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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 5 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology with Solutions Set 5 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 5 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. The question paper is divided into four sections.
  2. There are 38 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  3. Section A includes question No. 1-20. These are MCQ type questions. As per the question, there can be one answer.
  4. Section B includes question No. 21-29. These are very short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  5. Section C includes question No. 30-35. They are short answer type questions carrying 4marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
  6. Section D includes question No. 36-38. They are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words each. Question no. 36 is to be answered with the help of the given graphics.
  7. Question no. 37 is to be answered with the help of the given passage.

Section A
Section A consists of 20 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Social conflict does not automatically lead to collective action. Reason (R) A group must consciously think or identify themselves as oppressed beings for conflict to arise.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 2.
Which statement is correct regarding the positive consequences of the first phase of the Green Revolution? (1)
(a) Many fanners shifted from Multi-crop to Mono-crop systems.
(b) Migration from rural and urban areas increased.
(c) The employment and wages of agricultural workers increased in many areas.
(d) It brought regional inequalities in India.
Answer:
(c) The employment and wages of agricultural workers increased in many areas.

Question 3.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Social welfare aims at the all-round development of lower castes and backward classes of the society.
Reason (R) Social reformers wanted to remove evils and bring changes in the society.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the , correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the , correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
Which of the following statements are correctly defining the idea of a nation? (1)
(a) It is an ideology that places the nation at the centre of its concern.
(b) No particular kind of community can be guaranteed to form a nation.
(c) There are many nations that do not share a single common language, religion, ethnicity and so on.
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 5.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)
Assertion (A) Social stratification is supported by patterns of belief or ideology. Reason (R) No system of social stratification is likely to persist over generations unless it is widely viewed as being either fair or inevitable.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 6.
‘Community identity is based on birth and belonging rather than on some form of acquired qualifications or accomplishment. It is what we are rather than what we have ‘become’. We do not have to do anything to be bom into a community in fact, no one has any choice about which family or community or country they are bom into. (1) According to above mentioned statements, these kinds of identities are called as
(a) Ascriptive
(b) Descriptive
(c) Receptive
(d) Assertive
Answer:
(a) Ascriptive

Question 7.
A state is a body that successfully claims a monopoly of legitimate force in a particular territory. Which among the following said this above mentioned argument? (1)
(a) Max Weber
(b) Herbert Spencer
(c) David Emile Durkheim
(d) Judith Butter.
Answer:
(a) Max Weber

Question 8.
The ……. is the most accepted or proper justification for a state, while the …… are the ultimate source of legitimacy of the nation. (1)
(a) people; nation
(b) community; nation
(c) nation; people
(d) people; community
Answer:
(c) nation; people

Question 9.
Which of the following is not correct about Jyotirao Phule? (1)
(a) He formed the Satyashodak Samaj to attain equal rights for people from lower castes.
(b) He started a school in Dowleswaram.
(c) He recalled the glory of Pre-Aryan age.
(d) Jyotirao Phule was born in Poona in 1827 to a family that belonged to the mali caste.
Answer:
(b) He started a school in Dowleswaram.

Question 10.
Who argued that the use of machinery actually de-skills workers? (1)
(a) Harry Braverman
(b) Karl Marx
(c) Max Weber
(d) Emile Durkheim
Answer:
(a) Harry Braverman

Question 11.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)
Assertion (A) Global liberalisation and privatisation seems to be going down. Reason (R) Liberalisation and privatisation tend to increase income inequality.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Question 12.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Protests by scheduled castes against the practice of untouchability and
Reason (R) Their action have stirred the government machinery to enforce law and order strictly.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Question 13.
In most of the regions of India, the major landowning groups belong to the …… (1)
(a) politicians
(b) upper castes
(с) educated elites
(d) urban population
Answer:
(b) upper castes

Question 14.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Higher the job opportunities for female population in the paid labour market, the higher the rate of acceptance of family planning.
Reason (R) Opportunity and cost of a child is directly proportional to the employment status of mother.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 15.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Life style determines life chances.
Reason (R) The class position of the individuals enhances or diminishes his life changs.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 16.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) The emergence of sociology and its successful establishment as an academic discipline owed a lot to demography.
Reason (R) This happened due to the rise of nation-states and the emergence of the modem science of statistics.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 17.
A ……… requires sustained collective action over time. Such action is often directed against the state and takes the form of demanding changes in state policy or practice. (1)
(a) political movement
(b) social movement
(c) economic movement
(d) cultural movement
Answer:
(b) social movement

