CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 8 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology with Solutions Set 8 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 8 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. Question Nos. 1 -15 in Section A carry 1 mark each. You are expected to answer them as directed.
  2. Question Nos. 16-21 in Section B are very short answer type-I questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  3. Question Nos. 22-24 in Section C are short answer type-II questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60 words.
  4. Question Nos, 25 – 28 in Section D are long answer type questions carrying 4 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
  5. Question Nos. 29-30 in Section E are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words.
  6. Question Nos. 31-34 in Section F are based on two cases given. Answer to each one-mark question should not exceed 20 words. Answer to each two-mark question should not exceed 30 words.

Section A
Section A consists of 15 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
Rahman being in England was raised through Western education. He was gifted with good recognition memory and early appearance of language skills. Identified the traits of a gifted child among the following. (1)
I. High in intrinsic motivation
II. Solitary academic activities
III. Advanced logical thinking
IV. Leadership intelligence Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I, II and III
(d) II and IV
(c) I, II and III

Question 2.
Rohan and her wife visited North-Eastern States in winter vacation. Unfortunately, he lost her wife due to sudden heart failure. After returning to Delhi, he fallen ill and started behaving abnormally. When he visited a psychotherapist, he was found grappled with the feelings of frustration and depression. How psychotherapists treat patients like Rohan? (1)
(a) Through Medical Treatment
(b) Through Behaviour Pattern
(c) Through Medical Trauma
(d) Through Prolonged Medicinal Treatment
(b) Through Behaviour Pattern

Question 3.
………. personality seem to possess low motivation, are patient and feel they have a lot of time and litttle work. (1)
(a) Type-A
(b) Type-B
(c) Type-C
(d) Type-D
(a) Type-A

Question 4.
Lena transformed from being a rambunctious and disorganised person to a stable and sensible individual. She achieved this by implementing specific changes within herself. What is the most effective method for bringing about drastic changes in centain aspects of oneself ? (1)
(a) Observation of own behaviour
(b) Self-instruction
(Q) Observation of other’s behaviour
(d) Self-reinforcement
(a) Observation of own behaviour

Question 5.
………… is an exceptional general ability shown in superior performance in a wide variety of areas. (1)
(a) Talent
(b) Intelligence
(c) Creativity
(d) Giftedness
(d) Giftedness

Question 6.
A person’s existence is marked by successive changes from the past to the present and it is through consciousness and the mediation of memory that a person can cement together these different stages of existence to constitute. What is it called? (1)
(a) Psychological identity
(b) Social identity
(c) Evolutionary identity
(d) Personal identity
(d) Personal identity

Question 7.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of the Reason (R). Mark the correct option. (1)
Assertion (A) The message is the information that is presented in order to bring about an attitude change.
Reason (R) Source credibility and attractiveness are two features that affect attitude change.
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(c) Assertion (A) is true, but Reason (R) is false
(d) Assertion (A) is false, but Reason (R) is true
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)

Question 8.
Siddhartha is just 7 years old but he has ,extremely good hand writing and his teachers told his parents in PTM that there is good chance that Siddhartha shall become a good writer in future. What sort of trait demonstrated by Siddhartha here? (1)
(a) Aptitude
(b) Personality
(c) Attitude
(d) Intelligence
(a) Aptitude

Question 9.
Who emphasised psychological conflict and disturbed interpersonal relationships as causes of psychological disorders? (1)
(a) Garry Froster
(b) Johann Weyer
(c) Sigmund Freud
(d) Joseph Ampoule
(b) Johann Weyer

Question 10.
The aim of the treatment is to extinguish or eliminate the faulty behaviours and substitute them with adaptive behaviour patterns. Name the methodologies by which the therapist does this. (1)
I. Antecedent operations
II. Bulk operations
III. Intellectual operations
IV. Consequent operations
Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I, II and III
(d) I and IV
(d) I and IV

Question 11.
Sridhar and his colleagues were shortlisted : in their office for a random skills test to predict what an individual will be able to do if given proper environment and training. What shall that test would be called? (1)
(a) Individual Behaviour Test
(b) Organisational Behaviour Test
(c) Qualitative-Quantitative Test
(d) Aptitude Test
(d) Aptitude Test

