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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 3 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology with Solutions Set 3 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 3 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

  1. The question paper is divided into four sections.
  2. There are 38 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  3. Section A includes question No. 1-20. These are MCQ type questions. As per the question, there can be one answer.
  4. Section B includes question No.21-29. These are very short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  5. Section C includes question No. 30-35. They are short answer type questions carrying 4 marks each.
    Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
  6. Section D includes question No. 36-38. They are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words each. Question no. 36 is to be answered with the help of the given graphics.
  7. Question no. 37 is to be answered with the help of the given passage.

Section A
Section A consists of 20 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Land reforms are necessary not only to boost agricultural but also to eradicate poverty and bring social justice in rural areas.
Reason (R) The agrarian structure varies greatly across India and the progress of land reforms is also uneven across the states.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 2.
Which of the following statement is true regarding industrialisation? (1)
(a) Industrialisation has no relation with the phenomenon of urbanisation.
(b) Industrialisation based on the division of labour.
(c) Industrialisation had only positive consequences.
(d) Industrialisation removes gender based wage discrimination.
Answer:
(b) Industrialisation based on the division of labour.

Question 3.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) The Indian census is the largest such exercise in the world.
Reason (R) China, which has a slightly larger population, does not conduct regular censuses.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
Which of the following is/are characteristics of the organised sector? (1)
(a) They have proper rules and regulations.
(b) Modes of payment are transparent.
(c) Employees cannot be removed from office without prior notice.
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 5.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) The socialisation process involves a continuous dialogue, negotiation and even struggle against significant others like our parents, family, kin group and our community.
Reason (R) Our community provides us the language (our mother tongue) and the cultural values through which we comprehend the world.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 6.
The hierarchical ordering of castes is based on the distinction between (1)
(a) occupation and status
(b) religion and rituals
(c) norms and authority
(d) purity and pollution
Answer:
(d) purity and pollution

Question 7.
Which of the following is not a correct statement about the term jati? (1)
(a) It is a long clarification that varies from region to religion.
(b) It has a segmental organisation.
(c) Membership of Jati involve rules about food and sharing.
(d) It is an all India aggregative classification.
Answer:
(d) It is an all India aggregative classification.

Question 8.
Acco rding to the sociology, inequalities between men and women are not but (1)
(a) natural, social
(b) social, natural
(c) desirable, undesirable
(d) economic, racial
Answer:
(b) social, natural

Question 9.
Which of the following is/are characteristics of the organised sector? (1)
(a) They have proper rules and regulations.
(b) Modes of payment are transparent.
(c) Employees cannot be removed from office without prior notice.
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 10.
‘The kind of agriculture where peasants primarily produce for themselves and are unable to produce for the market’ Which type of agriculture is defined in the above statement? (1)
(a) Subsistence agriculture
(b) Contract farming
(c) Bondage agriculture
(d) Surplus agriculture
Answer:
(a) Subsistence agriculture

Question 11.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and
Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)
Assertion (A) Social mobility is the movement of individuals or groups from one social stratum to another.
Reason (R) The degree to which systems of stratification are open or closed depends on the extent of social mobility.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Question 12.
The agrarian structure varies greatly across India and the progress of …… is also uneven across the states. (1)
(a) zamindari system
(b) agrarian laws
(c) land reforms
(d) land ceiling
Answer:
(c) land reforms

Question 13.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Employment by the government was a major avenue for increasing the well bieing of the population, but now even that is coming down.
Reason (R) Those who do have regular salaried jobs are becoming more precarious as contract labour becomes more prevalent.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 14.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)
Assertion (A) Green Revolution was a time in which agricultural production increased significantly as a result of new inventions. Reason (R) New technology, seeds and fertilisers were used during Green Revolution.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the’ correct explanation of (A)

Question 15.
Which one of the following statements is correct about Jyotirao Phule and Bal Gangadhar Tilak? (1)
(a) Jyotirao Phule supported the glory of Aryan period while Bal Gangadhar Tilak recalled the glory of pre-Aryan age.
(b) Jyotirao Phule recalled the glory of pre-Aryan age while Bal Gangadhar Tilak supported the glory of Aryan period.
(c) Jyotirao Phule supported the glory of pre-Aryan period while Bal Gangadhar Tilak recalled the glory of pre-Aryan age.
(d) Jyotirao Phule recalled the glory of Aryan age while Bal Gangadhar Tilak supported the glory of Aryan period.
Answer:
(b) Jyotirao Phule recalled the glory of pre-Aryan age while Bal Gangadhar Tilak supported the glory of Aryan period.

