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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 4 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology with Solutions Set 4 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 4 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. The question paper is divided into four sections.
  2. There are 38 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  3. Section A includes question No. 1-20. These are MCQ type questions. As per the question, there can be one answer.
  4. Section B includes question No. 21-29. These are very short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  5. Section C includes question No. 30-35. They are short answer type questions carrying 4marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
  6. Section D includes question No. 36-38. They are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words each. Question no. 36 is to be answered with the help of the given graphics.
  7. Question no. 37 is to be answered with the help of the given passage.

Section A
Section A consists of 20 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Secularisation is not closely associated with modernisation and westernisation.
Reason (R) Religious fanatics are found in western countries.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is false

Question 2.
“A state is a body that successfully claims a monopoly of legitimate force in a particular territory.” Which among the following said this above mentioned argument? (1)
(a) Max Weber
(b) Herbert Spencer
(c) David Emile Durkheim
(d) Judith Butler
Answer:
(a) Max Weber

Question 3.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options.

Assertion (A) Men migrate out periodically in search of work and better wages.
Reason (R) Commercialisation of agriculture has led to the growth of migrant agricultural labour. (1)
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Beth (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
Which of the following factor is not responsible for the caste system in the contemporary period? (1)
(a) Subsidised public education.
(b) Opportunities offered by rapid development.
(c) Expansion of state sector jobs after Independence
(d) No inherited educational or economic capital.
Answer:
(d) No inherited educational or economic capital.

Question 5.
Choose the incorrect statement about position of caste and caste based issues within the nationalist movement. (1)
(a) The dominant view was to treat caste as a social evil and as a colonial scheme to divide India.
(b) Anti-touchability programmes became a big part of the Congress agenda.
(c) Efforts to organise the depressed classes and particularly the untouchable caste began during the nationalist movement.
(d) There was an initiative taken to organise depressed classes from both ends of the caste spectrum.
Answer:
(b) Anti-touchability programmes became a big part of the Congress agenda.

Question 6.
The task of a manager is to and get …… out of workers. (1)
(a) control workers, more work
(b) hire more workers, more work
(c) beat workers, less work
(d) give food to workers, less work
Answer:
(a) control workers, more work

Question 7.
Which of the following statements is/are correct about the gender identities? (1)
(a) Transgender refers to conversions of gender status of body into opposite gender by using choice or certain compulsions.
(b) Third gender refers to the persons having alternates of both genders i.e. male and female.
(c) In India, a third gender person can nominate themselves to contest in elections
(d) All of the above
Answer:
d) All of the above

Question 8.
The law that imposed an upper limit on the amount of land that can be owned by a particular family is known as ……. (1)
(a) Abolition of Zamindari System
(b) Tenancy Abolition and Regulation Act
(c) Land Ceiling Act
(d) Raiyatwari System
Answer:
(c) Land Ceiling Act

Question 9.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Historically, States have tried to establish and enhance their political legitimacy through nation building strategies. Reason (R) Most states feared that the recognition of such difference would lead to social fragmentation and prevent the creation of a harmonious society.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the * correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 10.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Social movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue.
Reason (R) Protest is the most visible form of collective action.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 11.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements ancfchoose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) In Indian Nationalism, the dominant trend was marked by an inclusive and democratic vision.
Reason (R) It was democratic because it recognised diversity and plurality.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 12.
Industrialisation involves a detailed division of labour in which people do not see the end result of production process as they are producing only one small part of a product. Also their work is repetitive and exhausting. Yet for them, this work is better than being unemployed. (1)
Which one of the following terms is called by Karl Marx about such situation wherein a person is disconnected with the product he/she is producing?
(a) Exploitation
(b) Alienation
(c) Surplus Value
(d) Capital
Answer:
(b) Alienation

Question 13.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) While population rises in geometric progression, agricultural production can only grow in arithmetic progression.
Reason (R) Population growth always outstrips growth in production of subsistence resources, the only way to increase prosperity is by controlling the growth of population.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 14.
Suppressing cultural diversity can be very costly in terms of the alienation of the minority or subordinated communities whose culture is treated as ……. (1)
(a) non-national
(b) national
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a) nor (b)
Answer:
(a) non-national

