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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 8 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History with Solutions Set 8 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 8 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions

  1. Question paper comprises five Sections – A, B, C, D and E. There are 34 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A. Question 1 to 21 are MCQs of 1 mark each.
  3. Section B: Question no. 22 to 27 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60-80 words.
  4. Section C: Question no 28 to 30 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 300-350 words.
  5. Section D: Question no. 31 to 33 are Source Based Questions with three sub-questions and are of 4 marks each.
  6. Section E: Question no. 34 is Map based, carrying 5 marks that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper forever, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
  8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.

Section A
Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
Read the following statements and identify the correct answer. (1)
I. It was walled.
II. It was smaller but higher part of the settlement.
III. It was used for special public purposes.
IV. it included ware house and the Great Bath.
(a) Lower town
(b) Upper town
(c) Middle town
(d) Citadel
Answer:
(d) Citadel

Question 2.
Which one of the following sites was known for making shell objects in the Harappan Civilisation? (1)
(a) Amri
(b) Balakot
(c) Kalibangan
(d) Manda
Answer:
(b) Balakot

Question 3.
Who was the first person to decipher the Ashokan Inscription’? (1)
(a) James Prinsep
(b) REM Wheeler
(c) Colin Mackenzie
(d) Alexander Cunningham
Answer:
(a) James Prinsep

Question 4.
Which among the following appropriately define the term Yavana? (1)
(a) Major port city in Eastern India used for trading with South Asian countries.
(b) The early kingdom in Jammu and Kashmir.
(c) Term used to denote the tribal people.
(d) Sanskrit word used for the Greeks and other people who entered the sub-continent from the North-West.
Answer:
(d) Sanskrit word used for the Greeks and other people who entered the sub-continent from the North-West.

Question 5.
Look at the given image of Tirthankara and identify the Indian School of Architecture associated with this image.

(a) Gandhara School of Art
(b) Mathura School of Art
(c) Greeco Roman School of Art
(d) Amaravati School of Art
Answer:
(b) Mathura School of Art

Question 6.
Which of the following categories of society of ancient Persia was not recognised by the Al-Biruni? (1)
(a) Knights and Princes
(b) Monks and Fire-priests
(c) Peasants and Artisans
(d) Children and Women
Answer:
(d) Children and Women

Question 7.
Who among the following was/were foreign travellers who visited Vijayanagara Empire? (1)
(a) Thomas Roe
(b) Ibn Battuta
(c) Abdur Razzaq
(d) Williams Hawkins
Answer:
(c) Abdur Razzaq

Question 8.
Consider the following statements regarding Mirabai and choose the correct option. (1)
I. She was a Rajput princess from Mewar.
II. She recognised Lord Krishna as her lover.
III. She was a follower of Nirguna Bhakti.
IV. Surdas was her perceptor.
Options
(a) Only (i) is correct
(b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) Only (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) only (iii) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 9.
Identify the name of personality related to the history of the Mughal Empire with the help of the given information. (1)
He defeats Ibrahim Lodi, the Delhi Sultan at Panipat.
He becomes the first Mughal emperor.
Options
(a) Humayun
(b) Babur
(c) Akbar
(d) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(b) Babur

Question 10.
Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). (1)
Assertion (A) Travellers from different parts of world visited the Vijayanagara Empire.
Reason (R) Krishnadevarava’s work Amuktarnalyada advised kings to take care of foreign sailors and travellers.
Codes
(a) Both A and R arc true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true
Answer:
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

Question 11.
The didactic (informative) sections of Mahabharata added in 200-400 CE largely resemble which ancient text? (1)
(a) Sutta Pitaka
(b) Manusmriti
(c) Dharmashastra
(d) Upanishad
Answer:
(b) Manusmriti

Question 12.
…………………… was the Viceroy of India when the Revolt of 1857 happened. (1)
(a) Lord Dalhousie
(b) Lord Canning
(c) Lord Curzon
(d) Lord Lytton
Answer:
(b) Lord Canning

Question 13.
Choose the correct option from the following statements with reference to the Buddha’s followers. (1)
(a) Buddha’s followers were Kings and Gahapatis only.
(b) Workers, slaves, and craftspersons worked in Sanghas.
(c) Followers were regarded as equal on becoming Bhikkhus or Bhikkhunis.
(d) Buddha’s foster mother, Gotami never adopted Buddhism.
Answer:
(c) Followers were regarded as equal on becoming Bhikkhus or Bhikkhunis.

