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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 10 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology with Solutions Set 10 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Sociology Set 10 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. The question paper is divided into four sections.
  2. There are 38 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
  3. Section A includes question No. 1-20. These are MCQ type questions. As per the question, there can be one answer.
  4. Section B includes question No. 21-29. These are very short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  5. Section C includes question No. 30-35. They are short answer type questions carrying 4marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
  6. Section D includes question No. 36-38. They are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words each. Question no. 36 is to be answered with the help of the given graphics.
  7. Question no. 37 is to be answered with the help of the given passage.

Section A
Section A consists of 20 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Westernisation in India is often identified with copying the ways of British but in recent times there is increasing Americanisation of
Westernisation.
Reason (R) American ways of writing, speech and accent is being followed more and more throughout India and world.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 2.
Which one of the following personalities authored the book called ‘Stree Purush Tulana’ in 1882? (1)
(a) Pandita Ramabai
(b) Savitribai Phule
(c) Tarabai Shinde
(d) Begum Rokeya
Answer:
(d) Begum Rokeya

Question 3.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Max Weber defined state as ‘a body that successfully claims a monopoly of legitimate force in a particular territory.’
Reason (R) State is an abstract entity consisting of a set of political-legal institutions claiming control over the particular geographical territory and its people.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 4.
Which one of the following social reformers is considered as the Father of Renaissance Movement in Telugu? (1)
(a) R Venkataratnam Naidu
(b) Gidugu Ramamurthy
(c) Kandukuri Viresalingam
(d) G Venkata Apparao
Answer:
(c) Kandukuri Viresalingam

Question 5.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Suicides of farmers is basically associated with debt, as well as natural disasters, resulting in the failure of agriculture produce.
Reason (R) Agricultural issues are also no longer key public issues and lack of mobilisation means that agriculturists are unable to form powerful pressure groups that can influence policy making in their favour.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 6.
‘According to him, social movements can lead to disintegration or disorder of society which is more important than individual. His works about division of labour, social facts, suicide and religion tells that for him social structures enable social integration. For him, social movements were the forces that led to disorder. Read the passage and identify the name of the sociologist who argued in this regard. (1)
(a) Emile Durkheim
(b) E P Thompson
(c) Karl Marx
(d) Mancur Olson
Answer:
(a) Emile Durkheim

Question 7.
Which one of the following sociologists argues that ‘the shift in relationship between landlords and agricultural workers was a shift from patronage to exploitation’? (1)
(a) Jan Breman
(b) Herbert Spencer
(c) Verrier Elwin
(d) Auguste Comte
Answer:
(a) Jan Breman

Question 8.
The term ‘Demography’ is composed of two Greek words which ……. means people and ………. meaning describe, both of which together imply a description of people. (1)
(a) demos, graphein
(b) dimos, graphic
(c) demoe, graphia
(d) dimeos, graphae
Answer:
(a) demos, graphein

Question 9.
Choose the incorrect statement about communalism. (1)
(a) Communalism is about politics not about religion.
(b) It cultivates an aggressive political identity.
(c) It is a recurrent source of tension and violence.
(d) A communalist is always a devout person.
Answer:
(d) A communalist is always a devout person.

Question 10.
Which one of the following statements is correct about Malthusian theory of population growth? (1)
(a) Human population tends to grow at a much faster rate than the rate at which the means of human subsistence can grow.
(b) The rise in population can be understood in terms of geometric progression and agricultural growth in terms of arithmetic progression.
(c) Positive checks to population growth in the forms of famines and diseases are inevitable.
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 11.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)

Assertion (A) Liberal and Marxist scholars also criticised Malthus for stating that poverty was caused by population growth. Reason (R) They believed that problems like poverty and starvation were caused by the unequal distribution of economic resources.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 12.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)
Assertion (A) A small proportion of the population is engaged in the organised sector in India.
Reason (R) The majority of the Indian population is employed in the unorganised sector.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct _ explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct _ explanation of (A)

Question 13.
Which among the following does not contribute to the contemporary tribal identity? (1)
(a) Forced incorporation of tribal communities into mainstream.
(b) Peculiar primordial characteristics of the tribes.
(c) Resistance and opposition to the force of non-tribal world.
(d) Educated middle class among the tribal communities.
Answer:
(b) Peculiar primordial characteristics of the tribes.