Question 12.
Identify the disorder, where an individual gets irrational fears related to specific objects, interactions with people and also fear of situations. (l)
(a) Generalised Anxiety Disorder
(b) Specific Phobia
(c) Panic Phobia
(d) Mental Anxiety Disorder
(b) Specific Phobia

Question 13.
The mental exhaustion appears in the form of irritability, anxiety, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. This state of physical, emotional and psychological exhaustion is called (1)
(a) hassle
(b) burnout
(c) stress
(d) disorder
(b) burnout

Question 14.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of the Reason (R). Mark the correct option. (1)

Assertion (A) Adults who are planning to buy a laptop are more convinced by a computer engineer who points out the special features of a laptop, than they would bei by a school child who might give the same information.
Reason (R) Attitudes will not change when the amount of information that is given about the topic is just enough.
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(c) Assertion (A) is true, but Reason (R) is false
(d) Assertion (A) is false, but Reason (R) is true
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)

Question 15.
Tendency of respondent to endorse items in a socially desirable manner is known as (1)
(a) Acquiescence
(b) Self-report
(c) Social desirable
(d) Halo effect
(c) Social desirable

Section B
Section B consists of 6 questions of 2 marks each

Question 16.
Giriraj is a quite intelligent boy in his school who loves to participate in inter-school
debates and cultural festivals. Can we measure his intelligent through psychometric approach? How?
The intelligence of Giriraj can be assessed through psychometric approach which expresses the individual’s performance in terms of a single index of cognitive abilities. It is widely used method by the researchers and also known as information-processing approach.

Question 17.
Urvi consistently failed in term end exams and her teachers and parents treated negatively and gives example of other bright students. Identify the disturbed interpersonal relationship. (2)
Prashad is a much disciplined person who cares about his family and gives proper time and equally passionate about his work. Although his colleagues get involved in recreational gatherings and party but Prashad prefers his own duties towards his family and work. Which type of personality Prashad has? Define. (2)
The disturbed interpersonal relationship in the given scenario is likely to be characterised by negative treatment and comparison with other bright students by Urvi’s teachers and parents due to new consistent failure in exams and terms.
Prashad has self-regulation personality. According to this personality, behaviour is guided by a motivational system’ of setting goals, developing and enacting strategies to achieve those goals, evaluating progress and revising goals and actions accordingly.

Question 18.
Describe any two features of personality. (2)
Two features of personality are as follows

  1. Its main features do not easily change with time.
  2. It Has both physical and psychological components

Question 19.
What do you understand by ‘Positive Thinking’ attitude? (2)
Positive thinking attitude can be described as traits of accepting into the mind thoughts and feelings that contribpte to growth, success and satisfactory outcome of an individual. The power of positive thinking attitude has been increasingly recognised in reducing and coping with stress.

Question 20.
Kamal’s wife has passed away in the road mishap. He became addicted to alcoholism and drugs as he perceived it would reduce the pain and stress in life. Identify and define the disorder Kamal is going through. (2)
Kamal is suffering from depression disorder which is a mental illness that causes due to natural disasters, experiencing violence, abuse or loss and isolation at any stage of life. People with depression disorder most of the time has the tendency of suicides and addicted to alcoholism and drugs to reduce the pain and stress in life.

Question 21.
Define the term avolition. (2)
Avolition, as a symptom of various forms of psychopathology, is the decrease in the ability to initiate and persist in self-directed purposeful activities. Such activities that appear to be neglected usually include routine activities, including hobbies, going to work and/or school and most notably engaging in social activities.

Section C
Section C consists of 3 questions of 3 marks each

Question 22.
Explain how Kundalini Yoga has been found to be effective in treatment of mental disorder. (3)
Kundalini Yoga taught in the USA has been found to be effective in treatment of mental disorders. The Institute for Non-linear Science, University of California, San Diego, USA has found that Kundalini Yoga is effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Kundalini Yoga combines pranayama or breathing techniques with chanting of mantras. It help the patients to process emotional stimuli better and hence prevent biases in the processing of these stimuli.

Question 23.
Why people abuse alcohol drink in large amounts regularly and rely on it to help them face difficult situations? (3)
People who abuse alcohol drink in large amounts regularly and rely on it to help them face difficult situations falls into the addiction, since alcohol interferes into their social behaviour and ability to think and work. Their bodies then build up a tolerance for alcohol and they need to drink even greater amounts to feel its effects. They also experience withdrawal responses when they stop drinking. Alcohol induced psychotic disorder in a serious mental condition that involves the person’s losing contact with reality, to a greater or lesser extent and is most often associated with certain mental illnesses.

