CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 2 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History with Solutions Set 2 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 2 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions

  1. Question paper comprises five Sections — A, B, C, D and E. There are 34 questions in the question paper, All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A: Question ito 21 are MCQS of 1 mark each.
  3. Section B: Question no. 22 to 27 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60-80 words
  4. Section C: Question no 28 to 30 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 300-350 words.
  5. Section D: Question no. 31 to 33 are Source Based Questions with three sub-questions and are of 4 marks each.
  6. Section E: Question no. 34 is Map based, carrying 5 marks that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices ‘n such questions have to be attempted.
  8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.

Section A
Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
Consider the following statements regarding Revolt of 1857 and choose the correct option. (1)
I. There was strong Hindu-Muslim unity among sepoys and others.
II. Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah was declared as the leader of sepoys.
III. Annexation of Awadh was an important reason for the revolt.
IV. There was no participation of common people.
(a) Only (i) is correct
(b) Only (i) ami (ii) are correct
(c) Only (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) Only (i) and (iv) are correct
(c) Only (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.
The Indians who were involved in the excavations of Harappa and Mohen jo Daro were …………………. and …………………….. . (1)
(a) REM Wheeler, Rakhal Das Baneiji
(b) Daya Ram Sahni, Rakhal Das Banerji
(c) Daya Ram Sahni, REM Wheeler
(d) Rakhal Das Banerji. Daya Ram Sahni
(b) Daya Pam Sahni, Rakhal Das Banerji

Question 3.
Identify the name of the personalities with the help of the given information. (1)
He was one of the most famous rulers of early India.
He was the Grandson of Chandragupta Maurya.
He conquered Kalinga (present-day Odisha).
He tried to hold his empire together by propagating Dhamma.
(a) Ajatashatru
(b) Ashoka
(c) Bindusara
(d) Mahapadma Nanda
(b) Ashoka

Question 4.
According to Manusmriti, which among the following is not one of the means for men to acquire wealth? (1)
(a) Inheritance
(b) As a token of affection
(c) Conquest
(d) Investment
(b) As a token of affection

Question 5.
Vijayanagara city was situated between which of the following rivers? (1)
(a) Krishna in North and Tungabhadra in South
(b) Krishna in the South and Kaveri in North
(c) Tungabhadra in North and Krishna in South
(d) Kaveri in the North and Tungabhadra in South
(a) Krishna in North and Tungabhadra ¡n South

Question 6.
Which among the following statements is correct about the religious practices of Harappan Civilisation? (1)
(a) Nature worship was in vogue
(b) Female deities were not dominant.
(c) No cult of mother goddess was found.
(d) Temple structures were unearthed.
(a) Nature worship was in vogue.

Question 7.
Match the following. (1)

List IList II
A. 19211. MS Vats begins excavation of Harappa
B. 19252. Excavation begins at Mohen jo daro
C. 19553. S R Rao begins excavations at Lothal
D. 19864. American team begins excavations at Harappa

(a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
(b) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1
(c) A-1, B-4, C-3, D-2
(d) A-2, B-1, C-4. D-3
(a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4

Question 8.
Who wrote the book Kitab-ul-Hind? (1)
(a) Ibn Battuta
(b) Al-Biruni
(c) Francois Bernier
(d) None of these
(b) Al-Biruni

Question 9.
From among the following, choose the place in which Mangal Pandey was hanged on 29th March, 1857. (1)
(a) Meerut
(b) Barrackpore
(c) Behrarnpore
(d) Kanpur
(b) Barrackpore

Question 10.
Choose the correct option. (1)
The lost Harappan Civilisation was discovered in 1921 by this archaeologist.
(a) RD Banerjee
(b) Alexander Cunningham
(c) DR Sahni
(d) SR Rao
(c) D R Sahni

