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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History with Solutions Set 11 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions

  1. Question paper comprises five Sections – A, B, C, D, and E. There are 34 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A: Question 1 to 21 are MCQs of 1 mark each.
  3. Section B: Question no. 22 to 27 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60-80 words.
  4. Section C: Question no 28 to 30 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 300-350 words.
  5. Section D: Question no. 31 to 33 are Source Based Questions with three sub-questions and are of 4 marks each.
  6. Section E: Question no. 34 is Map based, carrying 5 marks that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
  8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question wherever necessary.

Section A
Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
A distinctive type of vessel, a large Harappan jar coated with a thick layer of black clay has been found at which of the following places? (1)
(a) Meluha
(b) Dilmun
(c) Magan
(d) Omani
Answer:
(d) Omani

Question 2.
Match the following.

List I List II
A. Shortughal 1. Pakistan
B. Khetri 2. Afghanistan
C. Meluha 3. Rajasthan
D. Kot Diji 4. Mesopotamia

Codes
(a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
(b) A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
(c) A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1
(d) A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2
Answer:
(c) A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1

Question 3.
Few inscriptions mentioned a king referred as Piyadassi which meant pleasant to behold. Who among the following kings is
known as Piyadassi? (1)
(a) Samudragupta
(b) Chandragupta I
(c) Ashoka
(d) Kanishka
Answer:
(c) Ashoka

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions

Question 4.
Identify’ the name of the following text from the information given below. (1)
I. The Sanskrit used in this text is far simpler than that of the Vedas, or of the Prashastis.
II. The original story of the text was probably composed by charioteer-bards known as Sutas.
III. This text included over 100,000 verses with depictions of a wide range of social categories and situations.
IV. The text also contains sections laying down norms of behaviour for various social groups.
(a) Mahabharata
(b) Ramayana
(c) Manusmriti
(d) Chandogya Upanishads
Answer:
(a) Mahabharata

Question 5.
The term used for village headman was called as ………………….. . (1)
(a) Banjar
(b) Parauti
(c) Muqaddam
(d) Polaj
Answer:
(c) Muqaddam

Question 6.
Consider the following statements regarding Buddhist Council and choose the correct option. (1)
I. The first council was organised by Bimbisara at Rajagriha in 483 BC.
II. The second council was organised by Kalashoka at Vaishali in 383 BC.
III. The third council was organised by Chandragupta Maurva at Pataliputra in 250 BC.
IV. The fourth council was organised by Kanishka at Kashmir in 72 AD.
Codes
(a) Only (i) is correct
(b) Only (i) and (ii) arc correct
(c) Only (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) Only (ii) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(d) Only (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 7.
Francois Bernier came to Mughal Empire in search of …………………… .(1)
(a) thief
(b) opportunities
(c) judicial remedy
(d) medical facility
Answer:
(b) opportunities

Question 8.
Identify the early traditions related to the Bhakti Movement with the help of the given information. (1)
It focused on the worship of specific deities such as Shiva, Vishnu and his avatars and forms of the goddess.
The main proponents were Thisidas, Chaitanya, Surdas and Meera, etc.
Option
(a) Nirguna
(b) Saguna
(c) Virashaiva
(d) Lingayats
Answer:
(b) Saguna

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions

Question 9.
Gandhiji started the Dandi March from this place in Gujarat. (1)
(a) Ahmedabad Ashram
(b) Sabarmati Ashram
(c) Dandi Ashram
(d) Gandhinagar Ashram
Answer:
(b) Sabarmati Ashram

Question 10.
Who introduced the ‘Objectives Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly on 13th December, 1946? (1)
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Dr BR Ambedkar
(c) Sardar Vallabhbhaj Patel
(d) Alladi Krishnaswamy.
Answer:
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru

Question 11.
Which among the following is the Buddhist text which patronised the images worship of Buddha and Bodhisattas? (1)
(a) Mahayana
(b) Hinayana
(c) Vajrayana
(d) Theravada
Answer:
(a) Mahayana

Question 12.
Choose the incorrect option from the following statements with reference to the Vijayanagara Empire. (1)
(a) Initially Penugonda was the capital of Magadha.
(b) It was established by Harihara and Bukka in 1336.
(c) This period was the Golden age of literature in South India.
(d) Krishnaclevaraya is regarded as the most powerful rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Answer:
(a) Initially Penugonda was the capital of Magadha.

Question 13.
Read the following statements carefully and identify the name of the Administrative System from the given options. (1)
I. It was basically a grading system in order to rank the officers based on their ranks and salaries.
II. It was introduced by Mughal Emperor Akbarin 1571 AD.
(a) Jajmani System
(b) Mansabdari System
(c) Mahaiwari System
(d) Ryotwari System
Answer:
(b) Mansabdari System

Question 14.
According to Ibn Battuta, the Indian postal system was used for which of the following activities? (1)
(a) To send information.
(b) To remit credit across long distances.
(c) To dispatch goods required at short notice.
(d) All of the above.
Answer:
(d) All of the above.

