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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 2 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology with Solutions Set 2 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 2 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

  1. The question paper is divided into four sections.
  2. There are 38 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  3. Section A includes question No. 1-20. These are MCQ type questions. As per the question, there can be one answer.
  4. Section B includes question No.21-29. These are very short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  5. Section C includes question No. 30-35. They are short answer type questions carrying 4 marks each.
    Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
  6. Section D includes question No. 36-38. They are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words each. Question no. 36 is to be answered with the help of the given graphics.
  7. Question no. 37 is to be answered with the help of the given passage.

Section A
Section A consists of 20 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)
Assertion (A) In pre-Independence India, backward classes movement was never strong enough to affect the whole country. Reason (R) The various backward classes had serious internal differences and could never work together.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 2.
‘Human populations tend to grow at a much faster rate than the rate at which the means of human subsistence can grow. Therefore, humanity is condemned to live in poverty forever because the growth of agricultural production will always be overtaken by population growth. Which among the following said the above mentioned statement? (1)
(a) Thomas Robert Malthus
(b) Dudley Kirk
(c) Emile Durkheim
(d) Max Weber
Answer:
(a) Thomas Robert Malthus

Question 3.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Protests by Scheduled castes against the practice of untouchability and atrocities have increased.
Reason (R) Their action have stirred the government machinery to enforce law and order strictly.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Question 4.
The sociologist and social anthropologists was known for his works on the caste system and terms such as ‘Sanskritisation’ and ‘dominant caste’. (1)
(a) Mahatma Jyotiba Phule
(b) Narasimhachar Srinivas
(c) E.V. Ramaswamy Naickar
(d) Sri Narayana Guru
Answer:
(b) Narasimhachar Srinivas

Question 5.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Traditionally, a lower caste adopted the life style of the dominant caste in the process of Sanskritisation.
Reason (R) Adaption of the life style of the dominant caste usually symbolised a caste of upward mobility within the caste system.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 6.
Which among the following sentences is not correct about the social inequality and exclusion? (1)
(a) Social inequality and exclusion are social because they are not about individuals but about groups.
(b) They are social in the sense that they are not economic, although there is usually a strong link between social and economic inequality.
(c) Social inequalities are systematic and structured, while exclusion is a definite pattern to social inequalities.
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(d) None of the above

Question 7.
Which of the following is the major issue that challenges the diversity of India? (1)
(a) Regionalism
(b) Communalism
(c) Casteism
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 8.
An industry defined by the investment of capital mode into it is known as …… (1)
(a) large scale industry
(b) medium scale industry
(c) small scale industry
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 9.
The most infamous pandemic was ‘Spanish Flu’ which affected large parts of the world population and is thought to have killed at least 40 million people in …….. (1)
(a) 1874-75
(b) 1893-94
(c) 1918-19
(d) 1931-32
Answer:
(c) 1918-19

Question 10.
One kind of refers to the emergence of a Westernised sub-cultural pattern through a minority section of Indians, who first came in contact with Western culture. (1)
(a) Westernisation
(b) Development
(c) Sanskritisation
(d) Culture
Answer:
(a) Westernisation

Question 11.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) There is a close connection between agriculture and culture.
Reason (R) Both the culture and social structure in rural India are closely bound up with agricultural and the agrarian way of life.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 12.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) According to Census of India 2011, still more people are living in rural areas, but the population of urban areas has incrjeased.
Reason (R) About 68.8% population lives in rural areas and 31.2% people live in urban areas.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but R is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 13.
The emergence of machine production based on the inanimte power resources like steam and electricity is known as ……..(1)
(a) Globalisation
(b) Industrialisation
(c) Capitalism
(d) Colonialism
Answer:
(b) Industrialisation

Question 14.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)

Assestion (A) Due to liberalisation foreign products are now easily available in Indian markets and shops.
Reason (R) Many Indian companies have been taken over by multinationals.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and R is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) Eire true, but R is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true ostagei Foundation Level
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 15.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)
Reason (R) Social changes occur over time and often have prefound and long term consequence for society.
Assertion (A) Social changes as changes in human interactions and relationships that transform cultural and social institution.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 16.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R) Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1)
“Life chances are affected by number of factors. Some of which include income, social class and occupational prestige. These factors affect the availability of resources to an individual.”

