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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology with Solutions Set 4 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. Question Nos. 1 -15 in Section A carry 1 mark each. You are expected to answer them as directed.
  2. Question Nos. 16-21 in Section B are very short answer type-I questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  3. Question Nos. 22-24 in Section C are short answer type-II questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60 words.
  4. Question Nos. 25 – 28 in Section D are long answer type questions carrying 4 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
  5. Question Nos. 29-30 in Section E are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words.
  6. Question Nos. 31-34 in Section F are based on two cases given. Answer to each one-mark question should not exceed 20 words. Answer to each two-mark question should not exceed 30 words.

Section A
Section A consists of 15 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
Saumya, a brilliant student in her class who consistently perform well in almost every field. Saumya has a score of 5 in her behaviour attitude scale. Find out among the following, what her behaviour shall be called? (1)
I. Extreme
II. Cooperative or Uncooperative
III. Always Neutral
IV. Always Moderate
Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) I and III
(c) II and III
(d) I and IV
Answer:
(a) 1 and II

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 2.
Premsagar was taught skills such as candle making, paper bag making and weaving to help him to form a work discipline. This is known as (1)
(a) Positive reinforcement
(b) Occupational therapy
(c) Alternative therapy
(d) Behavioural therapy
Answer:
(b) Occupational therapy

Question 3.
Reebika is experiencing stress due to noisy surroundings, commuting, quarrelsome neighbours, electricity and water storage. These sources of stress are (1)
(a) life events
(b) hassle
(c) traumatic events
(d) environmental events
Answer:
(b) hassle

Question 4.
When the human body is placed under physical or psychological stress, it is called (1)
(a) Emotional effects
(b) Physiological effects
(c) Cognitive effects
(d) Behavioural effects
Answer:
(b) Physiological effects

Question 5.
Which of the following is also experienced during the phallic stage? (1)
(a) Adonis complex
(b) Oedipus complex
(c) Electra complex
(d) Cinderella complex
Answer:
(c) Electra complex

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 6.
Identify the type of Intelligence Ruby possesses. (1)
(a) Practical
(b) Componential
(c) Linguistic
(d) Experimental Intelligence
Answer:
(d) Experimental Intelligence

Question 7.
How can we measure the level of positivity or negativity in attitude? (1)
(a) Extremeness
(b) Simplicity
(c) Centrality
(d) Valence
Answer:
(a) Extremeness

Question 8.
Find out the pathogens of stresses person in the given pairs. (1)
I. Poor nutritional habits
II. Smoking and alcohol abuse
III. Longer durational sleep
IV. Hallucination Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I, II and III
(d) II and IV
Answer:
(a) I and II

Question 9.
Although Yamini does quite fair in her studies and extra curriculum activities, but she try to learn from others especially from her teachers and instructors. Learning by observing others is known as (1)
(a) Reciprocal inhibition
(b) Vicarious learning
(c) Systematic desensitisation
(d) Imitational recreation Answer: (b) Vicarious learning

Question 10.
Rakshita has secured first rank in the CAT Exams. She was throughout her career, a meritorious fellow. Her parents being into the Central Government services also helped Rakshita’s career. Find out the attributes of her creativity. (1)
I. Heredity
II. Environment
III. Friends
IV. Sound Intelligence
Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I, II and III
(d) II and IV
Answer:
(a) I and II

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 11.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of the Reason (R). Mark the correct choice. (1)
Assertion (A) Stress has come to be associated with both the causes as well as effects.
Reason (R) The reaction to external stressors is called ‘strain’.