Question 15.
When did the Naxalite movement start from the region of Naxalbari? (1)
(a) 1946
(b) 1967
(c) 1929
(d) 1968
Answer:
(b) 1967

Question 16.
……. refer to pre-conceived opinions or attitudes held by members of one group towards another. It is an opinion formed in advance of any familiarity with the ‘ subject, before considering any available evidence. (1)
(a) Discrimination
(b) Stereotypes
(c) Prejudices
(d) Social exclusion
Answer:
(c) Prejudices

Question 17.
Inequalities between men and woman according to the scholars are not ……. but ……..(1)
(a) natural, social
(b) social, natural
(c) economic, racial
(d) desirable, undesirable
Answer:
(b) social, natural

Question 18.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Colonialism brings socio-culture evolution.
Reason (R) Colonialism gave rise to culturally and ethnically mixed population such as mestizos of the America.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) 6oth (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Question 19.
The path of development called modernisation was taken up by …….. (1)
(a) West Europe and North America
(b) Europe and South Africa
(c) Eastern Europe and America
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) West Europe and North America.

Question 20.
A small IT firm in India in developing a computer programme for a big company in England. Identify the most suitable term to refer this phenomenon. (1)
(a) Labour Contract
(b) Labour Extension
(c) Labour Migration
(d) Outsourcing
Answer:
(d) Outsourcing

Section B
Section B consists of 9 questions of 2 marks each

Question 21.
Based on the given passage, answer the following question.
Sociologists use the term social stratification to refer to a system by which categories of people in a society are ranked in a hierarchy. This hierarchy then shapes people’s identity and experiences, their relations with others as well as their access to resources and opportunities.
What is the key principles of social stratification? (2)
Or
What are the changes coming in caste system? (2)
Answer:
The key principles of social stratification are as follows:

  1. Social stratification is not just a function for the individual difference but is a characteristic of a society.
  2. Social stratification is continuing from generation to generation.
  3. Social stratification is supported by a prototype of belief or ideology.

Or
Many changes came in the caste system due to Western education, industrialisation, urbanisation, means of communication, etc. Almost all the restrictions of the caste system are coming improved to an end. inter-caste marriages are increasing, the position of lower caste has been improved, steps have been taken against all types of discrimination, and problems regarding occupation is no more in the society.

Question 22.
Highlight the events of Worker’s strike during British rule in India. (2)
Answer:
Some popular events of worker’s strike during the British rule in India as follows:

  1. Tea plantations in Assam were established as early as 1839. In the early stages of colonialism, labour was very cheap, as the colonial government did not regulate either wages or working conditions. However, later trade unions emerged and then workers started to protest. Their actions were more spontaneous than sustained.
  2. In September and October 1917, there were around 30 recorded strikes. Jute workers in Calcutta struck work. In Madras, the workers of Buchingham and Carnatic Mills (Binny’s) struck work for increased wages. Textile workers in Ahmedabad struck work for increase in wages by 50 per cent.

Question 23.
How did Dalit literature helped with the caste based Dalit movements? (2)
Answer:
The Dalit literature played an essential role in supporting the Dalit movements by providing them the necessary support. Through the Dalit literature, the perspective of the Dalits or the lower castes was exposed deep rooted in their own experience and perceptions.

This way, the viewpoint of Dalits about the discrimination they experience became public knowledge. The Dalit literature also helped to grow the community feeling among the Dalits and they could come together to fight for the same cause.

Question 24.
What are the fundamental differences between the Redemptive and Reformist Social movements? (2)
Answer:
There are fundamental differences between the Redemptive and Reformist Social movements which are as follows:

  1. Redemptive Social Movement:
    This movement aims to This movement strives bring about a change in to change the existing the personal social and political consciousness and actions arrangements through of its individual members.
    For example, people in the Ezhava community in Kerala by Narayan Guru to change their social practice.
  2. Reformist Social Movement:
    This movement strives to change the existing social and political arrangements through gradual incremental steps.

Question 25.
What is meant by the ‘Sex ratio’? State any one implication of a declining sex ratio. ( 1  +  1 )
Answer:
Sex ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males in a given area at a specified time period.
An implication of a declining sex ratio is severe neglect of girls in infancy, sex-specific abortions that prevent girl babies from being born and female infanticide.