Assertion (A) Life styles determines life chances.
Reason (R) The class position of the individuals enhances or diminishes his life ’ chances.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 17.
Along with language …….. have provided the most powerful instrument for the formation of ethnonational identity in India.
(a) region, religion
(b) regional, tribal identity
(c) religion, class
(d) class, gender
Answer:
(b) regional, tribal identity

Question 18.
The rapid growth in shows that the town or city has been acting as a magnet for the rural population. (1)
(a) Modernisation
(b) Urbanisation
(c) Sankritisation
(d) Westernisation
Answer:
(b) Urbanisation

Question 19.
Unequal access to social resources is commonly called …….. (1)
(a) social inequality
(b) social plurality
(c) social stratification
(d) social struggle
Answer:
(a) social inequality

Question 20.
“A nation is a peculiar community that is easy to describe but hard to define.” (1)
Which of the following is a correct statement about nation?
(a) It is a body that claims monopoly of legitimate force.
(b) It is a political-legal institution.
(c) Its ultimate source of legitimacy are the people who constitute it.
(d) It claims control over a geographical territory.
Answer:
(c) Its ultimate source of legitimacy are the people who constitute it.

Section B
Section B consists of 9 questions of 2 marks each

Question 21.
Based on the given passage answer the following question. (2)
The Jajmani system in India was a caste -based system meant to cater to rural India, where people professed hereditary occupations. Since the majority of the rural community was poor, they were totally, at the mercy of their rich land-lords who patronised them by giving their daily necessities, and the rural poor returned their gratitude to their masters by serving them for life, generation after generation. Being a small homogenous society, where ” the majority were poor, relationships were reciprocal, and though they were always at the receiving end, they always remained thankful to their benefactors.
What according to you is the Jajmani System? (2)
Or
Assertions of tribal identity are on the rise. This can be laid at the door of the emergence of a middle class within the tribal society. With the emergence of this class in particular, issues of culture, tradition, livelihood, even control over land and resources, as well as demands for a share in the benefits of the projects of modernity, have become an integral part of the articulation of identity among the tribes.

There is, therefore, a new consciousness among tribes now, coming from its middle classes. The middle classes themselves are a consequence of modern education and modem occupations.
What gave rise to a middle class among the tribes? (2)
Answer:
The Jajmani system or Yajman system was an economic system found in villages of the Indian subcontinent in which lower castes performed various functions for upper castes and received grain or other goods in return. It was an occupational division of labour involving a system of role relationships that enabled villages to be mostly self sufficient.
Or
Middle class is marked by its capacity to read, analyse and think critically and analytically. The tribal middle classes are a consequence of modern education and modern occupations, aided in turn by the reservation policies.

Question 22.
What changes did colonialism bring about in the caste system? (2)
Answer:
Changes that colonialisation brought in the caste system were:

  1. The British government conducted decennial census from 1881 onwards, in which caste based data were collected separately.
  2. Upper castes were given preference in the land revenue settlements and related arrangements under British government.
  3. The Government of India Act 1935, was passed to give legal recognition to the schedules of castes and tribs marked out for special treatment by the state.

Question 23.
Explain the transformation in rural society after independence. (2)
Answer:
Several profound transformations in the nature of social relations in rural areas took place in the post-Independence period. These included:

  1. An increase in the use of agricultural labour as cultivation became more intensive,
  2. A shift from payment in kind (grain) to payment in cash,
  3. A loosening of traditional bonds or hereditary relationships between farmers or land owners and agricultural workers (known as bonded labour), and the rise of a class of ‘free wage labourers’.

Question 24.
How is Sanskritisation related with social change? (2)
Answer:
Sanskritisation is a process in which the lower castes adopt the cultural patterns of the higher castes, to raise their status in the caste hierarchical order. The social aspect of sanskritisation is much more important from the view point of change. The low caste individuals are inclined towards sanskritisation because in that way they can elevate their social status and get higher status in caste hierarchy.

Question 25.
Explain the importance of Community identity. (2)
Answer:
Community identity means to which community one belongs to. It is based on birth and belonging and has nothing to do with acquired qualifications and accomplishments. It is based on what we are than have what we have become. Such identities are called ‘ascriptive’, which means they are acquired by birth and can’t be chosen. Community identity provides sense of security and satisfaction to people despite of the fact that it is accidental and not chosen or planned.

Question 26.
What do you understand by disinvestment? (2)
Answer:
Disinvestment is when governments or organisations sell or liquidate assets or subsidiaries. Disinvestments can take the form of divestment or a reduction of capital expenditures (CapEx), Disinvestment is carried out for a variety of reasons, such as strategic, political, or environmental. Many government workers are scared that after disinvestment, they will lose their jobs.