Question 11.
Read the following statements carefully and identify the name of devotee of Saguna Bhakti. (1)
(i) He was the Disciple of Ramanuja Charya.
(ii) He founded the philosophy called Dvaita Advaita.
(a) Nimbarka
(b) Tulsidas
(c) Surdas
(d) Chaitanya Mahaprabu
(a) Nimbarka

Question 12.
Fill in the blanks from the given options. Abdul Razzaq was an ambassador sent by the ruler of (1)
(a) Russia
(b) Portugal
(c) Persia
(d) Italy
(c) Persia

Question 13.
According to epigraphic evidence, who among the following founded the Vijayanagara Empire? (1)
(a) Sultans of Deccan
(b) Gajapati Rulers of Odisha
(c) Harihara and Bukka
(d) Cholas of Tamil Nadu
(c) Harihara and Bukka

Question 14.
Choose the correct option from the following statements with reference to the Jam monk. (1)
(a) Not to abstain from lying.
(b) To abstain from stealing.
(c) Not to observe celibacy.
(d) Not to abstain from killing.
(b) To abstain from stealing.

Question 15.
Identify the image and write Tts name. (1)

(a) Hazara Rama Temple
(b Lotus Mahal at Vijayanagara
(c) Vïrupaksha Temple
(d) Mahanavami Dibba
(b) Lotus Mahal at Vijayanagara

Question 16.
Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). (1)
Assertion (A) Deccan Riot Commission was formed by Government of Bengal.
Reason (R) It submitted its report in 1878.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true
(d) A is false, but R is true

Question 17.
Identify the temple related to the Vijayanagara Empire with the help of the given information. (1)
It is the most artistically sophisticated Hindu Temple in Hampi.
It is part of the sacred centre of the Vijayanagara Empire.
(a) Konark Temple
(b) Vittala Temple
(c) Bnhadeshwara Temple
(d) Meenakshi Temple
(d) Meenakshi Temple

Question 18.
What was the source of cotton after the American Civil War broke out? (1)
(a) Australia
(b) India
(c) Africa
(d) Sri Lanka
(b) India

Question 19.
The annexation of Awadh was done by ……………………….. .(1)
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Ramsav
(d) Lord Canning
(b) Lord Dalhouise

Question 20.
Who among the following was active in underground resistance during the Quit India Movement? (1)
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Subash Chandra Bose
(d) Dr Rajendra Prashad
(b) Jayaprakash Narayan

Question 21.
Why the Congress session of 1929 important?
Choose the correct option from the following. (1)
(a) To demand of Puma Swaraj or complete Independence for India.
(b) To demanded the Dominion Status for India.
(c) To demand for Constituent Assembly
(d) To demand for a representative body only for educated class.
(a) To demand of Puma Swaraj or complete Independence for India.

Section B
Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 marks each

Question 22.
Write a brief note on the contribution of Naths and Jogis towards the Bhakti Movement. (3)
Nath and Jogis were the religious leaders, who did not function within the orthodox Brahmanical framework Many of them came from artisanal groups, including weavers, who were becoming increasingly important with the development of organised craft production.

The demand for such production grew with the emergence of new urban centres and long-distance trade with Central Asia and West Asia. Many of these religious leaders questioned the authority of the Vedas and expressed themselves en languages spoken by ordinary people, which developed over centuries into the ones used today.

However, in spite of their popularity these religious leaders were not in a position to win the support of the ruling elites.

Question 23.
What are the most important contributions of Mahatma Gandhi in the political sphere of India? (3)
British government convened a series of Round Table Conferences in London. Write about these Round Table Conferences and
their outcome. (3)
In the political sphere of India, Mahatma Gandhi had rendered invaluable contributions. They are as follows He bridged the gap between intelligence and masses, it helped in putting a joint struggle against Britishers.

Mahatma Gandhi through his unique yet effective methods contributed immensely in political awareness of the masses. Techniques such as non-cooperation, civil disobedience, boycott of courts, educational institutions, etc created an increased understanding about true nature of British rule.

Gandhiji also helped in making the Nationalist movement a broad-based one. His accommodative and decentralised approach led to incorporation of many segments of population such as women. tribals in the political struggle for independence of India.