Question 26.
There is a difference between the concepts of ‘Nation’ and ‘Nation state’ in context of cultural diversity. Explain. (2)
Answer:
The main difference between ‘Nation’ and ‘Nation state’ is that a ‘Nation’ is a large body of people united by a common origin, history, culture, ethnicity or language while ‘Nation state’ is a state where people with a common identity live inside a country with firm borders and a single government.

Question 27.
What are the negative impacts of industrialisation on labourers? (2)
Answer:
Negative impacts of industrialisation on labourers are as follows:

  1. Very few people are given work in more mechanised industries. Whatever the number of people works in it, have to work like machines which alienate them form their work.
  2. Very less time for rest is given to workers during their working hour. That is why, they become frustrated when they reach the age of 40 and take voluntary retirement.

Question 28.
What do you mean by land ceiling? What are the different reforms it brought about in India? (2)
Answer:
Land ceiling is a concept where an individual should possess cultivable land according to a prescribed limit.
The different reforms that brought in India are as follows:

  1. Redistribution of cultivable land.
  2. Ceiling of the upper limit of land holdings.

Question 29.
After 1990, the Government of India has followed a policy of liberalisation. Under this policy, the private companies, especially foreign firms, were encouraged to invest in sectors which were earlier reserved only for the government, including telecom, civil aviation, power, etc.
How has liberalisation affected employment patterns in India? (2)
Or
Highlight any two features of an organised sector. (2)
Answer:
The Indian Government has followed a policy of liberalisation since 1990. The liberalisation has affected employment in the following ways

  1. Due to liberalisation foreign products are now easily available in Indian market and shops. It increased
    the employment opportunities in industries and MNC’s.
  2. Many Indian companies have been taken over by multinationals. At the same time some Indian companies are becoming multinational companies.

Or
The two features of organised sector are as follows:

  1.  An organised sector is a type of sector which is subject to regulations that every employee must follow.

Section C
Section C consists of 6 questions of 4 marks each

Question 30.
Process of Sanskritisation encourages inequalities and discrimination. Explain with example. (4)
Or
Explain the role of social reformers in uplifting the status of women in India. (4)
Answer:
Process of Sanskritisation encourages inequalities and discrimination in society. It has been criticised for enaggerating social mobility or the scope of lower castes’ to move up the social ladder. This has lead to no
structural change but only positional change of some individuals. The following are some examples

  1. The ideology of sanskritisation accepts the ways of the upper caste as superior and that of the lower
    caste as inferior. Therefore, the desire to initate the ‘upper caste’ is seen as natural and desirable.
  2. Process that is gendered though progressive for men, upper caste practices like Purdah system, low 1 age of marriage, dowry in place of bride price are Nregressive as far as women are concerned.
  3. Sanskritisation results in the adoption of upper caste rites and rituals it leads to practices of secluding girls and women adopting dowry practices instead of bride-price.

Common Mistake:
Students often make a mistake and write about process of Sanskritisation in this type of question. However, here the consequences of Sanskritisation related to inequalities and discrimination are to be written.
Or
Social reformers played a significant role in upliftment of the women issues in Indian history. For example, issues related to practice of sati system, child marriage and widow remarriage were taken up by the reformers. Female education was promoted by the social reformers and new ideas of liberalism and freedom also brought new ideas of homemaking and marriage.

Jyotiba Phule the reformer opened the first school for women in Pune. Another reformer, Jahanara Shah at the All India Muslim Ladies Conference proposed a resolution against the evils of polygamy in Islam. Thus, social reformers tried to bring changes in the social practices that discriminated against women.

Question 31.
Discuss some of the features of the Zamindari system during British rule in India. (4)
Or
What were the major provisions of the Land Ceiling Act? Does the act have any loopholes ” in it’s implementation? Mention them. (  2  +  2  )
Answer:
The main features of the Zamindari system during British rule were as follows:

  1. Under the Zamindari system, an agreement was signed between the British officers and the Zamindars. Under this agreement, the Zamindars were provided with Zamindari rights of the land.
  2. Rajas and Taluqdars were recognised as zamindars and became responsible for collecting revenue from peasants and paying to the company. In addition to it, revenue demand was permanently fixed.
  3. This system was majorly considered to be exploitative in nature and the farmers, who were landless suffered at the hands of the zamindars that used to extort lot of money from these farmers.
  4. Zamindari system was introduced by Cornwallis in 1793 through the Permanent Settlement Act during the British rule in India. It was introduced in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Odisha and Varanasi. It is also known as ‘Permanent Settlement System’.