Question 27.
Define the term Informal/Unorganised sector with reference to India. (2)
Answer:
The term unorganised or informal sector consists of small and scattered units that needs not to be registered with the government.It is the sector where employees may not to get proper salaries or wages, pension and other social security benefits. In India, over 90% of the work force comes from unorganised or informal sector.

Question 28.
Briefly explain the theory of Resource Mobilisation in context of Social movement.(2)
Answer:
The Resource Mobilisation theory asserts that social movements form when people who share grievances are able to mobilise resources and take action .This theory places resources at the center of both the emergence and success of social movements.In this case, resources include knowledge, money, media, labor, solidarity, legitimacy, and internal and external support from a powerful elite.

Question 29.
Commercialisation of agriculture means the production of crops for sale in the market rather than for self-consumption. It began during British rule. This brought a change in home consumption to cultivation for the market. Revolutionary changes had occurred in the agrarian property relations towards the end of the 18th century. The commercialisation of Indian agriculture started post 1813 when the industrial revolution in England gained pace. Feminisation of agriculture labour refers to the process of increasing the participation of women in the agricultural labour force. The increasing migration of rural men has led to the feminisation of the agriculture sector, with the participation of women in agriculture and allied activities becoming more significant. Read the Passage and give the major consequences of commercialistion of agriculture in india. (2)
Or
What is the feminisation of the agricultural labour force? (2)
Answer:
The major consequences of commercialisation of agriculture in India are as follows

  1. The commercialisation of agriculture was beneficial to the British planters, traders and manufacturers, who
    were provided with opportunity to make huge profits by getting the commercialised agricultural products at throw away prices.
  2. Indian money lenders provides, cash advances to the farmers to cultivate the commercial crops and if the peasants failed to pay them back in time, the land of peasants came under ownership of money lenders.
  3. Commercialisation of agriculture did not encourage growth of land market because major profit of commercialisation went to company traders and mediators.
  4. Commercialisation effected traditional relations between agriculture and industry. In India, traditional relations acted as factors for each other’s development which were hampered.

Or
The term ‘feminisation of agriculture’ refers to increasing participation of women in agricultural activities. It can be interpreted in the following ways An increase in the percentages of woman who are economically active in agricultural sector either as self employed or as agriculture wage workers or unremunerated family workers.

An increase in the percentage of woman in the agricultural labour force relative to men, either because mere. Women are working or because fewer men are working in agriculture.

Value Points:
For getting maximum marks, following value points can be included in the answer

  • Importance of female labour force in India.
  • Importance of female contribution in GDP growth

Section C
Section C consists of 6 questions of 4 marks each

Question 30.
Explain three different ways in which the Indian economy changed after the advent of colonialism. (4)
Or
In what ways colonialism has brought about a social, economic and political influence on Indian society to promote urbanisation? (4)
Answer:
There are three different ways in which the Indian economy changed after the advent of colonialism. These are as follows De-industrialisation British industrialisation led to de-industrialisation of Indian industries in some sectors of Indian economy. Traditional exports of cotton and silk products manufactured from India witnessed decline severely. Besides, huge import of cheap European manufactured goods destroyed the village industries.

Decline of Urban Centres Many urban centres declined in India due to coming of the Britishers. The cities like Surat and Masulipatnam were declined. Towns like Thanjavur, Dhaka and Murshidabad lost their courts and as a result, they also lost their artisans and court nobility. Emergence of New Cities The Britishers favoured the coastal cities of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in order to fulfill their colonial interests. They made these cities as centres to export the primary goods and import the manufactured goods. These cities became the centre of trade, commerce and capitalism.
Or
British colonialism brought changes in almost all the spheres of Indian society. It also promoted urbanisation in India through social, economic and political influence in following ways
Economic Colonial cities developed by Britishers, especially the coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai facilitated the process of urbanisation in India. These cities became the centre of trade and commercial activities.

Social Colonialism led to introduction of English language in India. English continues to be a mark of privilege and a means to better opportunities and jobs. It also changed the whole spectrum in day to day life particularly in the urban society. There was also large scale migration of government employees and professionals like doctors and lawyers to various parts of the country. It carried with it new ideas and ways of life.

Political Our political system, legal system and police system are based on British model. These new systems gave new shape to traditional policy and laws. They also created new professionals mainly in towns and cities to enforce new laws and political ideas.