Question 16.
Patterns of unequal access to social resources are commonly called (1)
(a) social injustice
(b) social discrimination
(c) social inequality
(d) social change
Answer:
(c) social inequality

Question 17.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Ritually highest caste the Brahmins were subordinated to the secular power of kings and ruler belonging to the Kshatriya caste.
Reason (R) In strict scripture terms, Brahmins were not supposed to a mans wealth.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 18.
In India, censuses began to be conducted by the British Indian government between and regular ten yearly (or decennial) censuses have been conducted since (1)
(a) 1867-72, 1881
(b) 1893-97, 1899
(c) 1903-05, 1911
(d) 1919-24, 1931
Answer:
(a) 1867-72,1881

Question 19.
Sociologist ……… elaborates upon the modern context by sketching three aspects to the modem framework of change in colonial India: modes of communication, forms of organisation and the nature of ideas. New technologies have speeded up various forms of communication. (1)
(a) Satish Saberwal
(b) Max Weber
(c) Raja Ram Mohun Roy
(d) Jyotiba Phule
Answer:
(a) Satish Saberwal

Question 20.
Which of the following are the essential elements in creating social movements? (1)
(a) Identity politics
(b) Aspirations
(c) Cultural anxieties
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Section B
Section B consists of 9 questions of 2 marks each

Question 21.
Based on the given passage, answer the fpllowing questions.
Theoretically, the caste system can be understood as the combination of two sets of principles, one based on difference and separation and the other on wholism and hierarchy. Each caste is supposed to be different from and is therefore strictly separated from every other caste. Briefly explain about the ideas of separation and hierarchy in such classification of caste system? (2)
Or
India Independence in 1947 marked a big, but ultimately only partial break with the colonial past. Caste considerations had inevitably played a role in the mass mobilisations of the nationalist movement. The institution of caste underwent major changes from colonial times to the present day. Explain. (2)
Answer:
The idea of separation and hierarchy has inculcated discrimination, inequality and prejudices in Indian society. Caste hierarchy means a class structure that is determined by the birth. Under this caste hierarchy, some castes are placed at the top and some are at the bottom.
Or
Major social institutions of caste underwent major changes during the colonial period. Some of the changes in caste system are as follows:

  1. The study of the social hierarchies and the discriminatory pattern was done exclusively by British scholars to govern India.
  2. By the end of colonial period, the administration took a new shape in the welfare of the caste referred, as ‘Depressed Class’ of its time.

Question 22.
What do you mean by formal demography? How it is different from social demography? (2)
Answer:
Formal demography is mainly concerned with measurements. It is concerned with things like birth, death, emigration, marriage, divorce, etc. whereas social demography focuses on the social, economic and political aspects of the population. The main function of formal demography is measuring the components of population change whereas social demography study the reasons for changes in population and its structure and their result.

Question 23.
In what ways agriculture and culture are linked. (2)
Answer:
Agriculture and culture are linked as there are many cultural practices and patterns that are traced to the agrarian background of India. Baisakhi is one such example, whereby our cultural aspects have been shaped because of the fact that India was essentially a land of agricultural people.

Question 24.
Give the examples of some works which are performed in homes. What is their economic importance? (2)
Answer:
Some examples of works performed in homes are manufacture of lace, zarl or brocade, carpets, bidis, agarbattis and many such product.Home workers are paid on a piece rate basis, depending on the number of pieces they make.

Question 25.
What is the meaning of contract farming? (2)
Answer:
Contract farming means an agriculture production that is carried out based in an agreement between (companies) buyer and farmer. In this type of farming, the company identifies the crops to be grown, provides seeds and other inputs as well as knowhow and also working capital. In return the farmer is assured of a market because the company guarantees that it will purchase a produce at a predetermined fixed price.