Question 14.
Match the following. (1)

List I List II
A. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu 1. Rajasthan
B. Basvanna 2. Bengal
C. Mirabai 3. Punjab
D. Baba Guru Nanak 4. Karnataka

Codes
(a) A-2, B-4, C-1, D- 3
(b) A-4, B-2,C-3,D- I
(c) A-2, B-4,C-3,D-1
(d) A -3, B – 1, C-2, D-4
Answer:
(a) A-2, B-4, C-1, D- 3

Question 15.
Read the following statements carefully and identify the place where this temple is locatcd from the given options.
I. It is a temple of the Durga Surya.
II. It was built between 7th and 8th century by the Chalukya Dynasty.
(a) Gava, Bihar
(b) Ellora, Maharashtra
(c) Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh
(d) Aihole, Karnataka
Answer:
(d) Aihole, Karnataka

Question 16.
Who among the following represented ‘Tribals’ in the Constituent Assembly? (1)
(a) Jaipal Singh
(b) NG Ranga
(c) BR Ambedkar
(d) Budhu Bhagat
Answer:
(a) Jaipal Singh

Question 17.
Who introduced the crucial Objective Resolution in Constituent Assembly’? (1)
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) KM Munshi
(c) BR Ambedkar
(d) Vallabh Bhai Patel
Answer:
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru

Question 18.
Under the Ryotwari system, the lands were surveyed every …………………. .(1)
(a) 10 years
(b) 20years
(c) 30 years
(d) 40 years
Answer:
(c) 30 years

Question 19.
Nana Sahib, the successor of Peshwa …………………… was the leader of ……………………. during the Revolt of 1857. (1)
(a) Baji Rao II, Kanpur
(b) Narayan Rao, Ara
(c) Madhav Rao, Meerut
(d) Balaji Vishwanath, Kanpur
Answer:
(a) Baji Rao II, Kanpur

Question 20.
Why was Gandhiji certain that he would not be allowed to reach Dandi? Choose the correct option from the following. (1)
(a) British might arrest him on the way.
(b) British might impose the Rowlatt Act on him.
(c) The British deport him back to South Africa.
(d) The British deport him back to Andaman and Nicobar.
Answer:
(a) British might arrest him on the way.

Question 21.
Which of the following is/are true about the role played by Rajendra Prasad and BR Ambedkar in the Constitutional Assembly?
(a) BR Ambedkar served as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
(b) Rajendra Prasad served as President of the Constitutional Assembly.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(c) Both (a) and (b)

Section B
Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 marks each

Question 22.
List some of the problems faced by epigraphists. (3)
Answer:
Inscriptions are the most important archaeological source. They are very helpful in reconstructing the ancient histoiy But, as a source of historical evidence, inscriptions pose many problems for the epigraphists.

These are enlisted in the following points
Sometimes, there are technical limitations like letters are very taintly engraved, and thus, reconstructions are uncertain.
Inscriptions may be damaged or letters are missing. The exact meaning of the words used in inscriptions is not always clear.
All the inscriptions that have been discovered have not been deciphered, published and translated. One of the most fundamental problem is that, it is not necessary that everything which is considered politically or economically significant is recorded in inscriptions.

Question 23.
Explain, how the Constituent Assembly reflected the diversity of the people of India and their opinions. (3)
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly reflectod the diversity of the people and their opinions in the following ways Wide Range of ViewPoints of Members The Constituent Assembly had 300 members in all. These members held a wide range of views. Some were atheists and secular.

From Socialists to Capitalists Out of the members of the Constituent Assembly, some were socialists in their economic philosophy, while, others defended the right of capitalists.

From Different Caste and Religious Groups
Independent members of different castes and religious groups were also the members of the Constituent Assembly these were Maulana Azad, Frank Anthony and many more.

Questions from the Field of Law
Law experts also deliberated on matters involving as substantial question of law. The intense debates that took place within the
Constituent Assembly reflected the diversity of opinions. Thus, the Constituent Assembly was consisted of people of all religions and communities making it a miniature India.