Therefore, we can say that Gandhiji through his innovative approach has contributed significantly in political sphere of India.
The British government convened a series of Round Table Conferences in London. Mahatma Gandhi launched salt march, the British realised that their rule would not last forever and that they would have to assign some power to the Indians.

The first Round Table Conference was held in November 1930, but without the pre-eminent political leader in India. it was not successful.

Second Round Table Conference was held in London in the year 1931. Here, Gandhiji himself represented the Congress. This conference in London was also inconclusive due to conflicting views of BR Ambedkar and Muslim League with Mahatma Gandhi. So. Gandhi ji returned to India and resumed Civil Disobedienœ Movement.

Question 24.
Give a brief description of Megasthenes. What does Megasthenes tell about the administration of Mauryan Empire? (1+2)
Megasthenes was a Greek historian who came to India in the 4th century BC as an ambassador of SeleucusNictor. He lived in the court of Chandragupta Maurya for about five years (302-298 BC).

He has written an account of India and also that of Chandragupta’s reign in his book entitled Indica. Megasthenes had tried to write about everything that he had seen in India like its geographical features, government, religion and society. Megasthenes has written in detail about Chandragupta Maurya’s administration, as well as Indian society in the Mauryan Period.

Megasthenes mentioned a committee with six sub-committees for military coordination activity.
These were

  • One looked after the navy.
  • Second-managed transport and provisions.
  • Third was responsible for foot soldiers.
  • Fourth for horses.
  • Fifth for chariots.
  • Sixth for elephants.

Question 25.
List the raw materials required for craft production in Harappan Civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained.
In order to identify the centres of craft production, archaeologists usually look for the raw materials like the stone modules, whole shells, copper ore, unfinished objects and waste materials. Waste products indicate craft work.

They obtained different materials from different cities which are as follows

ShellNageshwar, Dalakot
Lapis Lazuli (Bluestone)Shortughai (Afghanistan)
Camelian Beads (Orange Bharuch (Gujarat)
Red Glossy stone)
SteatiteSouth Rajasthan and North Gujarat
CopperKhetri (Ganeshwar- Jodhpur Culture)
GoldSouth India

Question 26.
Discuss the views of Ibn Battuta’s on the Indian economy. (3)
How did Ibn Battuta explain the system of communication in India? (3)
The views of lbn Battuta on Indian Economy were

  • ibn Battuta found Indian agriculture very productive because of the fertility of the soil. This fertility allows farmers to cultivate two crops a year.
  • He described the continent as well connected and integrated with inter-Asian networks of trade and commerce.
  • He also pointed out that Indian manufacturers were in great demand both West Asia and South-East Asia and this brought huge profits for artisans and merchants There was great demand fo Indian textiles like cotton clothes, fine muslins, silks, brocade and satin.


  • Ibn Battuta examined the unique system of communication of India in the following ways
  • There were two kinds of postal systems in India: uluq (horse post) and dawa (foot post).
  • Uluq stationed at a distance of every four miles while the Dawa has three stations per mile, meaning one-third of a mile.
    The foot-post is quicker than the horse-post and often it was used to transport the fruits of Khurasan.

Question 27.
How did the auction in Burdwan take place? (3)
The auction in the Burdwan can be explained from the following events

  • The auction was held in Burdwan (present-day Bardhaman) in 1797 A number of mahals (Estates) held by the Raja of Burdwan were being sold.
  • A number of purchases came to the auction and the Estates were sold to the highest bidder. But it was later realised that over 95% of the sale at the auction was fictitious.
  • Many purchasers turned out to be servants and agents of the Raja in the auction. Hence, publicly the Estates were sold but Raja remained in control of his zamindari.