Or
The major provisions of the Land Ceiling Act were as follows:

  1. Land Ceiling Act imposed upper limit on the amount of land that can be owned by a particular family.
  2. Possession of surplus land (above the ceiling limit) held by each household, and redistribute it to landless families.
    There were many loopholes and other strategies through which most landowners were able to escape from having their surplus land taken over by the state. The loopholes found in the implementation of the Land Ceiling Act were as follows:
    • In most cases landowners managed to divide the land among relatives and others, including servants,
      in so-called benamic transfers.
    • In some places, some rich farmers actually divorced their wives (but continued to live with them) in order to avoid the provisions of Land Ceiling Act, which allowed a separate share for unmarried women but not for wives,

Question 32.
How does the ‘National development’ affect tribal communities in India? Justify your answer by giving examples. (4)
Answer:
National development severely affected the tribal communities in India through several development policies and projects. National development is referred to as the building of large dams, factories and mines across the country. As the tribal areas were located in mineral rich and forest covered parts of the country, tribal communities have paid a disproportionate price for the development of the rest of Indian society.

There are some examples which highlight how national development affected the tribal communities in India, which are as follows:

  1. National development in the post-independent era, focused on the building of large dams, factories and mines etc. As the tribal areas were rich in minerals, they paid a heavy price for the development activities, which benefitted the mainstream at the expense of the tribes.
  2. The idea of private property in land, also, adversely affected the tribes. Tribes which mostly had collective community based ownership were at a disadvantage in the new system. Example series of dams being built over the Narmada river.
  3. Many tribal regions have experienced heavy in-migration of non-tribals. This threatens to disrupt their cultures and communities. For example, Jharkhand and Tripura.

Question 33.
What was the opinion of Rabindranath Tagore on the evils of exclusive nationalism in context of Indian society? Explain. (4)
Answer:
The opinion of Rabindranath Tagore on the evils of exclusive nationalism in context of Indian society was deeply critical to western notion of nationalism. He holds that a nation is a political and economic union of people who are organised for mechanical purpose. He specifies nation as an end in itself and not a means to an end. He wrote his important literary work ‘On Nationalism’ which was first published in 1917.

He believed that India does not need to be insecure, and that it does not have to protect itself against any force from outside. He was not blind to accept and believe only in the nation’s heritage and past. He ‘ reciprocateci the western culture as he believed that it would also be helpful in India’s growth. In this writing, he aims to convince his audience that India’s many problems are social, rather than political.

In fact, he goes one stage further and states that the fundamental problems in all nations are social. Tagore’s perception of nationalism has mainly relied on ancient Indian philosophy, where the world was accepted as a single nest. In this way, Tagore was striving to dissociate himself from the general belief of nationalism and trying to associate it with ideas such as peace, harmony and welfare.

Question 34.
Explain an ecological movement with an example. (4)
Answer:
The ecological or environmental movement is a diverse scientific, social and a political movement for addressing environmental issues.

The Chipko Movement is an example of the ecological movement, started in the Himalayan foothills. When government forest contractors came to cut down the trees, villagers, including large number of women, stepped forward to hug the trees to prevent their being felled.

All of them relied on the forest to get firewood, fodder and other daily necessities. This conflict placed the livelihood needs of poor villagers against the government’s desire to generate revenues from selling timber. The economy of subsistence was pitted against , the economy of profit. Along with this issue of social inequality (villagers versus a government that represented commercial, capitalist interests), the Chipko Movement also raised the issue of ecological sustainability.

In addition, the Chipko Movement also expressed the resentment of hill villagers against a distant government headquartered in the plains that seemed indifferent and ; hostile to their concerns. So, concerns about economy, ecology and political representation underlay the Chipko ’ Movement.

Question 35.
The more mechanised an industry gets, the ; fewer people are employed. Explain with a I suitable example. (4)
Answer:
If Industries become more mechanised, automated, and 1 digitised, fewer people are required to perform the same amount of work. This can have a significant impact on employment levels and the labour market. One example of this can be seen in the manufacturing industry. With the advent of industrial automation and robotics, many factories and assembly lines have become highly automated. This means that machines and robots perform many of the tasks that were previously done by human workers.