Question 14.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options.

Assertion (A) With commercialisation of agriculture, there was large scale seasonal migration of labour in post-independence India.
Reason (R) Breaking of traditional bonds of patronage between labourers/tenants and landlords.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Question 15.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)
The differently abled are not “disabled” only because they are physically or mentally ‘impaired’ but also because society is built in a manner that doesn’t cater to their need.” Assertion (A) Disability and poverty play a very crucial role and have a close relationship. Reason (R) Disability creates and increase poverty by increasing isolation and economic strain.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

Question 16.
In the question below, there are two statements marked Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct options. (1)
Assertion (A) Sanskritisation affects men and women differently.
Reason (R) It operates differently in different region.
Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the col lect explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the col lect explanation of (A)

Question 17.
………..  state in India has undergone a unique development phase in which political mobilisation, redistributive steps, and links to an external economy have resulted in a significant transformation of the rural countryside. (1)
(a) Andhra Pradesh
(b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Kerala
(d) Uttar Pradesh
Answer:
(c) Kerala

Question 18.
Social exclusion and discrimination are majorly considered as the outcome of discrimination in …….. (1)
(a) political hegemony
(b) economic resources
(c) social injustice
(d) cultural diversity
Answer:
(b) economic resources

Question 19.
Who were the main carriers of nationalism during Colonial period? (1)
(a) Rural upper classes
(b) Urban middle classes
(c) Urban upper classes
(d) Rural middle classes
Answer:
(b) Urban middle classes

Question 20.
National Council for Women in India (NCWI) was established in the year ……. (1)
(a) 1917
(b) 1925
(c) 1927
(d) 1931
Answer:
(b) 1925

Section B
Section B consists of 9 questions of 2 marks each

Question 21.
For service professionals an average work day has 10-12 hours. But it is very common for them to work overtime to complete the project on time. This is due to the time difference between the client site and India. In what ways ‘Time Slavery’ influence the industrial society? (2)
Or
The employment opportunities have two components i.e, job in an organisation and self employment. The scheme of Government of India ‘Stand Up India Scheme’ and ‘Make in India’ are programmes by which employment and self employment become possible. Read the above passage and answer the following question.
Explain the major forms of job recruitment in India. (2)
Answer:
Time slavery influence the industrial society when employee working for more than 10-12 hours a day in order to meet the deadlines and complete the projects. Sometimes it leads to a condition where the employee work overnight and this might put extra stress on them.
Or
Job recruitment take different forms in India. Very few jobs are acquired through advertisements. In professions like plumbing and carpentary; people are self employed. Among the educated sections, tutors, writers and architects are self employed as their contacts play a dominant role in acquiring work for them. There is a lot of flexibility in their working house.

Question 22.
What is the meaning of Globalisation? (2)
Answer:
The term ‘Globalisation’ refers to process of the mixing of the global with the local culture.
It comes from the Japanese word “Dochakuka”. It is strategy adopted by the foreign firms while dealing with the local traditions for improving their marketability.

Question 23.
Elucidate the work of sociologist Emile Durkheim on social movement. (2)
Answer:
Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist who rose to prominence in late 19th and early 20th century. According to him, social movement can lead to disintegration/disorder of society which is more important than individual. His works about division of labour, social facts, suicide and religion tells that for him social structure enables social integration. For him, social movements were the forces that led to disorder.

Question 24.
Elaborate the term ‘Peasant Movement’. (2)
Answer:
The term ‘Peasant Movement’ refers to all kinds of collective attempts of different strata of the peasantry either to change the system which they felt was exploitative, or to seek redress for particular grievances without necessarily aiming at overthrowing the system. It is a part of social movement against British atrocities in the 18th and 19th centuries of the British colonial period.