Question 24.
What was Damin-i-koh? How it came into being? (1+2)
Answer:
Darnin-i-koh was the name given to the forested hilly areas of Rajmahal hills in present-day Jharkhand state.
This area was demarcated as land of Santhal and they were persuaded to carry Out settled agriculture in this area After carrying out survey and mapping of the area it was declared as Damin – i . koh in 1832.

Britishers created Damin-i-koh to serve their two-fold purpose. They were

  • After introduction of permanent settlement, they wanted expansion of agricultural activities which can increase their land revenue collection.
  • They also wanted to drive out paharias who were constantly raiding the nearby plain settlements. Thus, demarcation of separate areas for Santhal led to the clearing of forests and migration of Santhal from various regions of Eastern Indian to this region.

Question 25.
What do you think were the advantages and disadvantages of enclosing agricultural land within the fortified area of the city of
Vijayanagara? (1.5+1.5)
Answer:
Following are the advantages of the fortification of agricultural land
It enclosed the agricultural tracts, cultivated fields, gardens, and forests for the benefit of city and protected fields from animals. The encasement had an elaborate canal system which drew water from the Tungabhadra.

Following are the disadvantages of the fortification of the agricultural land Fortification of agricultural land was very costly.
It was difficult to bring seeds, fertiliser, tools, and implements Iron, markets located outside the fortified area.

Question 26.
Justify the statement that ‘6th century BCE is regarded as a major turning point in early Indian history’. (3)
Or
How the period of mid-first millennium BCE a major turning point in the world history? (3)
Answer:
The 6th century BCE is regarded as a major turning point in early Indian history for the following reasons

  • It is an era associated with early states, cities, the growing use of iron, the development of coinage, etc.
  • This era witnessed the growth of diverse system of thoughts like Buddhism and Jainism.
  • It is associated with the emergence of sixteen Mahajanapadas.

Or

  • The mid-first millennium BCE is often regarded as a major turning point in the world history because of the following facts Emergence of Thinkers It saw the emergence of thinkers such as Zarathustra in Iran. Kong Zi in China, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in Greece and Mahavira and Gautama Buddha among others in India.
  • Understanding of the Mysteries of Existence Thinkers tried to understand the mysteries of existence and the relationship between human beings and the cosmic order.
  • Development of New Kingdoms and Cities It was the time when new kingdoms and cities were developed. Change in Social and Economic Life Social and economic life were changing in a variety of ways, e.g. in the Ganga Valley growth of town, new crafts, and trade took place.
  • New Agricultural Technology There was extension of agriculture due to occupation of new lands, application of new techniques, and use of iron tools.

Question 27.
Write about the Khanqahs and development of Silsilas of Sufism. (3)
Or
“Sufism evolved as a reaction to the growing materialism of the caliphate as a religious and political institution. (3)
Answer:
The development of Khanqahs and Silsilas was evident by the eleventh century when Sut ism evolved into a well developed movement with a body of literature on Quranic studies and Sufi practices.

Institutionally, the Sufis began to organise communities around the Khanqah (Persian) controlled by a teaching master known as shaikh, pir or murshid (in Persian). He enrolled disciples and appointed a successor (Khalifa). He established rules for spiritual conduct and interaction between inmates as well as between laypersons and the master.

Sufi Silsilas began to crystallize in different parts of the Islamic world around the twelfth century. The word silsila literally means a chain, signifying a continuous link between master and disciple, stretching as an unbroken spiritual genealogy to the Prophet Muhammad.

Or
In the early centuries of Islam a group of religious-minded people called Sufis protested against the growing materialism of the Caliphate as a religious and political institution. They were critical of the dogmatic definitions and scholastic methods of interpreting the Quran and Sunnah (traditions of the prophet) adopted by theologians.

Instead, they laid emphasis on seeking salvation through intense devotion and love for God by following his commands and by following the example of the prophet Mohammad whom they regarded as a perfect human being.

Section C
Section C consists of 3 questions of 8 marks each

Question 28.
In the history of nationalism, Gandhiji was often identified with the making of a nation. Describe his role in the freedom struggle of India. (8)
Or
Gandhiji’s ideology of incorporation of every segment of Indian population was significant feature of his nationalist struggle. In this regard, elucidate how Non-cooperation Movement was a mass movement with participation from every segment of the society. (8)
Answer:
The period of 1919-1947 occupies a very important place in the history of the Indian freedom struggle. This period is generally known as the ‘Gandhian Era’.