Question 24.
Describe the non-specific factors associated with healing in psychotherapy. (3)
Explain how Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) is beneficial low-risk to the treatment of stress and PTSD. (3)
Non-specific variables are factors supporting the therapeutic relationship, typically attributed to Carl Roger’s Model of facilitating conditions for a therapeutic alliance. There are several factors that contribute to the healing process. These factors are called non-specific because they occur across different systems of psychotherapy and across different clients/patients and different therapists.

Some of the non-specific factors associated with healing in psychotherapy are as follows:

  1. Non-specific factors attributable to the client/patient are motivation for change, expectation of improvement due to the treatment, etc. These are called patient variables.
  2. Non-specific factors attributable to the therapist are positive nature, absence of unresolved emotional conflicts, presence of good mental health, etc. These are called therapist variables.

The Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) is a rapid breathing techniques to induce hyperventilation. It is a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.
The SKY has been used as a public health intervention technique to alleviate PTSD in survivors of mass disasters. This yoga techniques enhance well-being, mood, attention, mental focus and stress tolerance.

Section D
Section D consists of 4 questions of 4 ma

Question 25.
What are negative reinforcement and aversive conditioning methods for behaviour modification? (4)
Negative Reinforcement It is a major technique of behaviour modification. Responses that lead organisms to get rid of painful stimuli or avoid and escape from them provide negative reinforcement. For example, one learns to put on woollen clothes, burn firewood or use electric heaters to avoid the unpleasant cold weather. Person learns to move away from dangerous stimuli because they provide negative reinforcement.

Aversive Conditioning It refers to repeated association of undesired response with an aversive consequence. For example, an alcoholic is given a mild electric shock and asked to smell the alcohol. With repeated pairings the smell of alcohol is aversive as the pain of the shock is associated with it and the person will give up alcohol.

Question 26.
Ishita is not just course coordinator, but also a kind-hearted working professional in a multi-national company in Delhi. She always readily available for any sort of problems arises among the editors or coordinators. Find out and explain the type of intelligence Ishita has. (4)
Ranjana, a mother of two children is a senior Anganwadi worker. Many young each women takes her advice and suggestions in the matter of family and children welfare. How Ranjana manages to convince people with such an ease? (4)
Ishita has interpersonal intelligence, which is an ability to understand to subtle aspects of others behaviours. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand the motives, feelings and behaviours of other people so as to bond into a comfortable relationship with others. Psychologists, counsellors, politicians, social workers and religious leaders are likely to possess high interpersonal intelligence. People with heightened interpersonal intelligence have an ability to understand what those around them need and they are incredibly skillful at reading emotions of others surrounding them.
Being a senior Anganwadi worker, Ranjana is an experienced woman who must acquainted with common and serious issues related women and children. This intelligence is called ‘Experiential’, or ‘Creative’ intelligence that is involved in using past experiences creatively to solve novel problems. It is reflected in creative performance. Persons high on this aspect integrate different experiences in an original way to make new discoveries and inventions. They quickly find out which information is crucial in a given situation.

Question 27.
According to the Humanistic theorists, what are the criteria of a ‘Healthy Personality’?(4)
Explain Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in psychology. (4)
The Humanistic theorists have indicated that healthy personality lies in not mere adjustment to society. It involves a quest to know oneself deeply and to be true to one’s own feelings without disguise and to be oneself in the here-and-now.
According to them, the healthy people share the following characteristics such as

  1. They become aware of themselves their feelings and their limits, accept themselves and whai they make of their lives as their own responsibility have ‘the courage to be’.
  2. They experience the ‘here-and-now’ are not trapped.
  3. They do not live in the past or dwell in the future through anxious expectations and distorted defences.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is widely used as a test in personality assessment. Hathaway and McKinley developed this test as a helping tool for psychiatric diagnosis, but the test has been found very effective in identifying varieties of psychopathology. Its revised version came up as MMPI-2. It consists of 567 statements. The subject has to judge each statement as ‘true’ or ‘false’ for her/ him. The test is divided into 10 sub-scales, which seek to diagnose hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, schizophrenia, mania and social introversion. In India, Mallick and Joshi have developed the Jodhpur Multiphasic Personality Inventory (JMPI) along the lines of MMPI.