Question 26.
What was the contribution of Raja Ram Mohun Roy in the social reform of India? (2)
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohun Roy also known as the ‘Father of the Indian Renaissance.’ He is widely known for his role in the abolition of sati. He also propagated Western education among IndiAnswer: He campaigned for rights for women, including the right for widows to remarry and the right for women to hold property. He stressed on rationalism and modern scientific approach. He also make efforts against the caste system, untouchabilities and use of intoxicants.

Question 27.
According to Bourdieu, ‘in every society some people have a greater share of valued resources money property education, health and power than others. These social resources can be divided into different forms of capital.Briefly explain these forms of capital. (2)
Answer:
According to Pierre Bourdieu, social resources can be divided into three forms of capital i.e. economic capital, cultural capital and social capital. Economic capital refers to material assets in the form of property rights while social capital refers to a property of the individual, rather than the collective, derived primarily from one’s social position and status. Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital refers to the collection of symbolic elements such as skills, tastes, posture, clothing, mannerisms, material belongings, credentials, etc.

Question 28.
Define the term ‘minority’ and state one reason why does minorities need protection from the state ? ( 1 + 1)
Answer:
In Sociology, a minority group refers to a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group. Minorities need protection from government because of demographic dominance of majority as it attains political power in democratic pattern of election.

Question 29.
Green Revolution was initiated in 1960s and 1970s mainly in the areas having assured irrigation as the new seeds and methods of cultivation needed sufficient amount of water. It was mainly targeted at the wheat and rice growing areas. Mention any two positive consequences about the first phase of Green Revolution in India. (2)
Or
What are the two negative social effect of Green Revolution? (2)
Answer:
Green Revolution of 1960s and 1970s brought many positive consequences to Indian farmers and agriculture during the first phase. These were:

  1. There was a sharp increase in the agricultural productivity due to introduction of new technology.
  2. For the first time, India gained self-sufficiency in food grain production.

Or
The Green Revolution was a government programme of agricultural modernisation that began in 1960s.
The negative consequences of green revolution were:

  1. It led to increased inequality in the rural society as rich grew richer and poor grew poorer.
  2. It also increased the regional differences as some regions developed more than the others.

Section C
Section C consists of 6 questions of 4 marks each

Question 30.
Why are the New Farmer’s Movement termed as New Social Movement? (4)
Or
What are the different forms of collective actions used in Social Movements? Support your answer with some examples. (4)
Answer:
The New Farmer’s Movements began in the 1970s in Punjab and Tamil Nadu. These movements were regionally organised and involved farmers rather than peasants. New Farmer’s Movements also termed as ’New Social Movements’ as it also focused on social environment and women’s issues. The basic ideology of the
movement was strongly anti-state and anti-urban. The focus of demand were price and related issues. For example price, procurement, remunerative prices, prices for agricultural inputs, taxation, non-repayment of loans, etc.
Or
The different forms of collective actions used in social movements are as follows:

  1. Protest is the most visible form of collective action.
  2. Social movement activists hold meetings to mobilise people. Such activities help develop a shared understanding, and also prepare for a feeling of agreement or consensus about how to pursue the collective agenda.
  3. Social movements also chart out campaigns that include lobbying with the government, media and other important makers of public opinion.
  4. There are also distinct modes of protest. This could be candle and torch light processions, use of black cloth, street theatres, songs, poetry. For instance, Gandhiji adopted novel ways such as Ahimsa, Satyagraha and the use of the charkha in the freedom movement.

Question 31.
In what ways can changes in social structure lead to changes in the family structure? (4)
Or
Why are states often suspicious of cultural diversity? Explain. (4)
Answer:
The changes in social structure can lead to changes in the family structure because a family is linked to the economic, political, social and cultural aspects of the nation. The structure of the family can be studied both as a social institution in itself and also in its relationship to other social institutions of society. The internal structure of the family is usually related to other structures of society, namely political, economic, cultural, etc. It is to be noted here that families have different structures and these structures change.