Section C
Section C consists of 3 questions of 8 marks each

Question 28.
Describe the contributions of John Marshall, Director General of the ASI (Archaeological Survey of India) to Indian archaeology. (8)
How does the architectural features of Mohenjodaro indicate town planning? (8)
In 1924, Director General of ASI, John Marshall declared about the discovery of a new civilisation as. indus Valley Civilisation to the world.’ It was a landmark discovery. Prior to this discovery, certain progress in this direction had already been made in
starting phase of the Indian archaeology. It helped John Marshall in discovering a new civilisation. Contributions of John Marshall, Director General of ASI to Indian Archaeology were Starting Phase of Indian Archaeology In the earty decades of the 20th century, archaeologist Dayaram Sahni found some seals of Harappa.
These seals were definitely much older than early historic levels. Now, their significance began to be realised. Another archaeologist Rakhal Das Banerji found same seals at Mohenjodaro as were found at Harappa, It led to the assumption that both the archaeological sites were the parts of single archaeological culture.

Based on these findings, in 1924, then the Direct General of ASI, John Marshall declared about the discovery of a new civilisation, Indus Valley to the world, SN Roy wrote in the ‘Story of Indian Archaeology that, ‘Marshall left India three thousand years older than he had found here.”

Connection of Harappa to Other Ancient Civilisations When John Marshall declared about the discovery of Harappa, similar seals were also found in the excavation of archaeological sites of Mesopotamia.

By this, not only new civilisation came to limelight, but we also came to know that this civilisation was contemporary to Mesopotamian civilisation.

Global Experience and Expertise of Marshall As the Director-General of ASI, Sir John Marshall’s term was actually a term of major change in Indian archaeology.

He was the first professional archaeologist who worked in India. He bought with himself his experience of working in Greece and Crete. like Cunningham, he was also interested in spectacular findings. But, he was equally interested in looking for patterns of daily life.

Loss of Some Valuable Information in the Excavation Technique of Marshall As John Marshall adopted a technique in which he excavated along regular horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout the mound, ignoring the stratigraphy of the site and this was the biggest drawback in his excavation process. As a result, valuable information about the context of these finds was irretrievably lost.

Mohenjodaro was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation. It was the most advanced city of its time with a well Civil engineering planning.

The city was divided into two parts

  1. Citadel, i.e. smaller but higher settlements.
  2. The lower town ie. larger but lower settlements. The Citadel was the main fortified (protected place from enemy’s attack) area of the city. It was walled and it was probably used for special public purposes.

These include the warehouse and the great bath. It indicates town planning due to its features i.e. great bath, tower town, drainage system and domestic architecture.

These are discussed below

  • The Great Bath It was a large rectangular tank in a courtyard surrounded by corridors on all four sides.
  • There were two flights of steps on the North and South to reach the tank. The Great Bath was made watertight by setting back on edge and using the plaster of gypsum. On three sides of it, there were rooms, in wtiich one has large well, Water from the tank flowed into a huge drain.

The Lower Town It was organised on a grid system which served as foundations, It was also walled as large town with lower settlements in archaeologists believe that, it was probably the city where most of the people lived and worked. Bricks used in settlements were sun-dried or baked, were of standardised ratio, where the length and breadth were four in times larger and
twice the height respectively.

Drainage System One of the most distinctive features of Mohenjodaro was the carefully planned drainage system. The streets and roads were laid out in grid pattern, intersecting at right angles. According to archaeologists, it was believed that streets with drains were built first and then the houses were built along with them. For domestic waste, water had to flow into the street drains, then every house was needed to have at least one wall along a street.

Domestic Architecture The lower town at Mohen Jodaro provides examples of residential buildings. Many were centred on a courtyard with rooms on all sides. The courtyard was probably the centre of activities, such as cooking and weaving. There
were no windows in the walls along the ground level.