Gandhiji transformed the nature of the National movement and it became a mass movement. His role in the freedom struggle of India is given below ‘Gandhiji transformed the National Movement of the masses by following his new technique of struggle based on the principle of Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience.

Indian Nationalism witnessed a transformation in its nature with the active participation of Gandhiji in Indian National Movement.

The mass appeal made by Gandhi ji was not frivolous. His qualities of efficient leadership made a remarkable contribution in making the base of Indian Nationalism wider.

Due to Gandhiji’s contribution, the provincial committees of the Congress were formed on linguistic regions and not on the artificial boundaries of the British India. These different ways contributed greatly to take Nationalism to the distant corners of the country.

The social groups previously untouched by Nationalism, now became an important part of it because of contribution of Gandhiji. Thousands of peasants, labourers, and artisans started participating in the National Movement.

The common masses participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement significantly. In Delhi, some 1600 women picketed the liquor shop.

Quit India Movement became genuinely a mass movement. Hundreds of thousands of ordinary Indians participated in ¡t. Besides the common Indian, some very prosperous businessmen and industrialists too became supporters of the h,dian National Congress.

Some renowned industrialists such as GD Bina started supporting the National Movement openly whereas some others began to do so tacitly. Thus, under Gandhiji. the National Movement was transformed into a mass movement.

Or
Non-Cooperation Movement is regarded as first major mass movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. There were different steps taken by Mahatma Gandhi to include different sections of society in the Non-Cooperation Movement which were

Before the launch of the Non-Cooperation Movement, he led the struggle of farmers in Champaran Satyagraha and workers in the Ahemadabad mill strike. These segments of population hitherto neglected in the nationalist struggle played huge role in the Non-Cooperation Movement.

The wide gulf between the intelligentsia of the country and poor peasants was bridged by the Mahatma Gandhi in Champaran Satyagraha. Many prominent lawyers of Bihar such as Rajendra Prasad, Mazaharul Haq, etc participated in Satyagraha for the cause of farmers. This nexus between peasants and middle classes was main factor for the success at many of Gandhian plans.

To promote the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity he incorporated the various demands of Khilafat Movement into the Non-Cooperation Movement. It is noteworthy that both these movements was launched from single platform and led by Gandhiji. It saw massive participation from both these communities.

He recognized the potential of youngers people in the nationalist struggle. The Non-Cooperation Movement, through its appeal of boycott of school and colleges and promotion of nationalist education, saw huge participation of youths in cause for nation. Many of the revolutionaries from Bengal and Maharashtra followed the principles advocated by Mahatma Gandhi.

Many among the neglected sections of population joined the nationalist movement for a common cause due to accommodative policies followed by Mahatma Gandhi. The Tana Bhagat Movement led by Oroantribes of the Chhotanagpur plateau was incorporated in programme of Non-Cooperation Movement Similarly, women from many segments of population joined protest and Dharnas.

Many of the programme of Non-Cooperation Movement such as boycotts of foreign clothes and products, law courts, liquor was common concern for every segments of Indian population. Inspired by the appeal of Gandhiji, hill tribes of Andhra Pradesh violated forest laws. Farmers and peasants also withhold their taxes.

Gandhiji’s clarion call on promotion of Swadeshi led to the opening of nationalist schools and colleges in different parts of the country. In addition to it large number of indigenous village and cottage industries were established.

Thus, the Non-Cooperation Movement was a watershed moment in the history of freedom struggle of the country as people from many strata of the society participated for the nationalist cause.

Question 29.
Discuss with examples how Bhakti and Sufi Saint promoted the development of regional language. (8)
Or
Kabir described the ultimate reality through his poems, couplets and quotes. Explain his source of inspiration and how he used
various traditions to express himself. (4+4)
Answer:
Bhakti and Sufi saint had huge following among the masses. In place of classical and language of the court such as Persian. they preferred to communicate in the regional language.

The following examples highlight how they played significant role in development of regional language Sufi Saint of Chishti Silsila conversed in Hindavi which was the language of the people in Delhi. Similarly, Baba Farid composed verses in Punjabi language.

The Suh poetry or Pvlasnavis composed by the saints were recited in hospices, usualiy during ‘sama’, it helped in growth of language. For instance, Malik Muhammad Jayasi composed Padmavati, on the other hand, at Bijapur, Karnataka poems were composed in Dakhani (a variant of Urdu).