Question 15.
Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). (1)
Assertion (A) Military Chiefs were also known as Navakas.
Reason (R) Amara-nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Codes
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true
Answer:
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A

Question 16.
Identify the following image and write its name. (1)
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions 1
(a) A sculpture from Amaravati
(b) A sculpture from Sanchi
(c) A sculpture from Vijayanagara
(d) A sculpture from Satavahanas
Answer:
(a) A sculpture from Amaravati

Question 17.
The summary revenue settlements was introduced in …………………… by the British in ……………………. . (1)
Choose the correct answer from the given options.
(a) Awadh, 1856-57
(b) Madras, 1856-57
(c) Bengal, 1756-57
(d) Bombay, 1756-57
Answer:
(a) Awadh, 1856-57.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions

Question 18.
Gandhiji made his first public appearance in India at. (1)
(a) Champaran Satyagraha
(b) Opening of Banaras Hindu University
(c) Kheda Satyagraha
(d) Foundation of Indian National Congress
Answer:
(b) Opening of Banaras Hindu University

Question 19.
What are the main demand of Khilafat Movement? Choose the correct option from the following. (1)
(a) Dominion Status for India
(b) Self-rule to India
(c) Restoration of Caliphate of Turkey
(d) Revival of Orthodox Culture of Islam.
Answer:
(a) Dominion Status for India

Question 20.
Who came into Bengal in the 1780s?
(a) Santhals
(b) Pahanas
(c) Rajputs
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Santhals

Question 21.
Who was the Governor-General of Bengal when the permanent settlement was introduced? (1)
(a) Lord Irwin
(b) Lord Buchanan
(c) Lord Cornwallis
(d) Lord William
Answer:
(c) Lord Cornwallis

Section B
Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 marks each

Question 22.
“The dharma sutras and Dharmashastras also contained rules about the ideal occupations of the four categories of Varnas”. Critically examine the statement. (3)
Answer:
The Dharmasutras and Dharmashastras contained rules about the ideal occupations of four categories of Varnas. These were

  • Brahmanas were supposed to study and teach the Vedas, perform sacrifices and performed, and give and received gifts.
  • Kshatriyas were to engage in warfare, protect people and administer justice, study the Vedas, get sacrifices performed and make gifts.
  • Vaishyas were assigned to study the Vedas, get sacrifices performed, and make gifts as Kshatriyas and in addition were expected to engage in agriculture, pastoralism, and trade.
  • Shudras were assigned only one occupation i.e. of serving the three higher Varnas.

Question 23.
Why did Mauryan rulers kept a large number of officers? (3)
Answer:
Mauryan rulers kept a large number of officials to administer every aspect of public lite, This can be justified from the following observations a Appointment of Dhamma-Mahamattas Asoka changed his religion and converted to Buddhism.

  • He appointed Dhamma-Mahamttas to propagate elements of religion among the masses.
  • Spying Agents in Mauryan Administration A number of officials were appointed for espionage activities.
  • These officers used to control activities of external enemies and used to find out corrupt officials and spies.
  • Officers Appointed for Tax and Revenue
  • Collection The Mauryans also appointed a number of officers for efficient organisation of taxation, Except all these, large forces of officials were appointed to run central, provincial and city-level administration.

Question 24.
Explain the reasons behind the turning of mutinous sepoys in many places towards erstwhile rulers and zamindars to provide
leadership to the revolt. (3)
Answer:
The mutinous sepoys at many places such as in Delhi, Lucknow, and Kanpur turned towards Bahadur Shah Zafar II, Begum Hazrat Mahal, and Nana Sahib respectively to provide leadership. There are many reasons for them to turn to these erstwhile rulers and zamindars. Some of them are given below

Native rulers were defeated by the East India Company. But many mutineers believed that the native Indian rulers had the legal and legitimate authority to regain power in their respective kingdoms

The erstwhile rulers and zamindars had substantial resources at their command. They had wealth and private armies too, further like sepoys they were also suffering from oppressive policies of Britishers.

Most rulers and zamindars were popular at the local level. Their subjects often sympathised with them. Hence, choosing these rulers was a chance to win more support for the cause.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions

Question 25.
Write a note on markets of Vijayanagara empire. (3)
Or
Elaborate about the new traditions that were innovated and developed by the rulers of Vijayanagara. (3)
Answer:
Markets of Vijayanagara Empire dealt in spices, textiles and precious stones. Trade was often regarded as a status symbol for such cities, which boasted of a wealthy population that demanded high-value exotic goods, especially precious stones, and jewellery. The revenue derived from trade in turn contributed significantly to the prosperity of the state.
Or
The rulers of Vijayanagara developed new traditions in Virupaksha temple. These new traditions were Krishnadeva Raya to indicate his accession to throne has built the hall in front of the shrine. He also constructed the Eastern Gopuram. Central shrine came to occupy a small part of the complex with these additions.

The halls in the temple were started to be used for various purposes. Some spaces had images of Gods to witness special programmes of music, dance, drama, etc. Other spaces were used for marriages of deities and some other were meant for
the deities to swing in.

