CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 3 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology with Solutions Set 3 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Psychology Set 3 with Solutions

Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

All questions are compulsory except where internal choice has been given.

  1. Question Nos. 1 -15 in Section A carry 1 mark each. You are expected to answer them as directed.
  2. Question Nos. 16-21 in Section B are very short answer type-I questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 30 words.
  3. Question Nos. 22-24 in Section C are short answer type-II questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60 words.
  4. Question Nos. 25 – 28 in Section D are long answer type questions carrying 4 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
  5. Question Nos. 29-30 in Section E are long answer type questions carrying 6 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 200 words.
  6. Question Nos. 31-34 in Section F are based on two cases given. Answer to each one-mark question should not exceed 20 words. Answer to each two-mark question should not exceed 30 words.

Section A
Section A consists of 15 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
Kiran nowadays suffer from stress including mood swings, and shows erratic behaviour with family and friends.
In career path, she has decreasing confidence and self-esteem. These effects are called as (1)
(a) psychological effects
(b) workload burden effects
(c) emotional effects
(d) medical disorder effects
(c) emotional effects

Question 2.
Which umbrella term is used to describe the physical environmental and social cause of stress? (1)
(a) Triggers
(b) Stressors
(c) Distress
(d) None of these
(b) Stressors

Question 3.
A diathesis can best be described as a (1)
(a) proximal necessary cause
(b) sufficient cause
(c) contributory cause
(d) proximal causal factor
(c) contributory cause

Question 4.
Tendency of respondent to endorse items in a social desirable manner is known as (1)
(a) Acquiescence
(b) Self-report
(c) Social desirability
(d) Halo effect
(c) Social desirability

Question 5.
A group of people start a tree plantation campaign as a part of ‘Green Environment’ Movement. Based on sufficient information about the environment, your view towards a green environment is positive. What do we call this positivity? (1)
I. Cognitive
II. E-Component
III. C-Component
IV. Non-Evaluate Aspect Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I and III
(d) II and IV
(c) I and III

Question 6.
Who among the following psychologists have suggested that an intelligent individual not only adapts to the environment, but also actively modifies or shape it? (1)
I. Gardner
II. Sternberg
III. Carl Jung
IV. Guilford

Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I and III
(d) II and IV
(a) I and II

Question 7.
Which psychologist believed that there is a common structure on which people differ from each other? (1)
(a) Gordon Allport
(b) Raymond Cattell
(c) Sigmund Freud
(d) HJ Eysenck
(b) Raymond Cattell

Question 8.
According to the psychological studies, which among the following factors influences attitude formation? (1)
I. Family and school environment
II. Reference groups
III. Social experiences
IV. Clinical related influences
Choose the correct option.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I, II and III
(d) II and IV
(a) I and II

Question 9.
According to method, unwanted behaviour can be reduced and wanted behaviour can be increased simultaneously.
(a) Differential Reinforcement (1)
(b) Differential Enforcement
(c) Reciprocal Inhibition
(d) Positive Modelling
(a) Differential Reinforcement

Question 10.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of the Reason (R). Mark the correct choice. (1)
Assertion (A) An individual intelligence test is one which can be administered to one person at a time. A group intelligence test can be administered to several persons simultaneously.
Reason (R) Individual tests allow people to answer orally or in a written form or manipulate objects as per the tester’s instructions. Group tests generally seek written answers usually in a multiple-choice format.
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(c) Assertion (A) is true, but Reason (R) is false
(d) Assertion (A) is false, but Reason (R) is true
(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A)

Question 11.
A person may smoke to decrease anxiety, may indulge in other activities such as eating, or be unable to concentrate for long hours on her/his study because of the anxiety. Name the procedure by which a person can get rid of anxiety. (1)
(a) Meditative procedure
(b) Psychoanalytical procedure
(c) Relaxation procedure
(d) Rehabilitation procedure
(c) Relaxation procedure

Question 12.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of the Reason (R). Mark the correct choice. (1)
Assertion (A) Changes, both big and small, sudden and gradual doesn’t affect our life from the moment we are born.
Reason (R) Frustration results from the blocking of needs and motives by something or someone that hinders us from achieving a desired goal.