For example, in car manufacturing plants, robots can be programmed to perform tasks such as welding, painting, and assembly, which were previously done by human workers. As a result, the number of workers required to operate a factory or assembly line has decreased significantly.

In some cases, entire production lines can be run with just a handful of workers overseeing the operation of the machines. While this has increased productivity and efficiency, it has also led to job losses in the , manufacturing sector.

Value Points:
For getting maximum marks, following value points can be included in the answer

  • Impact of mechanisation of industry on employment
  • Example of impact of mechanisation in manufacturing industry

Section D
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 36.
On the basis of the bar graph, answer the following questions.

(a) In absolute terms, what is the difference in urban Indian population between 1951 and 2011? (2)
(b) Urban areas have seen a greater growth in population than rural areas, although the rate of growth in urban areas remains nearly constant. State the main reason. (2)
(c) On the basis of bar graph, it shows a steady increase in rms of absolute numbers and the per cent share of the. urban population. State them. (2)
Answer:
(a) In absolute terms the difference in urban Indian population between 1951 and 2011 is between 250-350 million inhabitants. It can be seen from graph lived in urban areas.

(b) Urban areas have seen a greater growth in population than rural areas, although the rate of growth in urban areas remains nearly constant. The absolute increase in population is more in urban areas than in rural areas. This is due to a sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas, while the growth rate in urban areas remains almost the same.

(c) India’s urban population has been increasing since 1951 to 2011. In 1951, 62.44 million people were living in 2,843 towns. In 2011,377.10 million people were living in 7,935 towns. This shows a steady increase in terms of absolute numbers and the per cent share of the urban population.

Question 37.
“There were a large number of women’s organisations that arose both at the all India and local levels in the early twentieth century. And then began the participation of women in the national movement itself. In 1931, the Karachi Session of the Indian National Congress issued a declaration on the Fundamental Rights of Citizenship in India whereby it committed itself to women’s equality.”

(a) Highlight the important key features of the Karachi Declaration held in 1931 with regards to fundamental rights in India. (3)

(b) What was the resolution on National Economic Programme in Karachi session of INC? (3)
Answer:
(a) The Karachi Congress session which was held on 26th to 31st March, 1931 was chaired by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Some important key features of the Karachi Declaration held in 1931 with regards to fundamental rights in India were

  1. All citizens are equal before the law, irrespective of religion, caste, creed or sex.
  2. No disability attaches to any citizen, by reason of his or her religion, caste, creed or sex, in regard to public employment, office of power or honour, and in the exercise of any trade or calling.
  3. Woman shall have the right to vote, to represent and the right to hold public offices.
  4. The resolution on Fundamental Rights guaranteed several civil rights including free speech and free press, right to form associations, universal adult franchise.

(b) The Resolution on National Economic Programme included

  1. substantial reduction in rent and revenue in the case of landholders and peasants.
  2. exemption from rent for uneconomic holdings.
  3. relief from agricultural indebtedness.
  4. control of usury.
  5. better conditions of work including a living wage, limited hours of work and protection of women workers in the industrial sector.
  6. right to workers and peasants to form unions.
  7. state ownership and control of- key industries, mines and means of transport.

Question 38.
There are direct linkages between the situation of agricultural workers and then- lack of upward socio-economic mobility. Discuss with suitable example. (6)
Answer:

  1. The situation of agricultural workers in directly linked with their lack of upward socio-economic mobility because
  2. Indian rural society is totally dependent on agriculture. It is the only source of their livelihood. Unfortunately it is unevenly distributed, not organised and many people of ruralSociety are landless.
  3. Most of the people in villages are landless and for their livelihood they become agriculture workers. They are paid below the statutory minimum wages.

Their job is not regular and employment is insecure. Mostly these agriculture workers work on daily wages.

  1. The tenants also have lower income because they have to pay a large amount of production to the landowner.
  2. The ownership of land or its total area determines the position of the farmers upward or downward mobility in his socio-economic system. Therefore the agrarian society can be understood in terms of its class structure which is structured through Caste system.
  3. Indian rural society has patrilineal kinship system. According to legal system women are supposed to have an equal right of family property but actually it is simply on papers. Because of male dominance, they are deprived of their rights.


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