians have access to secure jobs and , benefits. Two-third of those enjoy this work for the government. Government employment has contributed towards overcoming the boundaries of caste, religion and region.
  3. Since very few people are members of a union, a feature of organised sector, people in the unorganised sector do not experience collective fighting for wages and safe working conditions.

Question 38.
If capitalism became the dominant economic system in the colonial period, nation-states became the dominant political form. Explain how this process took place. (6)
Answer:
Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and organised to accumulate profits within a market system. The emergence of capitalism was a complicated process. It was interplay of European exploration, growth in industrialisation, trade and science and technology. With due course of time, capitalism became the dominant economic system. It was characterised by dynamism, growth, expansion, innovation and use of labour and technology.

Gradually, in Western countries it was found that if capitalism became the dominant economic system, then nation-state became the dominant political form. During the period before the First World War, people hardly had passports and these were not used in international travel.

In the modern world, we see the nation-states. Nation-state is a particular type of state in which a government has supreme or sovereign power within a defined territorial area. In this type of state, the people are citizens of a single nation. Therefore, nationalism is also closely related to nation-states. Nationalism advocates the right to freedom and sovereignty of a set of people living in a particular area. Thus, capitalism, nationalism and nation-states developed over the period of time.


Show More

Related Articles

यौगिक किसे कहते हैं? परिभाषा, प्रकार और विशेषताएं | Yogik Kise Kahate Hain Circuit Breaker Kya Hai Ohm ka Niyam Power Factor Kya hai Basic Electrical in Hindi Interview Questions In Hindi