Question 31.
Explain the term social exclusion. Analyse the different dimensions of untouchability. ( 2 + 2 )
Or
What are backward classes? Explain backward class movements in India. (2+2)
Answer:
Social exclusion is the outcome of deprivation and discrimination, which present individuals or groups
from participating fully in the economic, social and political life of the society in which they live. Social exclusion is structural i.e. the result of social processes and institutions rather than individuals action, ‘untouchability’ also involves forced inclusion in a subordinate role which means compelling to do some sort of work.

There are three main dimensions of untouchability namely exclusion, humiliation and exploitation. Dalits experience forms of exclusion that are unique and not practised against other groups for instance, being prohibited from sharing drinking water sources or participating in collective religious worship, social ceremonies and festivals. Finally, untouchability is related whole to India, although it’s specific forms and intensity vary considerably across regions and socio historical context.
Or
Backward class people is a collective term used by the government of India, for castes which are economically and socially disadvantaged and face or may have faced discrimination on account of birth. According to Article 340 of the Indian Constitution, President shall establish a commission to examine the conditions for improvement of social and backward classes.

Backward classes movement meant ‘the Non-Brahmin movement’ in its earlier stage. The Notion-Brahmin movement had two objectives, first, demanding the approval of supplementary concessions and privileges (which would cause discrimination against the Brahmins) to surpass Brahmins in education and social position and secondly, achieving self-respect. For example, Self-respect movement in Tamil Nadu had been started by EV Ramaswamy Naicker. This movement was against Brahmin, North, Hindi, Sanskrit and Anti-God.

Question 32.
Explain some of the policies designed to address caste inequality in context of contemporary India. (4)
Answer:
Some of the policies designed to address caste inequality in context of contemporary India are

  1. Schedules listing the castes and tribes recognised as deserving of special treatment were drawn in 1935 by the British government.
  2. Constitution Amendment (93rd Amendment) Act of 2005, for introducing reservation for OBCs in institution of higher education.
  3. Scheduled casts and scheduled tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989, to abolish untouchability and introduced reservation provisions.
  4. 1989 Prevention of Atrocities Act, revised and strengthened the legal provisions against Dailt and
    Adivasis.

Question 33.
Modernisation and secularisation are a part of a set of modem ideas. How are the two processes linked? (4)
Answer:
Modernisation and secularisation are closely linked as both are part of set of modern ideas. Modernisation refers to as improvement in technology whereas secularisation means wider acceptance of all religion. It has been assumed that modern societies have become increasing secular.

In short, modernisation involve a process of secularisation, it systematically challenges religious institutions belief and practices. Modernisation often leads to changes in attitudes towards religion and celebration of festivals, change in ceremonies, taboos and sacrifices.

Question 34.
Who was MN Srinivas? Define the meaning of ‘Sanskritisation’ and ‘Dominant Caste’ in context of Indian societies. ( 1 + 3 )
Answer:
Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas was one of India’s foremost sociologists and social anthropologists. He was known for his works on the caste system and terms such as ‘sanskritisation’ and ‘dominant caste’. ‘Sanskritisation’ refers to a process whereby members of a (usually middle or lower) caste attempt to raise their own social status by adopting the ritual, domestic and social practices of a caste (or castes) of higher status.

‘Dominant caste’ is a term used to refer to those castes which had a large population and were granted land rights by the partial land reforms affected after Independence. The land reforms took away rights from the erstwhile claimants, the upper castes who were ‘absentee landlords’ in the sense that they played no part in the agricultural economy other than claiming their rent.

Question 35.
The Industrial society is characterised by alienation. How? (4)
Answer: The Industrial society is characterised by alienation, which refers to the sense of disconnection and separation that individuals feel from their work, from each other, and from society as a whole. There are several ways in which this alienation manifests itself in the industrial society.

Alienation from work In the industrial society, work is often highly specialised, repetitive, and dehumanising. Workers may have little control over their work and may feel disconnected from the final product. As a result, workers may experience a sense of meaninglessness and lack of fulfillment in their work, leading to alienation.

Alienation from others In the industrial society, social relationships may be characterised by impersonal interactions and competition rather than cooperation. Workers may be pitted against each other in a race to achieve productivity targets, and may have little time or opportunity to connect with each other on a personal level.