Question 25.
Briefly explain about the ‘Subsistence Agriculture’ and ‘Globalisation of Agriculture’. (2)
Answer:
Subsistence agriculture is a form of agriculture where agriculturalists produce primarily for themselves and are unable to produce for the market. Globalisation of agriculture is the process of integration of local agricultural market and practices with wider international market.

Question 26.
Mention two common features central to the public perception of ‘disability’ all over the world. (2)
Answer:
Two common features central to the public perception of disability all over the world are as follows:

  1. Whenever a disabled person is confronted with problems, it is believed that the problems originate due to his/her impairment.
  2. Disability is supposed to be linked with the disabled individual’s self-perception.

Question 27.
State two major issues faced by Adivasis (tribal people) after India’s independence. (2)
Answer:
Adivasis have been facing two major issues after India’s independence. These are as follows:

  1. The government monopoly over forests continued and the exploitation accelerated.
  2. The policy of capital-intensive industrialisation adopted by government required minerals and power generation capacities which were in Adivasi area.

Question 28.
Explain the two broad sets of issues that are most important in giving rise to tribal movements. (2)
Answer:
The two broad sets of issues which have been most important in giving rise to tribal movements are as follows:

  1. Issues relating to control over vital economic resources like land and forests.
  2. Issues relating to matters of ethnic-cultural identity.

Question 29.
Those in India who complain of casteism in politics and really looking for a sort of politics which has no basis in society. Politics is a competitive enterprise, its purpose is the acquisition of power for the realisation of certain goals and its process is one of identifying and manipulating existing and emerging allegiances in order to mobilise and consolidate position. Mention any two features of caste system. (2)
Or
Why caste is important for politics? (2)
Answer:
The features of caste system are as follows:

  1. Caste is determined by birth A child is born into the caste of its parents, it is not a matter of choice. Thus, one can never leave, change or choose to joint it. A person can, however, be expelled from it.
  2. Membership in a caste involves strict marriage rule. Caste groups are endogamous i.e., marriage is restricted to the members of the group.

Or
Caste is important for politics because identity politics based on caste may be said to have its origin on the issue of providing the oppressed caste groups with state support in the form of protective discrimination.

Section C
Section C consists of 6 questions of 4 marks each

Question 30.
Why in India, labels such as disability ‘handicap’, etc used for differently-abled people?
Or
‘Untouchability is an extreme and particularly vicious aspect of the caste system that prescribes stringent social sanctions against members of castes located at the bottom of the purity-pollution scale. Read the above statement and briefly explain the three major dimensions of untouchability. (4)
Answer:
When-a disabled person is faced with difficulties, it is assumed that the difficulties are due to her or his disability. The word ‘disability’ implies that they are in need of assistance. Some of the reasons for using these labels for differently-abled people are as follows:

  1. The roots of such attitudes lie in the cultural conception that views an impaired body as a result of fate. Destiny is seen as the culprit and disabled people are the victims.
  2. The common perception view disability as result for past karma (actions) from which there can be no reprieve.

Or
The three major dimensions of untouchability such as exclusion, humiliation-subordination and exploitation all are equally important in defining the phenomenon which are as follows:

  1. Exclusion Dalit experience forms of exclusion that are unique and not practiced against other groups. For example, being prohibited from sharing drinking water sources or participating in collective religious worship, social ceremonies and festivals, etc.
  2. Humiliation and Subordination The
    performance of publicly visible acts of self-humiliation and subordination is an important part of the practice of untouchability. For example, the imposition of gestures of deference (i.e. taking of headgear).
  3. Exploitation Untouchability is almost associated with economic exploitation of various kinds, most commonly through the imposition of forced, unpaid under paid labour or the confiscation of property.

Question 31.
“Encouraging cultural diversity is good policy from the practical and principled point of view.” Justify the statement using India’s case as a nation-state. (4)
Or
What are community identities? Why are they important? (2 + 2)
Answer:
Nations are communities that have a state of their own, that is why the two are joined to form the term nation-state. The Indian nation-state is socially and culturally one of the most diverse countries of the world. This diverse population speak different languages. In terms of religion, the population is diverse with Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Christian, etc. The Constitution declares the state to be a secular state, but religion, language and other such factors are not removed from the public sphere.