Codes
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(c) Assertion (A) is true, but Reason (R) is false
(d) Assertion (A) is false, but Reason (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)

Question 12.
Randeep puts the work-related issues under the carpet and refuses to accept or face them. This explains that he is the task. (1)
I. Avoiding
II. Procrastinating
III. Managing
IV. Approaching Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) Only I
(c) Both III and IV
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Only I

Question 13.
Manish is very hard working and intelligent worker in the Multi National Company based in Gurgaon. He not only performs well in his professional life but also helps a lot in day to day work to his mother. Which of the following traits Manish has? (1)
(a) Creative and Cooperative
(b) Creative and Intelligence
(c) Smartness and Intelligence
(d) Hardwork and Creativity
Answer:
(b) Creative and Intelligence

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 14.
Which of the following is true about Gestalt therapy in psychological studies?
I. Gestalt is a German word which means whole.
II. This therapy was given by Freiderick (Fritz) Peris together with his wife Laura Peris.
III. The goal of this therapy is to increase an individual’s self-awareness and self-acceptance.
IV. This therapy cannot be used in group settings.

Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I, II and III
(d) II and IV
Answer:
(c) I, II and III

Question 15.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of the Reason (R). Mark the correct choice. (1)
Assertion (A) Researchers have found that both high and low level of creativity can be found in highly intelligent children and also children of average intelligence.
Reason (R) Creativity tests came into existence to assess variations in terms of the potential for creativity in contrast to intelligence.
Codes
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(c) Assertion (A) is true, but Reason (R) is false
(d) Assertion (A) is false, but Reason (R) is true Answer: (b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason
(R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)

Section B
Section B consists of 6 questions of 2 marks each

Question 16.
Explain the Bandura’s social learning theory. (2)
Answer:
Albert Bandura’s social learning theory suggests that observation and modelling play a primary role in how and why people learn. Learning according to Bandura can occur simply by observing others’ behaviour.

Question 17.
Explain the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale, developed by Binet and Simon. (2)
Answer:
In 1905, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, made the first successful attempt to formally measure intelligence. Binet and Simon developed a series of tests designed to assess mental abilities. Rather than focus on learned information such as math and reading, Binet instead concentrated on other mental abilities such as attention and memory. The scale they developed became known as the “Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale”.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 18.
Karthik belongs to a merchant class family, who are basically into the export-import business. Karthik has decided to become a content creator and convinced his fajnily that he is going to earn handsome money out of it. Identify the method through which his personality trait can be understood. (2)
Answer:
Karthik personality trait can be demonstrated through the Rorschach Inkblot Test, which was developed by Hermann Rorschach. The test consists of 10 inkblots. The test usually reflects the thoughts of the individual since each person sees different things when looking at the Inkblot.
Or
Sheetal doesn’t like to eat healthy and nutritious food in her early age. Though she forcibly eaten due to parental pressure but she also developed taste about many vegetables and milk product. Identify the behaviour of her. (2)
Answer:
Sheetal has the structural unit of personality by the response behaviour. Children do not like eating many of the vegetables e.g., spinach, pumpkin, gourds, etc., but gradually they learn to eat them. This is accomplished through responses (behaviours) that are reinforced

Question 19.
Explain the term ‘frustration’. (2)
Answer:
A feeling of frustration is experienced by individuals when they are denied the opportunity of attaining social status. It can be caused simply by a person’s position in the stratification system or social hierarchy.

Question 20.
What is attitude change? (2)
Answer:
Attitude change is the process of modification in the existing attitude towards an object. Attitudes may be changed and modified during and after the process of attitude formation, through various influences.

Question 21.
Write about ‘Discrimination’. (2)
Answer:
Discrimination is the unfair or prejudicial treatment of people and groups based on characteristics such as race, gender, age or sexual orientation. It encompasses behaviours that display a destination between two or more persons, often based on their association with a specific group.