(a) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(b) Both Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true, but / Reason (R) is not the correct explanation of Assertion (A)
(c) Assertion (A) is true, but Reason (R) is false
(d) Assertion (A) is false, but Reason (R) is true Answer: (c) Assertion (A) is true, but Reason (R) is false

Question 13.
Shyam, a 25 year old man is suffering from tobacco and alcohol addiction, though he wants to leave these substance in the past but could not successful. His mother has decided to treat his son at Rishikesh through alternative therapies. Identify among the following which are considered as alternative therapies. (1)
I. Constant observation and medical therapy
II. Yoga and meditation
III. Clinical treatment and drug healing
IV. Acupuncture and herbal remedies Choose the correct option
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) I, II and III
(d) II and IV
(d) II and IV

Question 14.
Holmes and Rahe developed a life event measure of stress. A measure of stressful life events based on the scale known as the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale. It has been developed for the Indian population by Singh, Kaur and Kaur. How many life changes are mentioned in this? (1)
(a) Fifty-one life changes
(b) Sixty-one life changes
(c) Seventy-one life changes
(d) Eighty-one life changes
(a) Fifty-one life changes

Question 15.
Rama and Garima are sisters and are equally good at studies in school. Their behaviour, likes and dislikes are quite similar. It becomes at times difficult for their people to distinguish between the two. How do psychologists determine individual personalities and traits? (1)
(a) Trait Approach
(b) Type Approach
(c) Personality Approach
(d) Post-Freudian Approach
(b) Type Approach

Section B
Section B consists of 6 questions of 2 marks each

Question 16.
Jaqueline is very open minded teenage girl. She loves party, outing and enjoys being at the centre of attention among her peer group. Which personality characteristics associated with her? (2)
Jaqueline’ personality characteristics associated with extraversion personality. Person that have an extraversion personality type are approachable and friendly. They likes being in group and peers and are considered as charismatic leaders that foster positive outlooks.

Question 17.
Rupam’s term-end exams are about to start. Being a studious person he has well prepared and attended regular classes with good internal exams. However he is not able to properly sleep or take food on time due to examination stress. How examination stress can be characterised? (2)
Examination stress has been characterised as evaluative apprehension or evaluative stress. It produces debilitating behavioural, cognitive, and physiological effects different from those produced by any other stressor.

Question 18.
Technologically advanced societies adopt child rearing practices that foster skills of generalisation and abstraction, speed, minimal moves and mental manipulation among children. What type of behaviour, these societies promotes? (2)
Technologically advanced societies promote a type of behaviour, which can be called technological intelligence. In these societies, persons are well-versed in skills of attention, observation, analysis, performance, speed and achievement orientation.

Question 19.
What are the various approaches used to distinguish between normal and abnormal behaviour? (2)
Various approaches have been used to distinguish between normal and abnormal behaviours. These are as follows

  1. The first approach refers to abnormal behaviour as a deviation from the social norms. Each society has norms, which are stated or unstated rules for proper conduct. Behaviours, thoughts and emotions that societal norms are called abnormal.
  2. Tne second approach views abnormal behaviour as maladaptive. Many psychologists think that the normality of behaviour does not depend on the fact whether society accepts it or not, but it depends on the well-being of the individual and group.

Question 20.
Omvati is considered as most obedient and traditionally well-mannered girl in remote village of Bihar. She cares about her parents and grandparents. She is the one who does every household work along with her mother. Why agricultural societies preserved tradition so well? (2)
Sanam since her childhood is very kind towards animals, she particularly cares about her neighbourhood street dogs and cats. Identify the psychological approach she interstates. (2)
In agricultural societies, children are socialised to be obedient to elders and responsible to their duties. Since these behavioural qualities make people more functional in agricultural societies, they become dominant features of people’s personality in contrast to independence, autonomy and achievement.
Sanam interstates humanistic approach which was proposed by Rogers that states fulfilment is the motivating force for personality development. People try to express their capabilities, potentials and talents to the fullest extent possible. There is an inborn tendency among persons that directs them to actualise their inherited nature.

Question 21.
Write formation of Attitude. (2)
Attitudes towards various topics, things and people are developed through interactions with others. However, specific conditions can influence the formation of particular attitudes. In general, attitudes are acquired through personal experiences and interactions with others

Section C
Section C consists of 3 questions of 3 marks each

Question 22.
Raman shows variation in his behaviour. At 23. times he is friendly and other times he becomes very shy and introvert. Give reasons why his behaviour is not constant. (3)
Raman shows the variation in his behaviour. Different people show variations in their behaviour as they are not always cautious or impulsive, shy or friendly. Individuals are characterised by their personality as they appear in Answer: most circumstances.