Alienation from nature In the Industrial society, there may be a sense of disconnection and separation from the natural world. Workers may spend long hours indoors, and the processes of production may be environmentally destructive, leading to a sense of alienation from the natural world. Alienation from self In the Industrial society, individuals may feel disconnected from their own sense of identity and purpose. The emphasis on productivity and efficiency may leave little room for personal growth or self-discovery, leading to a sense of disorientation and alienation from oneself.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 36.
Study the diagram given below and answer the following questions. (6)

(a) ‘Define the term primary, secondary’ and tertiary sectors. (2)
(b) According to 2018-2019, how many people were employed in the primary’, secondary and tertiary’ sectors? (2)
(c) In the year 2018-19, how many percent of workers were enrolled in self-employment and casual wage labour? (2)
Answer:
(a) The primary sector of the economy includes any industry involved in the extraction and production of raw materials, such as farming, logging, fishing, forestry and mining.The secondary sector of the economy includes the industries where finished products are made from naturai materials produced in the primary sector. The tertiary sector of the economy, is also known as the service sector. This sector’s activities help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors.

(b) In India, in 2018-19, nearly 43% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities) and 32% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services, etc), till)

(c) In India, In 2018-19 the percentage of workers was enrolled about 52% in self-employment and about 24 % in casual wage labour.

Question 37.
The contractors’ men who were travelling to Reni from Joshimath stopped the bus shortly before Reni. Skirting the village, they made for the forest. A small girl who spied the workers with their implements rushed to Gaura Devi, the head of the village Mahila Mandal (Women’s Club). Gaura Devi quickly mobilised the other housewives and went to the forest. Pleading with the labourers not to start felling operations, the women initially met with abuse and threats. When the women refused to budge, the men were
eventually forced to retire. (6)
Baded on the given passage answer the following questions.
(a) How are environmental movements also about economic and identity issues? (3)
(b) Give reasons for declining sex-ratio. (3)
Answer:
(a) Environmental movements often also contain economic and identity issues because these are questioning the modern view of development based on unchecked use of natural resources and greater exploitation of natural resources. These movements are not just about the environmental protection, they are also about fight for the economic and identity issues. There are following examples that interlink both the economic and identity issues with the envlronmentai movements as

In Jharkhand movement, tribals opposed acquisition of land for large irrigation project and boycotted nationalisation of forest produce. One of the key issues is alienation of tribals from forest lands.
Thus in this case, environmental movements are associated with identity of tribals.

(b) The decline in sex ratio in India has become a major concern in recent years. There are several reasons for this decline, which are discussed below.

  1. Gender Bias:
    Gender bias is one of the primary reasons for the decline in sex ratio in India. In Indian society, boys are often preferred over girls due to various reasons such as social norms, patriarchy, and economic considerations.
  2. Technological Advancements:
    Technological advancements in the field of medical science have also contributed to the decline in sex ratio. The availability of ultra-sound technology for prenatal sex determination has made it easier for parents to selectively abort female fetuses.
  3. Poverty:
    Poverty is another contributing factor to the decline in sex ratio in India. Poor families often consider girls as a financial burden due to the dowry system prevalent in the society. Therefore, they may resort to female foeticide to avoid the financial burden of raising a girl child.
  4. Education:
    Lack of education and awareness about the importance of gender equality is another reason or the decline in sex ratio. Educated families are more likely to value the importance of having both male and female children and are less likely to engage in practices such as female foeticide.

Question 38.
Elaborate on state and non-state initiative addressing caste and tribal discrimination? (6)
Answer:

  1. State initiatives addressing caste and tribal discrimination are
    • Reservation:
      One of the significant initiatives taken by the Indian government to address caste discrimination is reservation in education and employment. The reservation policy ensures that a certain percentage of seats are reserved for Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes in educational institutions and government jobs.
    • Special:
      provisions for tribal areas The government has also made special provisions for tribal areas under the Fifth schedule of the Indian Constitution. The provisions aim to protect the rights and interests of tribal communities, including their land and resources.
    • Legislative measures:
      The Indian government has passed several legislative measures, such as the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955, the Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989, and the Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act, 2018, to protect the rights of Dalits and tribal people and prevent discrimination against them.
  2. Non-state Initiatives addressing caste and tribal discrimination are
    • Social and Cultural Movements:
      Several social and cultural movements have emerged over the years to challenge caste and tribal discrimination. The Dalit Panthers, started in Maharashtra in the 1970s, is an example of such a movement. The movement aimed to fight against the discrimination and oppression faced by Dalits in India.
    • NGOs:
      Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) have also played a crucial role in addressing caste and tribal discrimination. Many NGOs work in the areas of education, health, and livelihood to empower marginalised communities and ensure their rights are protected.
    • Advocacy groups:
      There are various advocacy groups, such as the National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights (NCDHR), that work towards raising awareness about the issues of caste and tribal discrimination and advocate for their rights.


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