Question 18.
Scientific management also known as Taylorism or Industrial engineering was ……. invented in …….(1)
(a) 1870s
(b) 1880s
(c) 1890s
(d) 1900s
Answer:
(c) 1890s

Question 19.
The growth of autonomous women’s movements took place during which period? (1)
(a) 1950s
(b) 1960s
(c) 1970s
(d) 1980s
Answer:
(c) 1970s

Question 20.
Debates within communities were common during this period. For instance, Sati was opposed by the Brahmo Samaj. Ortho dox members of the Hindu Community in Bengal formed an organisation called …….. and petitioned the British arguing that reformers had no right to interpret sacred texts. (1)
(a) Brahmo Sabha
(b) Arya Sabha
(c) Dharma Sabha
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Dharma Sabha

Section B
Section B consists of 9 questions of 2 marks each

Question 21.
‘Access to land forms the rural class structure because agricultural land is the most valuable productive resource in rural areas. The role one plays in the agricultural production process is largely determined by one’s access to land. Based on the given passage, answer the following question. Which system is referred to the structure or distribution of hand holdings according to the above mentioned statements? Explain. (2)
Or
“Sociologists use the term social stratification to refer to a system by which categories of people in a society are ranked in a hierarchy”. What are the principles of social stratification? (2)
Answer:
Agrarian system is referred in the above mentioned statements.An agrarian system is the dynamic set of economic and technological factors that affect agricultural practices. The basis for a prevailing agrarian system may be derived from one of a number of major types, including agrarian social structure, for example, tribal or ethnic divisions, feudal classes or family based systems.
Or
There are basically three key principles help to explain social stratification. They are as follows:

  1. It is a society wide system that unequally distributes social resources among categories of people.
  2. It is closely linked to the family and to the inheritance of social resources from one generation to next.
  3. It is supported by patterns of belief or ideology.

Question 22.
What is meant by the ‘age structure’ of the population? (2)
Answer:
The age structure of the population refers to the proportion of persons in different age groups relative to the total population. The age structure changes in response to change in levels of development and the average life expectancy.

Question 23.
How did the state address the issues of caste and tribe discrimination? Elaborate. (2)
Answer:
There are several initiatives taken by the state to address the issues of caste and tribe discrimination, some of which are as follows

  1. The most important initiative of the state is the reservation. This involves the setting of reserve category for the dalits and tribal communities in different spheres of public life including reservations in educational institutions and government jobs.
  2. In addition to reservations, there have been a number of constitutional laws passed to end, prohibit and punish caste discrimination and untouchability.

Question 24.
How the policies of assimilation and integration are used by the state to strengthen national identity? (2)
Answer:
The policies of assimilation and integration are used by the state to strengthen national identity because assimilation policies, often involving outright suppression of the identities of ethnic, religious or linguistic groups, try to erode the cultural differences between groups.

On the other hand, integration policies seek to assert a single national identity by attempting to eliminate ethno- national and cultural differences from the public and political arena, while allowing them in the private domain. Both sets of policies assume a single national identity.

Question 25.
To what extent colonialism affected tribal communities during the pre-Independence India. Explain. (2)
Answer:
In India, British colonialism have affected tribal communities during the pre-Independence period, on the political and economic front, tribal societies faced incursion of money lenders. They also lost their land to non-tribal immigrant settlers. Their access to forests was restricted because of the British government’s policy of reservation of forests and the introduction of mining operations. In this way, their source of livelihood was snatched by the British government.

Question 26.
How has the formation of AITUC made the colonial government more cautious in dealing with the labour? Explain. (2)
Answer:
The formation of the AITUC made the colonial government more cautious in dealing with labour. It attempted to grant workers some concessions in order to contain unrest. In 1922, the government passed the Fourth Factories act which reduced the working day to 10 hours. In 1926, the Trade Unions act was passed which provided for registration of trade unions and proposed some regulations

Question 27.
Why both Marx and Gandhiji saw mechanisation as danger to employment? (2)
Answer:
Both Karl Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanisation as danger to employment because they agreed upon the fact that the basic task of manager is to control workers and get more work out of them. Further they argued that there are two main ways of making workers produce more. One is to extend the working hours. The other is to increase the amount that is produced within a given time period.

Question 28.
‘The struggle for women’s upliftment in the 19th and early 20th centuries was led by male reformers.’ Discuss with suitable examples. (2)
Answer:
The reform movements of the 19th and early 20th centuries tried to address the issues that discriminated against women. The struggle was led by male reformers in this regard. Some examples are

  1. Raja Ram Mohun Roy attacked the evil practice of sati which was present in society. Fie opposed it on the basis of humanitarianism, natural right doctrines and Hindu shastras.
  2. Jyotiba Phule supported the women education and opened the first school for women in Pune.
  3. MG Ranade writings supported the re-marriage of widows on the basis of shastras.