Section C
Section C consists of 3 questions of 3 marks each

Question 22.
Parents of Natasha nowadays are insisting her daughter to visit a psychotherapist, though Natasha not interested. Her parents ultimately convinced her by giving the detailed benefits of psychotherapy. Explain the goal of psychotherapies in psychology. (3)
Answer:
The goal of psychotherapies in psychology is to change the maladaptive behaviours, decrease the sense of personal distress, this will help Natasha to adapt better to his environment. The primary goals of psychotherapy are as follows:

  1. To know yourself better.
  2. Alleviate emotional pain or confusion.
  3. Assist you in developing a more complete understanding of your psychological issues.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 23.
What is meant by word abnormal? Explain approached that have been used in distinguishing between normal and abnormal behaviours. (3)
Answer:
The word abnormal literally means ‘away from the normal’. It implies deviation from some clearly defined norms or standards. Various approaches have been used in distinguishing between normal and abnormal behaviours. These are as follows

  1. The first approach views abnormal behaviour as a deviation from social norms. Abnormal
    behaviour, thoughts and emotions are different from a society’s ideas of proper functioning.
  2. The second approach views abnormal behaviour as maladaptive. The best criterion for determining the normality of behaviour is whether society promotes the well-being of the individual i.e. the group to which she/he belongs.

Or
What is autistic disorder? Also explain the difficulties faced by the children suffer with autistic disorder. ( 1 + 2 )
Answer:
Autistic disorder is a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socialises with others, causing problems in social interaction and communication. Children with autistic disorder have marked difficulties in social interaction and communication, a restricted range of interests and strong desire for routine.

Children with autistic experience profound difficulties in relating to other people. They often have problems with social communication and interaction and restricted or repetitive behaviours or interests. Children may also have different ways of learning, moving, or paying attention.

Question 24.
Damini has visited to a psychiatrist for mental health checkup. She was quite satisfied with service and assistance given by the therapist. Name and explain the therapy Damini is receiving. (3)
Answer:
Damini is receiving Client-centred Therapy. This therapy was developed by Carl Rogers. It is also called non¬directive psychotherapy which is a psychic treatment method that is done by means of dialogue between counselor and client. The goal of this therapy is to facilitate congruence between the client’s ideal self and actual self, aiming for a state of harmonious well-being.

Section D
Section D consists of 4 questions of 4 marks each

Question 25.
Simranjeet a professional kick boxer has represented various clubs across the world. However she has met with serious sports injuries during the match. Surprisingly she not only recovered but also started preparing for next boxing match. Her doctors, coach and parents were surprised by her resilience. What do you understand by resilience? Discuss. (4)
Answer:
Resilience is a dynamic developmental process referring to the maintenance of positive adjustment under challenging life conditions. As we can see Simranjeet had the capacity to ‘bounce back’ in the face of stress and adversity. Resilience has been conceptualised as reflecting feelings of self-worth and self-confidence, autonomy and self-reliance, seeking a confidence and flexibility and a belief that one’s life has purpose and meaning. Resilient individuals are able to overcome the effects of trauma, stress and adversity and learn to live psychologically healthy and meaningful lives.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 26.
Farhan’s parents has enrolled him into the pre-board exams counselling and meditation course into the nearby locality, as they believed it will increase his emotional intelligence to cope up with exams. How emotional intelligence is useful? (4)
Answer:
Emotional intelligence is a collection of skills that form the foundation for accurately perceiving, expressing, and managing emotions. It represents the emotional aspect of intelligence. Merely possessing a high IQ and a strong academic record is insufficient for achieving success in life.

Farhan’s parents are aware of this fact that emotional intelligence shall help to reduce his son’s stresses and challenges of the outside world. Programmes aimed at improving students’ emotional intelligence have beneficial effects on their academic achievement. They encourage cooperative behaviour and reduce their antisocial activities.

Question 27.
Explain the self-regulation theory. How it helps in mental health? ( 2 + 2 )
Answer:
Self-regulation refers to our ability to organise and monitor our own behaviour. People, who are able to change their behaviour according to the demands of the external environment, are high on self-monitoring.

Self-regulation plays a huge role in alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction, eating disorders, excessive spending, crime, underachievement, procrastination, sexual behaviour, and more. Self-regulation helps people think and behave in ways that align with their own values. It allows people to choose how to respond in an effective manner instead of reacting instinctively (and often unhelpfully) to difficult situations. It greatly helps in people who are struggling with self-regulation.
Or
What type of person traits possessed by Type-A person in psychology? (4)
Answer:
People characterised by Type-A personality in psychology seem to possess high motivation, lack patience, feel short of time, be in a great hurry, and feel like being always burdened with work. Such people find it difficult to slow down and relax.