Question 28.
Discuss the strategies suggested by psychologists for handling prejudice. (4)
Prejudices are examples of attitudes towards a particular group. They are usually negative, and in many cases, based on stereotypes. Thus, psychologists have suggested that strategies for handling prejudice would be effective if they aim to minimise opportunities for learning prejudices change. Such attitudes and de-emphasise a narrow social identity based on the in-group among other approaches.

  • The first step in handling prejudice is to know about its cadses or sources. Thus, the strategies for handling prejudice would be effective if they aim at
    1. Minimising opportunities for learning prejudices.
    2. Changing prejudice attitudes.
    3. De-emphasising a narrow social identity based on the ingroup.
    4. Discouraging the tendency towards self-fulfilling prophecy among the victims of prejudice.
  • These strategies are successful only if
    1. The two groups meet in a cooperative rather than competitive context.
    2. Close interactions between the groups helps them to know each other better.
    3. The two groups are not different in power or status.

Section E
Section E consists of 2 questions of 6 marks each

Question 29.
Assess individual and group behaviour. What are the factors that affects behaviour of an individual in group? ( 2 + 4 )
What do you understand by the ‘Tajfel’s Minimal Group Paradigm Experiment’? (6)
The behaviour of individual and group are inter-related with each other and it is not necessary that if a person is doing something as an individual is similar to when he is working in a group. Every person has some limitations in his thinking, skill and ability. In general, effectiveness of an individual or groups depends both on the task and on the number of personal and situational factors.
Following are the factors which affects behaviour of an individual in group

  1. Conflict Conflict in a group has an interesting perspective. It can be beneficial for group’s effectiveness or it may result in loosing group membership.
  2. Social Facilitation Social facilitation has a positive effect on the performance of an individual. The groups can affect the behaviour of an individual in a number of ways.
  3. Social Loafing It explain that reduction in an effort of an individual when he was working in a group rather than as an individual.
  4. Group Polarisation Group polarisation has both positive and negative effects on individual behaviour. Individual is a group can take risky decisions which he will never take alone.

The Tajfel’s Minimal Group Paradigm Experiment was a methodology employed in social psychology to investigate the minimal conditions required for discrimination to occur between groups. This paradigm accepted a dumber of assumptions, concepts, values or practices in order to better allow a view of reality in relation to the onset of human group formation.

Tajfel and his colleagues were interested in knowing the minimal conditions for inter-group behaviour. ‘Minimal Group Paradigm’ was developed to answer this question. British school-boys expressed their preference for paintings by two artists that are Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee. Children were told that it was an experiment on decision-making.

Experiments using this approach have revealed that even arbitrary and virtually meaningless distinctions between groups can trigger a tendency to favour one’s own group at the expense others. The Minimal Group Paradigm had been presumed that pre-existing individual personality or social tensions between groups were necessary to give rise to prejudice or discrimination.

Question 30.
Describe any four stress management techniques. (6) Or What is positive psychology? How positive psychologists have identified virtues and strengths of human beings? ( 1 + 5 )
Stress is a silent killer which plays a significant role in physical illness and disease. Hypertension, heart disease, ulcers, diabetes and even cancer are linked to stress. Four stress management techniques are
1. Relaxation Techniques:
It is an active skill that reduces symptoms of stress and decreases the incidence of illnesses such as high blood pressure and heart disease. Relaxation starts from the lower part of the body and progresses up to the facial muscles in such a way that the whole body is relaxed. Deep breathing is used alongwith muscle relaxation to calm the mind and relax the body.

2. Meditation Procedures:
The yogic method of meditation consists of a sequence of learned techniques for refocusing of attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness. It involves such a thorough concentration that the meditator becomes unaware of any outside stimulation and reaches a different state of consciousness

3. Biofeedback:
It is a procedure to monitor and reduce the physiological aspects of stress by providing feedback about current physiological activity and is often accompanied by relaxation training. Biofeedback training involves three stages

  1. Developing an awareness of the particular physiological response, e.g. heart rate.
  2. Learning ways of controlling physio-logical response in quiet conditions.
  3. Transferring control into the conditions of everyday life.