Question 29.
This is a real life story of Rukmini Devi who lives in a small hut in Gaigotha Village in Wada Taluka of Palghar District in Maharashtra State. She belongs to the Warli tribe. Her husband is a marginal farmer who cultivates on two acres of land. They have two children, one daughter aged 10 years and an 1 son aged 6 years. Both the children walk to school and back daily (located about 3 miles away).

When cultivation season is over, (or if the rice crop is damaged due to heavy rains or pests) they face many hardships. A section of the crop is kept for their personal use, for the year. Tur Dal (lentil) is also grown in one small area, again for personal use. Ina small backyard, they grow vegetables like chilies, cucumber, and bitter gourd (karela).

During the off-season, both husband and wife go to the brick kilns (about 7 miles away) to do piece-rate work (That is, they get paid for each brick that they make.) While the men earn? 300 per day, the women earn ……….? 150-200. Rukmini Devi stated that they prefer to walk the 7 miles both ways because the bus fare is ……….. ? 35/- per head one way. They cannot afford it. Point out and discuss briefly, gender discrimination in this setting. (2)
Or
Discuss the nature of the economy of the Warli tribes.
Answer:
Rukmini Devi is facing wage discrimination i.e., discrimination on the basis of sex in the payment of wages, where Rukmini Devi and her husband perform work of similar skill, effort, and responsibility for the same employer under similar working conditions but they don’t earn the same amount of money. This implies discriminative employers save on the cost by employing the tribal females. Rukmini Devi is working in informal labour market where there is an absence of policies to safeguard gender rights.
Or
The economy practiced by Warli tribe is subsistence economy and simple. They use out model techniques therefore their production is insufficient. They cannot fulfill their basic needs. They try to fulfill their needs by collective efforts. Thus, the simple and collective economic life is an important characteristic of the tribal economy.

Section C
Section C consists of 6 questions of 4 marks each

Question 30.
The Khasi matriliny generates intense role conflict for men. Explain. (4)
Or
Tribes have been classified according to their ‘permanent’ and ‘acquired’ traits. Highlight the demography of tribal communities in India on the basis of the permanent traits.
Answer:
The Khasi matriliny generates intense conflicts for men is following ways:

  1. Khasi matriliny generates intense role conflict for men. They are torn between responsibilities to their native house on one hand and to their wife and children on the other.
  2. There is an inherent disagreement in matrilineal systems. On the one hand, the line of descent and inheritance, where woman inherits property from her mother and passes it on to her daughter. The other structure of authority and control is where a man control his sister’s property and passes on control to his sister’s son. The farmer, which links the mother to the daughter, comes in conflict with the latter, which links the mother’s brother to the sister’s son.
  3. The tension generated by such role conflict affects Khasi women more intensely. A woman can never be fully assured that her husband does not find his sister’s house a more pleasant place than her own.
    Thus, men are the power holders in Khasi society, the only difference is that a man’s relatives on his mother’s side matter more than his relatives on his father’s side.

Or
Permanent traits of tribal communities in India include region, language, physical characteristics and ecolog ical habitat. On the basis of language, tribes are categorised into four categories, namely Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austric r and Tibeto-Burman. The Indo-Aryan accounts for 1 % of the population and the Dravidian accounts for 3%. The other two languages are primary spoken by tribals having 80% of the concentration. On the basis of physical characteristics, tribes are classified under the Negrito, Australoid, Mongoloid, Dravidian and Aryan categories.

The last two are shared by the majority of the Indian population. In terms of size, tribes may vary in great number. The biggest tribes are the Gonds, Bhils, Santhals, Oraons, Minas Bodos and Mundas. The total population of tribes amounts to about 8.2% of the Indian population or 84 million people according to 2001 Census which has grown to 8.6% or 104 million tribal population according to 2011 Census.