Question 29.
Briefly explain the different types of buildings situated in the royal centre. What do you think was the significance of the
rituals associated with the Mahanavami Dibba? (4+4)
The writing of Portuguese travellers has greatly helped in reconstruction of history of Vijayanagara city. In this regard highlight
the aspects observed by the Duarte Barbosa and Domingo Paes on urban core and Mahanavami Dibba of the Vijayanagara
Empire respectively. (4+4)
The royal centre was located in the South-Western part of the settlement in the Vijayanagara Empire. It had over 60 temples and around thirty building complexes were identified as palaces. The different types of buildings associated in the royal centre are King’s Palace It was the largest of the buildings but there was no strong evidence that it was a royal residence. It had two impressive platforms, called the audience hall and the Mahanavami Dibba.

The entire complex was surrounded by high double walls with a street running between them. Audience Hall It was a high platform which had slots for wooden pillars to be placed at close and regular intervals. On these pillars, a staircase was present
which went to the second floor.

Lotus Mahal The Lotus Mahal, named by British travellers in the nineteenth century was one of the most beautiful buildings in the royal centre. Historians are not sure about what the building was used for. A map drawn by Mackenzie suggested that it might have been a council chamber, a place where the king met his advisors.

Hazara Rama Temple, It was one of the most spectacular temples. This might have been used only by the king and his family. Though images in the central shrine are missing, but sculpted panels on the walls are still present. These included scenes
from the Ramayana sculpted on the inner walls of the shrine.

Significance of the Rituals Associated with the Mahanavami Dibba Mahanavami Dibba was located at one of the highest points in the city. It was a massive platform or stage rising from a base of about 11000 sq ft. to a height of 40 ft. It supported a wooden building and the base of the platform was covered with relief designs or carvings.

Rituals associated with the Mahariavami Dibba probably coincided with Mahanavami i.e. the ninth day of the ten day Hindu festival during the autumn months of September and October.

It is known as Dussehra in North India, Durga Pua in Bengal and Navaratri or Mahanavami in peninsular India. The Vijayanagara king showed their prestige, power and control over the empire on this occasion.

Various ceremonies were performed on this occasion like

  • Worship of image, worship of the state horse and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
  • Dances, wrestling matches, procession of highly decorated horses, elephants and chariots and soldiers. Rituh
  • presentations before the king and his guests by the chief nayakas and subordinate kings. Thus, the rituals associated with the Mahanavami Dibba were significant.

The Vijayanagara empire which ruled from 1336 t0 1646 CE in the Deccan plateau region of the South India had flourishing trade relations with different regions of the world. Their benevolent rulers promoted trade and commerce and laid emphasis on safety and care of foreign travellers. It attracted travellers from many parts of the world.

Their travelogue along with archaeological excavation greatly helped in the reconstruction of the history of the empire and the city. In sixteenth century, Duarte Barbosa, Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz were the Portuguese travellers and traders who visited the empire.

Duarte Barbosa described the following aspects on the urban core of the Vijayanagara Empire

  • The houses have not survived and they had roofs made of straw, palm leaves, etc.
  • They were well built and were arranged according to the occupations, in long streets.
  • Field surveys show that the entire area was scattered with number of shrines and small temples.
  • This shows that there were present different cults, which might be supported by different communities.
  • The surveys also indicate that wells, rainwater tanks, temple tanks were used as sources o water by the ordinary town people.
  • Domingo Paes had made following observations on the Mahanavami Dibba of the Vijayanagara Empire He called Mahanavami Dibba along with the audience hail as the house of victory.
  • These buildings have two platforms one above the other which were beautifully sculpted.
  • On the upper platform in this house of victory, the king had a room made of cloth, where the idol had a shrine.
  • The other in the middle was placed on a dias on which there was the throne of the state and the crown and the royal anklet.

Thus, to reconstruct the history of the empire and architectural marvel of his capital city, Hampi, dozens of scholars from all over the world worked nearly for twenty years. They were greatly helped by the vivid account left by the foreign travellers.

Question 30.
Examine the repressive measures adopted by British to subdue the rebels of 1857. (8)
Elucidate how Hindu-Muslim Unity was watershed event in the 1857 Revolt. (8)
It was not easy for the Britishers to suppress the Revolt of 1857. Even then they took various steps to crush the rebels. These steps were as follows Passing of Laws to help the Troops The British passed several laws to help the troops before sending them to re-occupy North India. The military officers were also empowered to try and punish the rebel Indians.