4. Creative Visualisation:
It is an effective technique for dealing with stress. It is a subjective experience that uses imagery and imagination. Before visualising one must set oneself a realistic goal, as it helps to build confidence.
It is easier to visualise if one’s mind is quiet, body relaxed and eyes are closed. This reduces the risk of interference from unbidden thoughts and provides the creative energy needed for turning an imagined i scene into reality.
Positive psychology systematically investigates the positive aspects that is the strengths and virtues of human beings. Martin Seligman has provided leadership to the movement of positive psychology. On the basis of reseearches on around two hundred texts from various spiritual books, they were able to identify a set of human virtues shared by various traditions.
These are:

  • Wisdom and Knowledge Curiosity/Interest in the World An openness to experience i.e. flexibility about things that don’t fit your preconception.
    1. Love of Learning Taking pleasure in learning new thing, taking every opportunity to expend your knowledge and expertise.
    2. Judgment/Critical Thinking/Open- Mindedness Thinking things thoroughly and examining them from all sides or being objective.
    3. Ingenuity/Originality/Practical Intelligence Finding new and practical ways of achieving results.
    4. Social Intelligence/Personal Intelligence/ Emotional Intelligence Understanding your own and others’ motives and feelings or acting in socially effective ways.
    5. Perspective Able to adopt the ‘big picture’ so as to act wisely and good at problem solving and giving advice.
  • Courage
    1. Valour and Bravery Willing to confront challenges and difficulty; prepared to adopt unpopular or dangerous positions.
    2. Perseverance/Industry/Diligence Finishing what you start and prepared to take on difficult projects.
    3. Integrity/Genuineness/Honesty Living in a genuine, authentic way and down to Earth.
  • Humanity and Love
    1. Kindness and Generosity Helping to higher people and putting others’ interests as highly as your own.
    2. Loving and Allowing Oneself to be Loved Valuing and generating close and intimate relations with others.
  • Justice
    1. Citizenship/Duty/Teamwork/Loyalty Working hard for the success of the group and valuing group goals and purposes.
    2. Leadership Organising activities well and seeing that they happen, maintaining good relationship in and between groups.

Section F
Section F consists of 2 Case based questions of 3 marks each

Read the case and answer the questions that follow.

With respect to the role of environment, studies have reported that as children grow in age, their intelligence level tends to move closer to that of their adoptive parents. Children from disadvantaged homes adopted into families with higher socio-economic status exhibit a large increase in their intelligence scores. There is evidence that environmental deprivation lowers intelligence while rich nutrition, good family background, and quality schooling increases intelligence.

There is a general consensus among psychologists that intelligence is a product of complex interaction of heredity and environment. Heredity can best be viewed as something that sets a range within which an individual’s development is actually shaped by the support and opportunities of the environment.

Question 31.
Does intelligence determined by the factors like heredity and environment. (1)
Heredity and environment play a great role in the development of intelligence in children adolescents. During childhood, the environment influences intelligence test performance by up to 60% while hereditary factors influence it by 40%.

Question 32.
Do adoptive and biologically related families affect intellectual development? (2)
Yes, adoptive and biologically related families affect intellectual development. The comparison of adoptive and biologically related families provides a framework for studying both within and between family effects on intellectual development. Furthermore, related and unrelated persons, living together and apart, offer an opportunity to estimate genetic and environmental effects on individual variation.

Read the case and answer the questions that follow.

Dissociative Amnesia is characterised by extensive but selective memory loss that has no known organic cause (e.g., head injury). Some people cannot remember anything about their past. Others can no longer recall specific events, people, places or objects, while their memory for other events remains intact. A part of dissociative amnesia is dissociative fugue. Essential feature of this could be an unexpected travel away from home and workplace, the assumption of a new identity, and the inability to recall the previous identity. The fugue usually ends when the person suddenly ‘wakes up’ with no ipemory of the events that occurred during the fugue. This disorder is often associated with an overwhelming stress.

Question 33.
What do you understand by Dissociative Identity Disorder? (1)
The Dissociative Identity Disorder, often referred to as multiple personality. It is the most dramatic of the dissociative disorders. It is often associated with traumatic experiences in childhood. In this disorder, the person assumes alternate personalities that may or may not be aware of each other.

Question 34.
Name the disorder in which the person has a sense of being separated both from self and from reality.
This disorder is called Depersonalisation or Derealisation disorder that involves a dreamlike state in which the person has a sense of being separated both from self and from reality. In Depersonalisation, there is a change of self-perception and the person’s sense of reality is temporarily lost or changed.

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