Question 31.
Explain the types of social movements in context of Indian societies. (4)
Or
Write a brief note on establishment of trade union in context of pre-Independence India. (4)
Answer:
Social movements classify into three types in context of Indian society. These are as follows:

  1. Redemptive social movement This movement aims to bring about a change in the personal consciousness and actions of its individual members. For instance, people in the Ezhava community in Kerala led by Narayan Guru tried to change their social practice.
  2. Reformist social movement The movement strives to change the existing social and political arrangements through gradual incremental steps. The 1960s movement for the re-organisation of Indian states on the basis of language and the recent right to information campaign are examples of reformist movements.
  3. Revolutionary social movement This movement , attempt to radically transform social relations, often ‘ by cap turing state power. The Bolshevik Revolutionin Russia that deposed the Tsar to capture a communist state and Naxalite movement in India that seeks to remove oppressive landlords and state officials are examples of revolutionary social movements.

Or
The first trade union was established in April 1918 in Madras by BP Wadia. During the same year, Mahatma Gandhi founded the Textile Labour Association (TLA). In 1920, the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed in Bombay.

The main trade union leaders were the communists led by SA Dange and MN Roy, the moderates led by M Joshi and VV Giri and the nationalists involved people like Lala Lajpat Rai and Jawaharlal Nehru. The formation of the AITUC made the colonial government more – cautious in dealing with labour. It attempted to grant workers some concessions in order to contain unrest.

In 1922, the government passed the Fourth Factories act which reduced the working day to 10 hours. In 1926, the Trade Unions act was passed, which provided for registration of trade unions and proposed some regulations. By the mid 1920’s, the AITUC had nearly 200 unions affiliated to it and its membership stood at around 250,000.

During the last few years of British rule the communists gained considerable control over the AITUC. The Indian National Congress chose to form another union called the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in May 1947.

Question 32.
Write a brief note on the debates about tribe-caste distinction in India. (4)
Answer:
The argument for a tribe-caste distinction was founded on an assumed cultural difference between Hindu castes, with their beliefs in purity and pollution and hierarchical integration and the tribals with their equal and kinship based modes of organisation. The debate posed whether tribal was one end of the caste based society or a different kind of community.
There are some important viewpoints about tribe-caste distinction as follows:

  1. Tribes should be seen as one end of the whole society with caste-based (Hindu) peasant society which is just less stratified and more community based. However, some opponents argued that tribes were wholly different from caste because they had no notion of purity and pollution which is central to the caste system.
  2. There is no coherent basis for treating tribes as pristine (pure or original) or societies uncontaminated by civilisation. Rather, tribes should be seen as secondary phenomena arising out of exploitative and colonialist contact between pre-existing states and non-state groups.

Question 33.
Communalism is an important issue in India because it has been a source of tension and violence. Elaborate. (4)
Answer:
Communalism is an important issue in India because^ has been a recurrent source of tension and violence. During communal riots, people become faceless members of their respective communities. Every religious community has faced this violence in greater or lesser degree, although the proportionate impact is far more traumatic for minority communities.

Communalism is an aggressive political ideology linked to religion. Communal means something related to a community or collectivity as different from an individual. It is important to emphasise that communalism is about politics and not about religion. There is no necessary relationship between personal faith and communalism. One of the characteristic feature of communalism is its claim that religious identity overrides everything else.

Question 34.
Explain Green Revolution and the social consequences associated with it. (4)
Answer:
The Green Revolution means increasing production of food grains by using High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds especially of wheat and rice. It was a government programme of agricultural modernisation which was funded by international agencies. The programme of Green Revolution was introduced only in those areas that had abundant irrigation. But only some parts of the country could reap the benefits of Green Revolution like that of Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Tamil Nadu.

There were many social consequences of Green Revolution, which are as follows:

  1. The agricultural productivity increased very rapidly and the medium and large farmers who produced a surplus for the market got the maximum benefit through Green Revolution.
  2. Small and marginal farmers could not benefit from Green Revolution as they could not buy new seeds and technology. It was only large farmers who were able to benefit from the new technology.
  3. The excessive use of pesticides hybrid seeds, etc., that needed assured irrigation also brought negative impacts. Many farmers shifted from multi-crop system to mono-crop system.

Question 35.
‘Social stratification is supported by patterns of belief, or ideology.’ Justify your answer with
suitable examples.
Answer:
ideology because no system of social stratification is likely to persist over generations, unless it is widely viewed as being either fair or inevitable. For example, the caste system is justified in terms of the opposition of purity and pollution, with the Brahmins designated as the most superior and Dalits as the most inferior by virtue of their birth and occupation. Not everyone, though, thinks of a system of inequality as legitimate.