The ordinary process of law and trial were Ignored by them, With the help of new laws and the new reinforcements coming from Britain, the British started the process of suppressing the revolt. British thought to reconquer Delhi which was most important to suppress the revolt. Therefore, in June 1857, the British attacked Delhi from two directions.

Resorting to Diplomacy The British while resorting to diplomacy kept away the educated Indians and zamindars from the rebels. The British created a rift between rebels and the zamindars by promising the latter to give back their estates.

Use of Military Power on a Gigantic Scale The British used military power on a gigantic scale. Their absolute control over the means of communication and their control over the railways enabled them to send quick military support to different parts of the country.

Communication System The telegraph system helped the British to get timely information about the incidents occurring in different parts of the country. Consequently, they were successful to workout plans to take immediate action against rebels. Thus, the British tried their best to maintain their absolute control over the means of communication in order to suppress the revolt.

Rein enforcement from Britain After involvement of sepoys of company in 1857 Revolt. The Britishers followed two pronged approach to repress the revolt. They brought reinforcement from Britian which included arms as well as soldiers. On the other hand, the British soldier-to-Indian soldier ratio was changed at various places. Soldiers from those part of the country unaffected from the impact of revolt were involved in service of suppression of revolt.

Brutal Means of Punishment The company undertook brutal measures to punish the rebels where revolt has been repressed. They were blown from guns or hanged from gallows. In addition to satisfying the urge for vengeance and retribution, it also gave a stem message to rebellious sepoys and peasants at other places.

Thus, these brutal means employed by Bntisher along with policy of divide and rule among different segments of population were successful in repressing the Revolt of 1857.
The 1857 Revolt was the first war of independence against the Britisher. It saw massive participation from peasants and sepoys. However, the extent of Hindu-Muslim unity shown in this mutual struggle is unprecedented in Indian history.

Following points highlight the extent of their unity
It was jointly led by the rulers and leaders from both the communities leaders like Nana Sahib, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Maulavi Ahmadullah Shah, Tatya Tope, Rani Laxmibai and Hazrat Mahal played significant role in this revolt.

After the siege of Delhi, the revolutionary army declared the last Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah Zafar as emperor of India. It is noteworthy that majority of sepoys were of Hindu community.

The rebel proclamations in 1857 repeatedly appealed to all sections of the population, irrespective of their caste or creed. The
proclamations that was issued under the name of Bahadur Shah Zafar appealed to the people to jointly fight against the Britishers.

In sepoys-controlled territories such as in Meerut and Delhi, the religious sentiments of both these communities were taken care of, as evidenced from proclamations banning the cow slaughter.

Many attempts by Britisher to create a wedge between this two communities failed because of the Hindu-Muslim unity. For instance, they spent ₹ 50,000 to incite the Hindu population against the Muslims in Bareilly but both these communities co-operated each other in their joint struggle against common enemy.

At many centres of revolt in Northern India, the religious leaders of these communities urged the communities to come together in their struggle against common enemy. For instance, in Ayodhya Maulana Ameer Au and Baba Ramcharan Das, took lead in organising the armed resistance to the British rule. Thus, unity shown by both these communities was watershed event in the Revolt 0f 1857.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 Source based questions of 4 marks each

Question 31.
Read the following source carefully are answer the questions that follow.
From the Fifth Report
Referring to the condition of zamindars and the auction of lands, the Fifth Report stated; The revenue was not realised with
punctuality and lands to a considerable extent were periodically exposed to sale by auction. In the native year 1203,
corresponding with 1796-97, the land advertised for sale comprehended a jumma or assessment of sicca rupees 28,70,061, the extent of land actually sold bore a jumma or assessment of 14,18,756 and the amount of purchase money sicca rupees 17,90,416. In 1204, corresponding with 1797-98, the land advertised was for sicca rupees 26,66,19 1, the quantity sold was for sicca rupees 22,74,076, and the purchase money sicca rupees 21,47,580.