Sometimes, these changes occur accidentally, as in cases of a war or migration. Sometimes these changes are purposely brought about as when young people decide to choose their life partner instead of letting elders decide or same sex love or marriage is done openly in society. It is evident from these kinds of changes that due to changes in cultural ideas, norms and.values would affect the family structures.
Or
States are often suspicious of cultural diversity because they find it as a threat to state unity. They try to establish and enhance the political legitimacy by nation building strategies. Its aim is to secure the loyalty and obedience of their citizens through the policies of integration or assimilation. Some of the major challenges posed by Cultural diversity are casteism, gender bias, communal riots, demands for autonomy, demands for secession, etc. These challenges are a threat to the unity of the country.

Among the most noticeable disadvantages of cultural diversity include language barriers, social tension and civic disengagement. This is because most states have generally been suspicious of cultural diversity and have tried to reduce or eliminate it. The states fear that the recognition of varied culturally diverse identities such as language, ethnicity and religion will lead to social fragmentation and prevent the creation of a harmonious society.

Question 32.
Gender division is not based on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes’. Support the statement. ( 1 + 3 )
Answer:
Gender division or discrimination is the differential treatment of males and females in our society. Some examples of gender division due to social expectations and stereotypes are
1. Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is house work and bringing up children. There is sexual division of labour in most families where women stay at home and men work outside to play the role of breadwinners.

2. Literacy rate among women is only 54% in comparison to 76% among men. In studies, girls mostly perform better than boys, but they drop out simply because parents prefer to spend their resources on their sons’ education.

3. On an average, a woman works more than an average man everyday. Since much of her work is not paid for, therefore often not valued. The Equal Wages Act provides for equal wages for equal work, but in almost all areas of work from sports to cinema, from factories to fields, women are comparatively paid less because of the male chauvinistic mind of society. For getting maximum marks, following value points can be included in the answer . Meaning of gender division Examples of gender division

Question 33.
Tribal have paid a disproportionate price for the development of the rest of the Indian society. Explain. (4)
Answer:
Dispossessing tribal of their land resulted as a necessary by product of the exploitation of minerals and utilisation of favorable sites for setting up hydroelectric power plants in Tribal areas. Loss of forests was a major blow to the tribal communities. The coming in of private property adversely affected the tribal community based forms of collective ownership.

Forests were systematically exploited in British times and continued after Independence. This kind of development benefitted the mainstream at the expense of the Tribes series of Dams built on Narmada where most of the costs and benefits seem to flow disproportionately to different communities and regions. Tribal community regions started experiencing problem of heavy in migration of non-tribals due to pressure of development. This threatens to disrupt and overwhelm tribal communities and cultures besides accelerating exploitation.

Question 34.
Why Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanistion as a danger to employment? (4)
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi was a strong advocate for traditional, labour-intensive forms of production, and he saw mechanisation as a threat to employment and the welfare of the workers. Gandhi believed that the use of machines in industries would lead to a concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a few, while the majority of the workers would be left unemployed and impoverished.

One of the key reasons Gandhi was against mechanisation was that he saw it as a way to expioit workers by taking away their jobs and replacing them with machines. Gandhi believed that labour-intensive production methods were more equitable and sustainable, as they provided employment for a larger number of people and ensured that the benefits of production were more widely distributed.

Furthermore, Gandhi argued that mechanisation was harmful to the environment and promoted a culture of waste and consumerism. He belived that a society based on traditional, labour-intensive forms of production would be more sustainable and promote a simpler way of life that was in harmony with nature.

Question 35.
Land ceiling act proved to be toothless in most of the state. Give reasons. (4)
Answer:
Land Ceiling acts is one of the land reforms law started after india got Independence.These laws imposed an upper limit on the amount of land that can be owned by a particular family. The ceiling varies from region to region, depending on the kind of land, its productivity, and other such factors.

Very productive land has a low ceiling while unproductive dry land has a higher ceiling limit. According to these acts, the state , is supposed to identify and take possession of surplus land (above the ceiling limit) held by each household, and redistribute it to landless families and households in other specified categories, such as SCs and STs.

There were many faults in the land ceiling act that helped many landowners to escape from having their surplus land taken over by the state. Some very large estates were broken up. In most cases landowners managed to divide the land among relatives and others, including servants, in so-called ‘benami transfers’ which allowed them to keep control over the land (in fact if not in name).