Some of the characteristics of Type-A personality are as follow

  1. Competitive One main characteristic of people with Type-A personality is competitiveness. They always feel the need to win in any situation.
  2. Impatient Type-A individuals are usually in a hurry. They get frustrated when they need to fall in line, tend to lose their temper quickly, move fast and often, and think that they don’t have a lot of time to spare.
  3. Overly Ambitious They associate success with their accomplishments, pushing themselves with deadlines, and always looking to achieve more and climb high.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 28.
Discuss cognitive dissonance component in attitude change process. (4)
Answer:
Cognitive dissonance was proposed by Leon Festinger. It emphasises that the cognitive components of an attitude must be ‘consonant’ (opposite of dissonant) i.e. they should be logically in line with each other. If an individual finds that two cognitions in an attitude are dissonant then one of them will be changed in the direction of consonance. Festinger and Carlsmith, two social psychologists, conducted an experiment that showed the working of cognitive dissonance. Both balance and cognitive dissonance are examples of cognitive consistency.

Cognitive consistency means that two components, aspects or elements of the attitude, or attitude system, must be in the same direction. Each element should logically fall in line with other elements. If this does not happen, then the person experiences a kind of mental discomfort. In such a state, some aspects in the attitude system changes in the direction of consistency, because our cognitive system requires logical consistency.

Section E
Section E consists of 2 questions 6 marks each

Question 29.
What is the focus of group behaviour in psychology? Describe various conditions for the formation of group. ( 2 + 4 )
Answer:
A group behaviour can be defined as a course of action a group takes as a family. The group behaviour focuses is on how groups affect an individual’s behaviour, thinking, decision-making, or ideas. Psychologists also observe how groups behave as a whole and how groups interact with one another.

Conditions which facilitate group formation are as follows:

  1. Proximity:
    Individuals with similar background, interests, attitudes, values and opinions when have repeated interaction with each other, get a chance to know each other and develop a mutual liking. This facilitates group formation.
  2. Similarity:
    Being exposed to someone over a period of time makes an individually assess similarities. Assessment of similarities paves the way for formation of groups. Explanation given by psychologists are that when people meet similar people, they reinforce and validate their opinions and values. They feel that they are right and thus start liking one another.
  3. Common Motives and Goals:
    When a number of people have common objectives or goals, they tend to get together and form a group, which may facilitate goal attainment. For example, Commuters in a train may form a group which can work towards facilitating their travel on the train.

Or
Analyse in-group and out-group in sepal psychology. ( 3 + 3 )
Answer:
In social psychology, an in-group is a social group where a person psychologically identifies as being a member. On the other hand, an out-group is a social group with which an individual does not identify him. Sometimes groupings are determined by factors inherent to who we are (sex, age, and race/ethnicity). However, in many other cases they are formed at in a somewhat arbitrary manner.

In other words the term ‘in-group’ refers to one’s own group, and ’out-group’ refers to another group. For in-group members, we use the word ‘we’ while for out-group members, the word ‘they’ is used. By using the words ‘they’ and ‘we’, one is categorising people as similar or different.

Ideas about in-groups and out-groups form the basis of a psychological theory called Social Identity Theory, first developed by the psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner. The theory argues that our response to joining groups involves three key stages, which are as follows

  1. Social Categorisation:
    Here we put ourselves and others into categories, for example, we label someone a rapper, a snob, hippie and more to individuals. These labels then serve as a convenient way to imply additional characteristics to traits about the person.
  2. Social Identification:
    As soon as we are identified as belonging to one group rather than another, we take up that identity in our own and others’ eyes. We become defined in a way that also has some emotional or value significance.
  3. Social Comparison:
    As members of a group, we then compare our group with others. In the process, we will define our group in positive terms, thereby reinforcing our own positive view of ourselves. There is also a competitive element in our response to other groups. Out-groups are seen in negative terms, and perhaps even actively discriminated against.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 4 with Solutions

Question 30.
What is personality? Explain about cultural approach to personality. ( 1 + 5 )
Answer:
Personality generally refers to the physical or external appearance of an individual. In psychological terms, personality refers to our characteristic ways of responding to individuals and situations. Cultural approach attempts to understand personality in relation to the features of ecological and cultural environment.