These situational variations in behaviour also occur in normal human being, as it help individuals in adapting to their environmental circumstances. Situations are powerful enough to override human being’s personalities and principles. There are also some external factors which may have impact on behavioural changes, such as loss of loved one, loss in business, Or separation from the loved ones, failure in life, etc.

Question 23.
How Cognitive Behavioural Therapy locates the cause of psychological distress in irrational thoughts and beliefs? (3)
Identify the basic components of special relationship between the client and the therapist. (3)
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a scientifically validated treatment that locates the cause of psychological distress in irrational thoughts and beliefs such as anxiety, depression, panic attacks, etc. It is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps people learn how to identify and change the destructive or disturbing thought patterns that have a negative influenc. on their behaviour and emotions.
The special relationship between the client and the therapist is known as the therapeutic alliance. There are two basic components of a therapeutic alliance. The first component is the contractual nature of the relationship in which two willing individuals, the client and the therapist enter into a partnership which aims at helping the client overcome her/his problems.

The second component of therapeutic alliance is the limited duration of the therapy. This alliance lasts until the client becomes able to deal with her/his problems. The high level of trust enables the client to unburden herself/himself to the therapist. He encourages this by being accepting, empathic, genuine and warm to the client.

Question 24.
How is Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) used in treating psychological disorders? (3)
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) is used in treating psychological disorders. It was formulated by Albert Ellis. The central thesis of this therapy is that irrational beliefs mediate between the antecedent events and their consequences. The first step in RET is the Antecedent-Belief-Consequence (ABC) analysis.

Antecedent events, which cau^d the psychological distress, are noted. The client is also interviewed to find the irrational beliefs, which are distorting the present reality. Irrational beliefs may not be supported by empirical evidence in the environment. These beliefs are characterised by thoughts with ‘musts’ and ‘shoulds’, i.e. things ‘must’ and ‘should’ be in a particular manner. The rational belief system replaces the irrational belief system and there is a reduction in psychological distress

Section D
Section D consists of 4 questions of 4 marks each

Question 25.
Describe impact of alcohol. (4)
Some impact of alcohol are

  1. Alcoholism destroys millions of families, social relationships and careers.
  2. All alcohol beverages contain ethyl alcohol which is absorbed into the blood and carried into the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) where it depresses or slows down functioning.
  3. Ethyl alcohol depresses those areas in the brain that control judgment and inhibition, people become more talkative and friendly, and they feel more confident and happy.
  4. As alcohol is absorbed, it affects other areas of the brain. For example, drinkers are unable to make sound judgments, speech becomes less careful and less clear and memory falters.
  5. Motor difficulties increase. For example, people become unsteady when they walk and clumsy in performing simple activities.
  6. It also has serious effects on the children of persons with this disorder. These children have higher rates of psychological problems, particularly anxiety, depression, phobias and substance-related disorders.

Question 26.
Joy, a hardworking content Editor is not feeling well due to prolonged office hours and immense pressure from the peer coordinators. Due to this he started developing anxiety and exhaustion and fallen seriously ill. Name and explain the psychological condition he is suffering with. (1+3)
Samantha, a 28 years old IT Professional has completely hectic day throughout the
weekdays. Despite of the fact her neighbours get surprise as she never fails to go shopping or attend community club activities. Identify and explain the personality of Samantha.
Joy is suffering with General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). GAS term is used to describe the body’s short-term and long-term reactions to stress. “Selye conducted research on this topic” by subjecting animals to a variety of stressors such as high temperature, X-rays and insulin injections, in the laboratory over a long period of time. According to him, GAS involves three stages, these are as follows.

  1. Alarm Reaction Stage The presence of a noxious (deadly) stimulus or stressor leads to activation of the adrena-pituitary-cortex system. This triggers the release of hormones producing the stress response. Now the individual is ready for fight or flight.
  2. Resistance Stage If stress is continued then the resistance stage begins. The para-sympathetic nervous system calls for more cautious use of the body’s resources. The organism makes efforts to cope with the threat, as through confrontation.
  3. Exhaustion Stage Continued exposure to the same stressor or additional stressors drains the body of its resources and leads to the third stage of exhaustion.

Samantha has stress resistant personality, which allow a person to cope well with stress, giving the appearance that they are resistant to crisis. These include the hardy personality, the survivor personality and the sensation seeker. People with high levels of stress but low levels of illness share three characteristics, which are referred to as the personality traits of hardiness.