Typically, people with the greatest social privileges express the strongest support for systems of stratification such as caste and race. Those who have experienced the exploitation and humiliation of being at the bottom of the hierarchy are most likely to challenge it.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 36.
The Declining Sex Ratio in India, 1901-2011

(a) What is meant by the term ‘sex ratio’? Briefly explain. (2)
(b) How much the sex ratio was decreased between the years 1901 and 2011? (2)
(c) What is the increasing point in over all sex ratio from 1991 to 2011 and also find out the
deceasing points in child sex ratio from 1991 to 2011?
Answer:
(a) The sex ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males in a given area at a specified time period. Despite the fact that slighty more males are born than female ones, historically, there are slightly more females than males. In other words, sex ratio favour females. This is because of the factor where girl babies have high resistance to diseases in infancy.

(b) The declining sex ratio were 972 females per 1000 males at the turn of the 20th century, the sex ratio has declined to 943 at the turn of 21st century. It decreased 29 points from 1901 to 2011.

(c) The decade 1991 – 2011 represents an anomaly in that overall sex ratio has shown an increase of 16 points from 927 to 943. The child sex ratio had dropped 26 points from 945 to 919.

Question 37.
Read the passages and answer the questions given below.
Yogini and Yogita are twins of the Patkar family who live in a small room measuring 225 sq. ft. in a small town. Yogini is brilliant in studies and Kabbadi. Yogita is an outstanding cricketer who represents the Western India region; she also was a topper in the State-level Marathi language Competition. Their parents come from a small village in Marathwada; they were farmers. For the sake of their daughters, they shifted to a small town to facilitate their children’s further education and sports training.

Their relatives and others in their village have heard of the Patkar girl’s success and are also encouraged to send their children to big cities with the hope that they too will become successful and famous one day. Today if one visits the village you will notice that in many homes, there are only the elderly folk. The youth seem to have migrated to better their prospects. Can you imagine the effect of such migration on the local village community?
(a) What are the challenges faced by rural people while sending their children for higher education? (3)
(b) What makes rural people migrate to cities? (3)
Answer:
(a) The challenges faced by rural people are as follows:

  1. There is a lack of availability of resources and infrastructure in the rural regions in India. There is no availability of benches, playgrounds, laboratories, washrooms or if present they are in the worst condition.
  2. Sometimes the textbooks are not available in proper quantity, or if available they are not in good condition. Also, the availability of stationery is also a challenge. Many rural Indians don’t have enough money to bear stationary charges and other expenses.
  3. There is no transportation availability as there is poor connectivity from one place to another place.
  4. There is less availability of teachers. In India, the school in rural areas have only one or two teachers in the school.

(b) The rural people migrate to cities due to following factors

  1. Environmental:
    Factors Natural disasters are a common factor that pushes rural residents to migrate to urban cities. This includes events that may immediately displace people, such as floods, droughts, wildfires, and intense weather.
  2. Social Factors:
    Increased access to quality education and health care facilities are a common pull factor in rural-to-urban migration. Rural areas often lack government services when compared to their urban counterparts. More government spending often goes towards providing public services in cities.
  3. Economic Factors:
    Employment and educational opportunities are cited as the most common pull factors associated with rural-to-urban migration. 1 Poverty, food insecurity, and lack of opportunities in rural areas are a consequence of uneven economic development and push people to urban areas where development has been greater.

When rural people migrate to urban areas for better prospects leaving behind everything. The negative impact of migration on rural communities are there is labour shortage in farms, only senior citizens, women and children are left behind, increase in child labour, children’s are forced, to work in fields, increased workload for women’s decreased population, disorganization of family, customs and in this way rural culture slowly fades away.

Question 38.
Do you agree that all sections of people have benefitted from the liberalisation policies in India? Justify your answer with examples.
Answer:
This is a fact that all sections of people are not benefitted from the liberalisation policies in India because the effect of liberalisation is not uniform on all sections. There are some major consequences after the effects of liberalisation. These are as follows:

  1. After this policy, the government tried to sell its share in several public sector companies, a process which is known as called disinvestment. With disinvestment, many government workers feared that they will lose their jobs.
  2. More and more companies are reducing the number of permanent employees and outsourcing their work to smaller companies or even to homes. For the multinational companies, this outsourcing is done across the globe, with developing countries like India providing cheap labour.  As small companies have to compete for orders from the big companies, they keep wages low as well as their working conditions are often poor.
  3. Very few people in India have access to secure jobs and even the small number in regular salaried employed are becoming more insecure with incoming of contract labour. Now-a-days, employment by government is also coming down. According to economists, both liberalisation and privatisation is associated with rising income inequality.
  4. As the secure employment in large industry is declining, the government is embarking on the policy of land acquisition for industry. These industries do not necessarily provide employment to the people of the surrounding areas, but cause major pollution.


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