In South, Aiwar and Nayanar composed their hymns in Tamil. they also spread their messages in these languages which led to huge popularity in the masses, Similarly, in Maharashtra, Bhakti Saints such as Tukaram, Eknath and Ramdas laid emphasis on growth ot Marathi language.

In North India, the Nirguna Bhakti Saints such as Kabir and Guru Nanak communicated and composed their hymns in local language. Still, many Kabir’s poems have survived in several languages and dialects.

The Virashaiva Movement in Karnataka led by Lingayats led to the huge popularity of Kannada language. They Vachanas composed by many saints and common men and women alike played significant role in growth of Kannada language.

In Eastern India, Bhakti tradition was popularised by Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in West Bengal and Shankaradeva. They popularised their Saguna Bhakti with their kirtana-ghosha which played significant role in growth of Bengali and Assamese language and culture.

Under the influence of Sufism, the Khwaja, a branch of the Ismails which a Shia sect, developed new types of communication, spreading ideas devised from Quran through local literary traditions.

Hence, Bhakti and Sufi movements, with their main aim of reformation of popular religion and upliftment of masses laid the foundation for the growth of many regional languages.
Or
Kabir was the most influential Bhakti Saint in fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. He belonged to the Nirguna tradition of Bhakti movement and through his poems attacked meaningless rituals of both Hinduism and Islam. At the same time, he drew on range of traditions to describe the ultimate reality. The historians tried to reconstruct Kabir’s life and timing through a study of compositions attributed to him as well as from later hagiographies.

Verses attributed to Kabir have been compiled in three distinct traditions, V12, Kabir Bijak, Kabir Granthavali, and Adi Granth Sahib. All these compilations were made long after the death of Kabir. Kabir’s poems have survived in several languages and dialects.

Source of Inspiration for Kabir
Kabir was born in an era where constant intermingling and exchange of ideas were carried out in between the different traditions. The basic ideologies of Bhaktism ar.d Sut ism were also developed at their mature stage. The constant interaction between Bhakti saints. Wandering ascetics, Nath Panth’s, and Suti saints had created an atmosphere where many illogical customs and traditions of the society were questioned through poems, couplets, and quotes. These traditions inspired the Kabir to reform the established religion.

His ideas crystallized through dialogues and debate (explicit or implicit) with the traditions of the Sufis and Yogis in the region of Awadh. Further Hagiographies within the Vaishnava tradition attempted to suggest that he was initiated into Bhakti by his guru, Ramananda. However, the verses attributed to Kabir use the word Guru and Satguru, but do not mention the name of any specific preceptor.

Use of Various Traditions to express Himself
The significance of Kabir’s poem also lies in the fact that his teachings were inspired by both Hinduism and Islam which sometimes expressed diverse and conflicting ideas. For instance, some poems imbibed Islamic ideas and used monotheism, and attacked Hindu polytheism arid idol worship while others used the Sufi concept of Zikr and Isha to express the Hindu practice of Nam-Simran i.e remembrance of god’s name.

The various traditions utilised by Kabir to describe the ultimate reality through his poems are
Islamic Tradition In some of his poems and couplets. ultime4 huy has been described as Allah, Khuda, Hazrat, and Pir
Vedatic Tradition He also used the terms Alakh (Unseen), Nirankar (Formless). Brahman, Atman, etc to describe the ultimate reality. Yogic Tradition Other terms with mystical can notations such as shabda (sound) or shunya (emptyness) were drawn from yogic tradition.

Question 30.
What do you mean by numismatics? How has the study of coins helped numismatists to reconstruct possible commercial
networks? (1+7)
Or
Explain the system of land grants and trade from 600 BCE to 600 CE. (4+4)
Answer:
Numismatics is the study of coins, including visual elements such as scripts and images, metallurgical analysis and the contexts in which they have been found.

The study of coins has helped numismatists to reconstruct possible commercial networks in the following ways
Introduction of Coinage for Trade Facilitation To some extent, exchanges were facilitated by the introduction of coinage. A wide range of goods were carried from one place to another like salt, grain cloth, metal ores and finished products, stone, timber medicinal plants, etc. These certainly required some kind of currency for exchange. Hence, these led to the development of coinage across trading cultures.