In fact, these communities are explicitly recognised by the state. By international standards, very strong constitutional protection is offered to minority religion, the tribal population, Scheduled Caste population linguistic minorities, etc. Therefore, comparative surveys of long-standing democracies show that India has been very cohesive, despite its diversity.
Or
Community identity is based on birth and belonging rather than on some form of acquired qualifications of accomplishment. It is what we are rather than what we have become. Our community provides us the language (our mother tongue) and the cultural values through which we comprehend the world. It also secures our self identity.
Community identities are important because every human being needs a sense of stable identity to operate in this world.

Expanding and overlapping circles of community ties family, kinship, caste, ethnicity, language, region or religion, give meaning to our world and give us a sense of identity of who we are.
That is why people often react emotionally or even violently whenever there is a perceived threat to their community identity.

Question 32.
Describe the positive impact of resistance and opposition of tribal communities in contemporary India. (4)
Answer:
The positive impact of the resistance and opposition of tribes communities in contemporary India are as follows:

  1. Achievement of Statehood for Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. However, this is not free from problems. These states are still to make complete use of its statehood and the system still leaves the tribal communities powerless.
  2. Emergence of educated middle class communities among tribal communities with the policies of reservation. The resultant of such an emergence is the creation of an urbanised professional class.
  3. Emergence of identity assertions with tribal societies becoming more differentiated, different bases for the assertion of tribal identity are also emerging.

Question 33.
Elaborate the diverse forms of the family system. (4)
Answer:
Different societies have different diverse family forms which are divided into two types of forms i.e. on the basis of residence and on the basis of inheritance which are discussed below

  1. On the basis of Residence
    • Matrilocal In such a society, a newly married couple stays with the women’s parents.
    • Patrilocal In this society, the couple lives with the man’s parents.
  2. On the basis of Inheritance
    • Matrilineal This society passes on property from mother to daughter.
    • Patrilineal In this society, there is a property shift from father to son.

Value Points
For getting maximum marks, following value points can be included in the answer . Forms of family system on the basis of residence . Forms of family system on the basis of inheritance

Question 34.
“The pattern of farmers suicides point to the significant crises that the rural areas are experiencing.”
What do you understand by ‘matrix event’ and how are they responsible for farmer suicides? (1 + 3)
Answer:
Matrix event is a range of factors that come together to form an event. The suicides among farmers have become matrix event in rural society. The farmers who commit suicide are marginal farmers who try to increase the productivity particularly by adopting Green Revolution. Some of the matrix events or factors responsible for farmers suicides are discussed below

  1. Agrarian distress caused by structural changes in agriculture and changes in economic and : agriculture policies. The changed pattern of land holdings, changing cropping patterns especially due to- the shift to cash crops.
  2. Farmers are heavily dependent on high cost inputs. Loss of crops due to pests or any natural disaster further leads to increase in suicides. There is a decline in state support in the form of subsidies for agriculture.
  3. They are unable to bear the debt burden as well as, natural disasters resulting in the failure of agricultural produce.

Question 35.
Compare and contrast between class-based movements and caste-based movements by quoting examples from the Indian context.
Answer:
The class-based and caste-based social movements within the Indian context could be differentiated in the following manner

Class Based Social Movements Caste Based Social Movements
1. The class-based social movements are associated with mostly an oppressed or disadvantaged class of people collectively working towards the same goal. 1. The caste-based social movements are associated with the backward caste community or group collectively working towards the same goal.
2. The class-based movements involved peasant movements and worker’s movements. 2. The caste-based social movements involved Dalit movements and tribal movements.
3. The intention or goal behind class-based movement are centred around the issue of wages, land, employment opportunities, economic inequalities, etc. 3. The intention or goal behind the caste-based movements is centred around the issues of cultural or ethnic identity, inclusion, equality, untouchability, human rights, etc.
4. The class-based movements highlighted the class bases discriminations and inequalities existed in the workplace. 4. The caste-based movements highlighted the social discrimination and stigmatisation that exist in the caste-based society of India.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 questions of 6 marks each