Among the defaulters were some of the oldest families of the country. Such were the rajahs of Nuddea, Rajeshaye, Bishenpore (all districts of Bengal), and others, the dismemberment of whose estates at the end of each succeeding year, threatened them with poverty and ruin, and in some instances presented difficulties to the revenue officers, in their efforts to preserve undiminished the amount of public assessment.
(i) What was the Fifth Report about? (1)
(ii) What was the condition of the zamindar according to the report? (1)
(iii) Write any two points of criticism regarding this report. (2)
(i) The Fifth Report was a series of report submitted about the working and administration of the East India Company in India.
(ii) The condition of the zamindars according to the report is as follows
The condition of the zamindars was deteriorating and their lands were auctioned.
They were facing poverty due to collapse of zamindari system.
(iii) Two points of criticism regarding this report are as follows

  • It elaborated the downfall of the zamindari system.
  • It criticised the maladministration of the Company.

Question 32.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
The Importance of Boundaries The Manusmriti is one of the best-known legal texts of early India, written in Sanskrit
and compiled between the 2nd century BCE and the 2nd century CE. This is what the text advises the king to do. Seeing that in the world controversies constantly arise due to the ignorance of boundaries, he should have conceived boundary markers buried-stones, bones, cow’s hair, chaff, ashes, potsherds, dried cow dung, bricks, coal, pebbles and with sand.
He should also have other similar substances that would not decay in the soil buried as hidden markers at the intersection of
(i) Why did the controversies of boundaries arise? (1)
(ii) Suggest the ways to solve the boundary problems. (1)
(iii) Explain with example any such problem being faced by India today. (2)
(i) According to the Manusmriti controversies regarding the boundaries arised because of ignorance of the king in demarcation of boundaries of their respective kingdoms.

(ii) The boundary problems can be solved by conceiving the boundaries by markers such as stones, bones, cow’s hair, chaff, ashes, potsherds, dried cow dung, bricks coal, pebbles nd sand can be done. These substances do not decay in the soil and will act as markers at the intersection of boundaries.

Question 33.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Church in Khambat This is an excerpt from a farinan (imperial order) issued by Akbar in 1598. Whereas, it reached our eminent and holy notice that the padris (fathers) of the Holy Society of Jesus wish to build a house of prayer (Church) in the city of Kamayat (Khambat, in Gujarat); therefore an exalted mandate is being issued that the dignitaries of the city of Kambaat
should in no case stand in their way but should allow them to build a Church so that they may engage themselves in their own
worship. It is necessary that the order of the Emperor should be obeyed in every way.
(i) What did the padris want to do? (1)
(ii) Explain briefly how the approach followed by Akbar was different from other Muslim rulers. (1)
(iii) In regard to the situation where vast majority of their subjects being non-Muslim, how the Muslim rulers of the sub-continents adopted to the situation? (2)
(i) The parish wanted to build a house of prayer i.e. Church in the city of Khambat.
(ii) Other Muslim rulers in their administration were guided by Ulema. They made sure that they are following Shari’a. However, Akbar followed secular policies in the administration of the empire. It was evident from his imperial order to construct church in Khambat.
(iii) In the given situation, instead ot adhering to the views of Ulema, many Muslim rulers asked for sufis help, who derived authority directty from the God and did not depend on jurists to interpret the Shari’a. They also believed that Auliya could intervene with God in order to improve the material as well as spiritual condition of ordinary human beings.

Section E
Section E consists of Map based question of 5 marks

Question 34.
A. Locate and label the following places. (3)
(i) Thanjavur
(ii) Bijapur
(iii) Place where Salt March was held.
(iv) Place from where Quit India Movement started.
B. On given political map of India, two main centres of the 1857 Revolt have been marked 1 & 2. Write their names. (2)


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