It proposes that a group’s ‘economic maintenance system’ plays a vital role in the origin of cultural and behavioural variations. People develop various personality (behavioural) qualities in an attempt to adapt to the ecological and cultural features of a group’s life. Thus, the cultural approach considers personality as an adaptation of individuals or groups to the demands of their ecology and culture.

This can be explained with the help of Birhor Tribal Group. They lead a nomadic life and move in small bands from one forest to another in search of food and forest products (e.g. fruits, roots, mushrooms, honey etc). In their society, children from an early age are allowed enormous freedom to move into forests and learn hunting and gathering skills which make the children independent, autonomous and’achievement oriented from an early age of life.

Or
John often feel anxious, moody, touchy and restless. He quickly loses control. He went to Psychology clinic in order to diagnose his condition, psychologist performed a test. The result further showed that John has scored high on psychoticism dimension that tends to be hostile, egocentric, and antisocial. What does it mean? Which test did the psychologist performed to determine the psychoticism dimension? ( 4 + 2 )
Answer:
The result showed that John has scored high on psychoticism dimension that tends to be hostile, egocentric and antisocial. This means that his personality contains that trait. H.J. Eysenck had first proposed that personality could be reduced into two broad dimensions. These are biologically and genetically based. These dimensions are

1. Neuroticism v/s Emotional Stability:
It refers to the degree to which people have control over their fellings. At one extreme of the dimension, we find people who are neurotic. They are anxious, moody, touchy, restless and quickly lose control. At the other extreme lie people who are calm, even tempered, reliable and remain under control.

2. Extraversion v/s Introversion:
It refers to the degree to which people are socially outgoing or socially withdrawn. At one extreme are those who are active, gregarious, impulsive and thrill seeking. At the other extreme are people who are passive, quiet, cautious and reserved.

3. Psychoticism v/s Sociability:
It is considered to interact with the other two dimensions mentioned above. The psychologist performed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Test to determine the dimensions of John’s personlity. This instrument is comprised of 57 yes/no items and yields total scores for extraversion and neuroticism as well as a validity score. Individuals are generally classifed as ‘high’ or ‘low’ on the two dimensions.

Section F
Section F consists of 2 Case based questions of 3 marks each

Read the case and answer the questions that follow.

Personality disorders are mental illnesses that share several unique qualities. They contain symptoms that are enduring and play a major role in most, sometimes all, aspects of the persons life. While many disorders vary in terms of symptom presence and intensity, personality disorders usually remain constant. The psychodynamic theory regards human behaviour to be determined by underlying psychological influences that usually are unconscious.

These influences (also called forces) are dynamic the relationship between them gives rise to behaviour. Abnormal symptoms are created when conflicts arise in this relationship. This theory states that all behaviour is determined by childhood events and past experience. Treatment then consists of psychoanalysis, which involves bringing into conscious awareness the traumatic childhood conflicts that have been repressed, and resulting in resolution.

Question 31.
Name the traits of behavioural model of Psychopathology has suggested about Phobias.
Answer:
The behavioural model of Psychopathology suggests that abnormal responses, particularly Phobias, were formed through a conditioning process and also can be treated through new learning- a process known as behaviour therapy.

Question 32.
Explain maladaptive thoughts or behaviour. (2)
Answer:
The Maladaptive thoughts or behaviour-often behaviours that don’t allow people to adapt to life successfully. For example, hearing voices or being unable to leave the house because of an extreme fear.


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