Question 36.
Figure below shows decadal Growth Rate Population of Selected Metropolitan Cities in Percentage

(a) What are the trends of the per cent share of the urban population and decennial growth rate of the urban population according to above given chart? (2)
(b) What was the decennial growth rate of the urban population from 1981 to 2001 and during 2011? (2)
(c) How was the decennial growth rate of the urban population shows a declining trend during 1981-2001? (2)
Answer:
(a) The given chart above indicates that the per cent share of the urban population is increasing but decennial growth rate of the urban population shows a decreasing trend.
(b) The decennial growth rate of the urban population showed a declining trend during 1981-2001, reversed the trend and showed marginal increase in 2011.
(c) According to the graph above, India’s urban population and the number of urban areas towns and the per cent share of urban population are growing. This shows the growth rate of urban population decline during 1981 to 2001.

Question 37.
Unemployment is an issue that confronts economics almost all the world. The levels of employment differ in different countries. Governments of countries tiy to reduce unemployment by adopting sutiable measures to increase the number of jobs, and skill the youth and others to be gainfully employed.

Unemployment leads to many social ills. There is an increase in poverty as the unemployed lack the purchasing power to meet their bare necessities. Poverty leads to beggary. There is also an increase in crime such as murder and rape in society due to unemployment. The unemployed also suffer from psychiatric conditions like depression,
(a) What do you mean by ‘Employment Opportunities’? Explain the major forms of job recruitment in India. (1 + 2)
(b) Do you agree that all sections of people have benefitted from the economic policies in post-independence India? Justify your answer.
Answer:
(a) Employment opportunities means a state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary. It provides the work or occupation in which a person is employed. There are many forms of job recruitment in India which are as follows:

  1. Jobs through Advertisements:
    It is one of the system of getting job but only a small percentage of people get job through advertisements or through employment exchange.
  2. Jobs on Permanent Basis:
    In this category, there is a lot of flexibility in working hours in which a few workers are employed as permanent head worker and they get proper compensation, status and position for their work, whereas sometimes personnel are employed even on contract basis.

(b) All sections of people have not benefitted from the economic policies in post-independence India. Effect of liberalisation is not uniform on all sections. They are as follows
1. After this policy, the government tried to sell its share in several public sector companies, this process is known as  disinvestment. With disinvestment, many government workers feared that they will lose their jobs.

2. More and more companies are reducing the number of permanent employees and outsourcing their work to smaller companies or even to homes. For the multinational companies, this outsourcing is done across the globe, with developing countries like India providing cheap labour. As small companies have to compete for orders from the big companies, they keep wages low as well as their working conditions are often poor.

3. Very few people in India have access to secure jobs and even the small number in regular salaried employed are becoming more insecure with incoming of contract labour. Now a days, employment by government is also coming down, According to economists, both liberalisation and privatisation is associated with rising income inequality.

Question 38.
Explain the term colonialism. Explain the impact of colonialism in India into bringing about a structural change in society. (1 + 5)
Answer:
Colonialism in India introduced a wide array of changes in every sphere be it legal, cultural or architectural. These changes were done to facilitate smooth functioning of British rule. Some of the changes that took place were deliberate, while others were unintended consequences. Impact of colonialism in India into bringing about a structural change in society are

  1. Western education was introduced to create Indians who would manage British colonialism. Instead, it led to the growth of a nationalist and anti-colonial unconsciousness.
  2. Capitalism became the prime mode of economic system which emerged out of a complex process of European exploration of the rest of the world. It was characterised by plunder of wealth and resources. Unprecedented growth of science and technology led to its harnessing of industries and agriculture.
  3. Colonialism became the dominant economic system; nation states became the dominant political form. Societies began to be organised on the lines of nationality and citizenship.
  4. The colonial rule changed not just land ownership but even decided what crops should be grown and what should not be.
  5. Architecture was also influenced by the Britishers. They developed towns in India which had spacious bungalows, elegant apartment houses, planned streets and trees on both the houses of the street


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