In some places, some rich farmers actually divorced their wives (but continued to live with them) in order to avoid the provisions of the Land Ceiling Act, which allowed a separate share for unmarried women but not for wives.

Volve points
For getting maximum marks, following value points can be included in the answer

  • Description of land ceiling act
  • Faults in land ceiling act

Section D
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 36.
Analyse the following pie-chart and answer the following pie-chart and answer the following questions.

(a) What do you understand by home based work? (2)
(b) The above pie chart shows how the value of the finished bidi is distributed. Who gets what amount and why? (2)
(c) How do bidis get their identity? (2)
Answer:
(a) Home based work are the work that you can do from home. Home based work includes lace, zari or brocade, carpets, bidis, agarbattis and a variety of other items. Women and children are primarily . responsible for this work. Home based work Is also
known by various other names, such as work from home jobs, work at home jobs, telecommuting jobs, remote jobs, and virtual jobs, etc.

(b) The value is distributed between the inputs, bidi workers, contractors, manufacturers and distributors. The manufacturer gets the maximum amount because of the image of the brand. The others get significantly lower value with the distributors getting the least value.

(c) Bidis are made in forested villages. Villagers pluck tendu leaves and sell them to the forest department. These leaves are auctioned to bidi factory owners, who send them to a contractor. The contract ultimately gets the bidi roiled from the home based workers, mostly women. After collecting these rolled bidis, the contractor gives his own name to these bidis and sells them.

Question 37.
Based on the given passage, answer the following questions. “Social exclusion is involuntary that is, exclusion is practiced regardless of the wishes of those who are excluded. For example, rich people are never found sleeping on the pavements or under bridges like thousands of homeless poor people in cities and towns. This does not mean that the rich are being ‘excluded’ from access to pavements and park benches, because they could certainly gain access if they wanted to, but they choose not to.”
(a) What are the elements of social, exclusion? (3)
(b) Elaborate the concept of ‘social exclusion in context of Indian societies. (3)
Answer:
(a) The elements of social exclusion are

  1. Exclusion from social participation Restricted access to infrastructure, services and amenities, consumption social services, social securitiy and protection, public safety, social cohesion and social relation.
  2. Exclusion from economy Restricted access to labour markets factors of production such as land or tools and from a wide range of liveliwood opportunities.
  3. Exclusion from politics Restricted access to organisation, consultation, decision making and the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

(b) Social exclusion is the process in which individuals are blocked from various rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of a different group, and which are fundamental to social integration and observance of human rights within that particular group.

The outcome of social exclusion is that affected individuals or communities are prevented from participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live.

For example, ‘upper’ caste Hindu communities have often denied entry into temples for the ‘lower’ castes and specially the Dalits. After decades of such treatment, the Dalits may build their own temple, or convert to another religion like Buddhism, Christianity or Islam. After they do this, they may no longer desire to be included in the Hindu temple or religious events. But this does not mean that social exclusion is not being practiced.

Question 38.
Explain the Dalit movement as a caste based movement in India. (6)
Answer:
The Dalit Movement is believed to be a struggle for recognition as fellow human beings. It is a struggle for self-confidence and a space for self-determination. It is a struggle for abolishment of stigmatisation, that untouchability implied. It has been called a struggle to be touched.

Dalit refers to those who have been broken, ground down by those above them in a deliberate way. The nature of Dalit movements and the meaning of identity, there has been a common quest for equality, self-dignity and eradication of untouchability.

Dalit movement is an organised collective action of groups or lowers caste people against the upper-class people and their thought process on Brahamical thoughts to maintain an aura of empowerment and equality in the Indian society. It was a socially based movement aiming at replacing the age-old hierarchical Indian culture with democratic values of liberty, equal treatment, social justice, etc started very earlier, grew serious in the year 1970, and is now gaining traction.

Dalit literature, the literature produced by the Dalit consciousness, emerged initially during the Mukti movement. The Mukti movement was led by very poor Dalits who fought against the saint – poets of the time. These literature argued that Dalit Movement fights not only against the Brahmins, but all those people whoever practices exploitation, and those can be the Brahmins or even the Dalits themselves. New revolutionary songs, poems, stories, autobiographies were written by Dalit writers.


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