It consists of the three Cs, i.e. Commitment, Control and Challenge. Hardiness is a set of beliefs about oneself, the world, and how they interact. It takes shape as a sense of personal commitment to what you are doing, a sense of control over your life, and a feeling of challenge.

Question 27.
What do you understand by Allport’s Trait Theory? How it acknowledged the influence of situations on behaviour? (2+2)
Gordon Allport is considered as the pioneer of trait approach. He proposed that individuals possess a number of traits, which are dynamic in nature. They determine behaviour in such a manner that an individual approaches different situations with similar plAnswer: The traits integrate stimuli and responses which otherwise look dissimilar.

Allport acknowledged the influence of situations on behaviour. He categorised traits into three parts i.e. cardinal, central and secondary. Cardinal traits are highly generalised in nature. They indicate the goal around which a person’s entire life seems to revolve. Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violence and Hitler’s Nazism are examples of cardinal traits.

Central traits are less broad in effect but still quite generalised in nature. These traits are often used in writing a testimonial or job recommendations for a person. Warm, sincere, diligent, etc are the examples of this trait. Secondary traits are the least generalised characteristics of a person. Traits such as like mangoes or prefers ethnic clothes are examples of secondary traits.

Question 28.
Farhan is a teacher in the nearby Anger Management Institute. With the batch of 150 students, he teaches with live model examples. Even students are quite satisfied with his teaching methodology. One day they learnt that his teacher has filed divorce petition against his wife. Explain the attitude-behaviour relationship. (4)
An individual’s attitude may not always be exhibited through behaviour. One’s actual behaviour may be contrary to one’s attitude towards a particular topic. As we can see here how Farhan could not save his marriage life after being a qualified anger management teacher.  With this, one can say, attitudes may not always predict actual pattern of one’s behaviour. Sometimes, it is behaviour that decides the attitude. Psychologists have found that there would be consistency between attitudes and behaviour when

  • the attitude is strong and occupies a central place in the attitude system.
  • the person is aware of her/his attitude.
  • there is very little or no external pressure for the person to behave in a particular way.
  • the person’s behaviour is not being watched or evaluated by others.
  • the person thinks that the behaviour would have a positive consequence, and therefore, intends to engage in that behaviour.

Section E
Section E consists of 2 questions 6 marks each

Question 29.
What is Group polarisation? How it is related with Persuasive Arguments Theory? ( 4 + 2 )
What is Social loafing and why does it occurs? ( 2 + 4 )
Group polarisation is the tendency for groups to show a shift towards the extremes of decision-making when compared to decisions made by individuals. When individual members of a group are already cautious in their attitude to a decision, they will show a shift toward an even more cautious attitude when they discuss this as part of a like-minded group.

When individuals are less cautious before a group discussion, they tend to show a shift towards more risky decisions when they are making a decision as part of a like-minded group. This type of group polarisation is known as risky shift. On average, groups will polarise (show accentuated judgments) toward the attitudes held before the group decision is reached.

Group polarisation is related with the Persuasive Arguments Theory because of the content of the arguments that happen during discussions. This theory assumes that there is a group of arguments that can be applied to any issue and that the people participating in the discussion draw possible arguments from the pool of those that support their initial attitudes.
Social loafing refers to the concept that people are prone to exert less effort when working collectively as part of a group compared to performing a task alone. Social loafing is more evident in tasks where the contribution of each group member is combined into a group outcome, making it difficult to identify the contribution of a single person. An example of such a task is the game of tug-of-war. It is not possible for you to identify how much force each member of the team has been exerting.
Social loafing occurs because of the following reasons

  1. Group members feel less responsible for the overall task being performed and therefore exert less effort.
  2. Motivation of members decreases because they realise that their contributions will not be evaluated on individual basis.
  3. The performance of the group is not to be compared with other groups.
  4. There is an improper coordination (or no coordination) among members.
  5. Belonging to the same group is not important for members. It is only an aggregate of individuals.

Question 30.
What is PASS Model? How this model is comprised? ( 2 + 4 )
Are there cultural differences in the conceptualisation of intelligence? Also explain technological intelligence. ( 3 + 3 )
The PASS Model was given by JP Das, Jack Naglieri and Kirby in 1994. According to this model, intellectual activity involves the interdependent functioning of three neurological systems, called functional units of brains. These PASS processes operate on a knowledge base developed either formally (by reading, writing and experimenting) or informally from the environment. These processes are interactive and dynamic in nature yet each has its own distinctive function.