Excavation of Punch-marked Coins across the Sub-continent Punch-marked coins made of silver and copper (16th century BCE onwards) were amongst the earliest to be minted and used. These have been recovered from excavations at a number of sites throughout the subcontinent. Numismatists have studied these and other coins to reconstruct possible commercial networks.

Kings, Merchants and Bankers as Issuing Authority Attempts made to identify the symbols on punch-marked coins with specific ruling dynasties. including the Mauryas. suggest that these were issued by kings. It is also likely that merchants,
bankers and people living in towns issued some of these coins.

The similarity of Kushana Coins with those of Greeks and Parthians The first gold coins were issued in 1st century CE by the Kushanas. These were virtually identical in weight with those issued by contemporary Roman emperors and the Parthian rulers of Iron. These coins have been found from several sites in North India and Central Asia.

Close Connections with the Roman Empire The widespread use of gold coins indicates the enormous value of the transactions that were taking place. Besides, hoards of Roman coins have been found from archaeological sites in South India. It is obvious
that networks of trade were not confined within political boundaries. South India was not a part of the Roman empire. but there were close connections through trade.

Abundance of Gold Coins in Gupta Empire The coins issued by the Gupta rulers were remarkable for their purity in addition to it’s intrinsic design patterns. It facilitated long-distance transactions across Roman empire and Gupta empire, However after the decline of Roman empire trade and commerce deteriorated as attested by decline of number ot gold coins from that era.

Thus, numismatics through their study of coin helps in the reconstruction of possible commercial networks in addition to giving an idea about the material prosperity of the region.
Or
From the early centuries, grants of land were recorded in inscriptions. Some inscriptions were recorded on copper plates. The records that have survived give us the following facts Land grants were given to religious institutions or to Brahmanas. The Brahmanas were usually exempted from paying land revenue and other dues to the king.

The Brahmanas were often given the right to collect these dues from the local people. Women were not supposed to have independent access to resources like land. But aristocratic women like Prabhavati Gupta, daughter of Chandragupta II, had access to land. All the people in rural areas had to obey the new lord of the village and pay him all the taxes.

Some historians claim that land grants were indicative of weakening political power, as kings were losing control over their samantas. Sometimes kings tried to win allies by making grants ot land. Land grants provide some insight into the relationship between cultivators and the state.

The system of trade from 600 BCE to 600 CE can be explained in the following ways

  • Land and river routes crisscrossed the sub-continent and extended in different directions from the 6th century BCE The rulers tried to control these routes by offering protection for a price.
  • These different routes were transverse by the peddlers who travelled on foot. But the merchants travelled with caravans of bullock carts and pack animals.
  • There were seafarers, Their ventures were risky but highly profitable.
    Successful merchants, designated as Masattuvan in Tarnil and Setthis and Satavahanas in Praknt, were very rich.

A wide range of goods were carried from one place to another. These were salt. grain, stone, timber. medicinal plants, spices and pepper, and textiles. All these were transported across the Arabian sea to the Mediterranean.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 Source based questions of 4 marks each

Question 31.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Rules for Monks and Nuns
These are some of the rules laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka When a new felt (blanket/ruq) has been made by a bhikkhu, it is to be kept for at least six years. If after less than six years he should have another new felt (blanket/ruq) made, regardless of whether or not he has disposed of the first, then unless he has been authorised by the bhikkhus it is to be forfeited and confessed.

In case a bhikkhu arriving at a family residence is presented with cakes or cooked grain meal, he may accept two or three bowlfuls if he so desires. If he should accept more than that, it is to be confessed. Having accepted the two or three bowlfuls and having taken them from there, he is to share them among the bhikkhus. This is the proper course here. Should any bhikkhu, having set out bedding in a lodging belonging to the sangha or having had it set out and then on departing neither put it away nor have it put away or should he go without taking leave, it is to be confessed.
(i) What is Vinaya Pitaka? Explain it’s importance. (1)
(ii) Why do you think men and women joined sangha? Give two reasons. (1)
(iii) What was the Bodh sangha? Mention two rules laid by the sangha that should be observed by the bhikkhus. (2)
Answer:
(i) Vinaya Pitaka is among the three sacred canonical literature of the Buddhism. Other two are Sutta and Abhidhamma Pitaka. in Buddhism. it is considered very important as it contains rules for Buddhist monks’ arid hunts.
(ii) Men and women joined sangha due to the two reasons given below

  • They wanted to live a simple and disciplined life in sangha.
  • They wanted to remain away from worldly pleasure.

(iii) Bodh sangha was an organisation of monks, who served as teachers of Dhamma. They lived a simple life and possessed only those essential goods which were required in daily routine life.

The two rules laid by the sangha were

  • A new blanket/rug should be used for not less than six years.
  • Cooked grau meals should be shared with other bhikkhus and should not be eaten alone.

Question 32.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah
Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah was one of the many maulvis who played an important part in the Revolt of 1857. Educated in Hyderabad, he became a preacher when young. In 1856, he was seen moving from village to village preaching jehad (religious war) against the British and urging people to rebel.

He moved in a palanquin, with drumbeaters in front and followers at the rear. He was therefore popularly called Danka Shah the maulvi with the drum (danka). British officials panicked as thousands began; following the maulvi and many Muslims began seeing him as an inspired prophet.

When he reached Lucknow in 1856, he was stopped by the police from preaching in the city. Subsequently, in 1857, he was
jailed in Faizabad. When released, he was elected by the mutinous 22nd Native Infantry as their leader.

He fought in the famous Battle of Chinhat in which the British forces under Henry Lawrence were defeated. He came to be
known for his courage and power. Many people in fact believed that he was invincible, had magical powers, and could
not be killed by the British. It was this belief that partly formed the basis of his authority.
(i) Who was Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah? (1)
(ii) Why Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah was popular? (1)
(iii) Which battle was fought by Ahmadullah Shah? What important information the passage conveyed to you? (2)
Answer:
(i) Maulvi Ahmaduliah was one of the many Maulvi who played an impotant part in the Revoft of 1857 in Awadh region He urged people to rebel against the British.
(ii) He used to move from village to village preaching jehad (religious war) against the British and urging people to rebel, so he became popular.
(iii) He fought the famous Battle of Chinhat. in which the British forces under Henry Lawrence were defeated. We got to know from the event that not only rajas and peasants became the leaders of the revolt, but Maulvis also played a role of leader and encouraged people to rebel against the British rule.

Question 33.
Trade between the Tribes and the Plains, c 1595
This is how Abu’l Fazi describes the transactions between the hill tribes and the plains in the suba of Awadh (part of
present-day Uttar Pradesh).

From the Northern mountains quantities of goods are carried on the backs of men, of stout ponies and of goats, such as gold,
copper, lead, musk, tails of the kutas cow (the yak), honey, chuk (an acid composed of orange juice and lemon boiled together),
pomegranate seed, ginger, long pepper, majith (a plant producing a red dye) root, borax, zedoary (a root resembling turmeric),
wax, woollen stuffs, wooden ware, hawks, falcons, black falcons, merlins (a kind of bird), and other articles. In exchange they
carry back white and coloured clothes, amber, salt, asafoetida, ornaments, glass, and earthen ware.
(i) What are the modes of transport described in this passage? (1)
(ii) Name the products that were taken from Northern Mountain? (1)
(iii) What did people from Northern mountains carry back in exchange of their goods? Mention the uses of any three products. (2)
Answer:
(i) The modes of transport mentioned in the passage are the goods that are carried on the backs of men, of stout ponies and of goats.
(ii) From the Northern mountains, that are carried on the backs of men, of stout ponies and of goats, were gold, copper. lead, musk, tails of the kutas cow (the yak), honey, pomegranate seed, ginger, long pepper. woollen stuffs, wooden ware, hawks, falcons, black falcons, etc.
(iii) In exchange people from Northern mountains carried back while and coloured clothes, amber, salt, asafoetida, ornaments, glass and earthen ware. Gold must have been used to make ornaments. Copper must have been used to make utensils. Ginger, long pepper must have been used in cooking.

Section E
Section E consists of Map based question of 5 marks

Question 34.
A. Locate and label the following.
(i) One important town of Gupta kingdom in Biliar (3)
(ii) One Buddhist site in Maharashtra
Or
(iii) One Buddhist site in Telangana
(iv) The place of launch of Dandi March
B. Identify two important areas marked as 1 and 2 that were among major centres of British Powerin 1857. (2)

Answer:


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