PASS Model is comprised by three processes which are as follows :
Arousal/Attention State of arousal is basic to any behaviour, as it helps us in attending to stimuli. It enables a person to process information. An optimal level of arousal focuses our attention to the relevant aspects of a problem. Too much or too little arousal would interfere with attention.

Simultaneous and Successive Processing:
Simultaneous processing takes place when you perceive the relations among various concepts and integrate them into a meaningful pattern for comprehension.Successive processing takes place when you remember all the information sequentially, so that the recall of one item leads to the recall of another.

Learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables, etc are examples of successive processing. Planning It allows us to think of the possible courses of action, implement them to reach a target and evaluate their effectiveness. If a plan does not work, it is modified to suit the requirements of the task or situation.
Yes, there are cultural differences in the conceptualisation of intelligence. The cultural environment provides a context for intelligence to develop.
1. Culture and Intelligence:
A person’s intelligence is likely to be tuned by cultural parameters like customs, beliefs, attitudes and achievements in art and literature. Many theorists have regarded intelligence as attributes specific to the person without regard to their cultural background. According to Sternberg, intelligence is a product of culture. Vygotsky also believed that cultures, like individuals, have a life of their own; they grow and change, and in the process specify what will be the end-product of successful intellectual development.

2. Technological Intelligence:
Technological intelligence is found in technologically advanced societies. Skills of generalisation and abstraction, speed, minimal moves and mental manipulation are promoted among children. These societies promote a type of behaviour, which can be called technological intelligence. In these societies, persons are well-versed in skills of attention, observation, analysis, performance, speed, and achievement orientation.

Technological intelligence is not so valued in many Asian and African societies. The qualities and skills regarded as intelligent actions in non-Western cultures are sharply different. Contrary to technological intelligence, intelligence in the Indian tradition can be termed as integral intelligence. Indian thinkers view intelligence from a holistic perspective where equal attention is paid to cognitive and non-cognitive processes as well as their integration.

Section F
Section F consists of 2 Case based questions of 3 marks each

Read the case and answer the questions that follow.

Schizophrenia is the descriptive term for a group of psychotic disorders in which personal, social and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of disturbed thought processes, strange perceptions, unusual emotional states and motor abnormalities. It is a debilitating disorder. The social and psychological costs of schizophrenia are tremendous, both to patients as well as to their families and society. Symptoms of schizophrenia can be classified as positive symptoms (i.e. excesses of thought, emotion, and behaviour), negative symptoms (i.e. deficits of thought, emotion, and behaviour), and psychomotor symptoms.

Question 31.
What are delusions? (1)
A delusion is a false belief that is firmly held on inadequate grounds. It is not affected by rational argument, and has no basis in reality.

Question 32.
Explain two types of hallucinations. (2)
Hallucination involve sensing things such as visions, sounds or smells that seen real but are not. These things are created by the mind. Two types of hallucinations are as follows. Auditory Hallucinations These are false perceptions of sound. It is one of the most prevalent symptoms of schizophrenia. Somatic Hallucinations It is false perception that something happening inside the body such as a snake crawling inside one’s stomach, etc.

Read the case and answer the questions that follow.

As in the case of other mental and physical characteristics, such variations can be attributed to the complex interaction of heredity and environment. There is no disagreement that creativity is determined by both heredity and environment. Limits of the creative potential are set by heredity, environmental factors stimulate the development of creativity. How much of the creative potential can be realised, when and in what specific form and direction is largely determined by environmental factors such as motivation, commitment, family support, peer influences, training opportunities, etc. Although no amount of training can transform an average person to the level of Tagore, Shakespeare, etc. but it is also true that every individual can raise her/his level of creative potential beyond its present level.

Question 33.
What do you understand by creativity? (1)
Creativity refers to the ability of transforming ideas, imagination and dreams into reality. It is also a ability to produce problem solutions that are novel and appropriate.

Question 34.
Limits of the creative potential are set by heredity, environmental factors stimulate the development of creativity. Explain. (2)
It is a well-known fact that creativity is determined by both heredity and environment. Limits of the creative potential are set by heredity, environmental factors stimulate the development of creativity, determines that how much one can achieve creative potential. The form and direction also depends on environmental factors such as motivation, commitment, family support, etc.

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