Question 26.
What were the important contributions of women devotees during the Bhakti Period? (3)
Or
Critically examine the statement that “The Lingayats challenged the well-established ideas of certain groups of Brahrnanas.” (3)
Answer:
The importance of women devotees during Bhakti Period was as follows
The compositions of Andal, a woman Alvar, wore widely sung and even now they are continued to be sung. She saw herself as the beloved of Vishnu and we can see that her verses expressed her love for the deity.

Karaikkal Ammaiyar (a devotee of Shiva) was another women who adopted the path of extreme self-discipline in order to attain her goal. Her compositions were preserved within the Nayanar tradition.
Or
The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and the pollution attributed to certain groups by Brahmanas.

  • They also questioned the theory of rebirth.
  • Some practices like post-puberty marriage and the remarriage of widows which were disapproved in the Dharmashastras, were encouraged by the Lingayats.
  • Lingayats also believed that devotee will be united with Shiva and will not return to this world after the death.
  • Thus, they do not practice funeral practices like cremation as per Dharmashastras and instead, they ceremonially bury their dead.

Question 27.
Making of the Constitution was a result of debate, discussion and deliberation among nationalist leaders and experts. Explain in this context of the statement the making of the Constitution. (3)
Answer:
The Indian Constitution, which came into effect on 26th January 1950, was a result of debate, discussion and deliberation among nationalist leaders and experts.

  • It is the longest constitution in the world.
  • But the length and complexity of Constitution are perhaps understandable when one considers the country’s size and diversity.
  • At Independence, India was not merely large and diverse, but also deeply divided. To keep the country together and to take it forward, it was required that the Constitution should be elaborate, carefully worked out and painstakingly drafted document.
  • The framers of Constitution have to keep in mind about the welfare of different classes, castes and Communities of the country.
  • It was framed between December, 1946 and November, 1949. During this time, its drafts were discussed clause by clause in the Constituent Assembly of India. The work of revising and ref ing the drafts was carried out by various committees and sub-committees.

Section C
Section C consists of 3 questions of 8 marks each

Question 28.
An empire however strong it may be, comes to an end. In this content, explain how Vijayanagara empire ended? (8)
Or
Many foreign travellers visited the Vijayanagara empire, but writing of Portuguese travellers gives more illustrative account of the empire. Explain by giving specific examples. (8)
Answer:
The Vijayanagara empire which was established by the Sangama dynasty came to an end after the death of Krishnadeva Raya who belonged to the Tuluva dynasty.
Under him, the kingdom flourished with unparalleled peace and prosperity.
But the strain began to show within the imperial structure following the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529. His successors were troubled by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs. By 1542, control at the centre had shifted to another ruling lineage, that of the Araidu dynasty, It remained in power till the end of the 17th century. It was during this period, the military ambitions of the rulers of Vijayanagara as well as those of the Deccan Sultanates resulted in shifting alignments. This resulted in the formation of alliance of the Sultanates against Vijayanagara.

In 1565, Rama Raya, the Chief Minister of Vijayanagara, led the army into battle at Rakshasi-Tangadi. also known as battle of Talikota. The Vijayanagara army was routed by the combined forces of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda in the battle. The victorious armies sacked the city of Vijayanagara. The city was totally abandoned within a few years. Although. the armies of the Sultans were responsible for the destruction of the city of Vijayanagara, relations between the Sultans and the Rajas were not always hostile despite of religious differences.

For example, Krishnadeva Raya supported some claimants to power in the sultanates and took pride in the title establisher of the Yavana kingdom’. Similarly, the Sultan of Bijapur intervened to resolve succession disputes in Vijayanagara following the death of Krishnadeva Raya.

Basically, the adventurous policy of Rama Raya, the Chief Minister of Vijayanagara. who tried to playoff one Sultan against another led the Sultans to combine together and decisively defeat him. Another reason can be traced to the weak rulers who were not as able as Krishnadeva Raya. Hence, in this way the Vijayanagara empire came to an end.
Or
The Vijayanagara empire is widely known foc its thriving city, prosperous agriculture and trade, efficient management of water resource and construction of architectural marvels. As, the city was sacked and plundered after Battle of Talikota in 1565 AD, the writing of foreign travellers accompanied by large number of inscriptions of the kings has greatly helped in reconstructing the landscape of this empire.

Portuguese Travellers to the Empire
At the time of rule of Vijayanagara empire, Portuguese were gradually consolidating their presence in the Western coast of Indian sub-continent. In the sixteenth century, Duarte Barbosa, Domingo Paes, and Fernao Nuniz were the Portuguese traveller who visited the empire.

Their writing and memoirs has greatly helped in reconstruction of the history of the empire in following ways
(a) Duarte Barbosa His writing reflects the housing settlement of ordinary people in the empire He stated that houses of ordinary people were thatched, but nonetheless well built and arranged according to occupations, in long streets with many open places. He further observed that these were numerous well-built beautiful palaces, courts, houses in the capital. The capital of the empire was surrounded by beautiful orchards, trees arid water tanks. His account corroborates to the fact that equity and justice was patronised by the rulers. People of every creed and faith found shelter in the empire and kings were also known to have a diverse representations in the court and military.

(b) Domingo Paes Paes visited the capital under the rule of Krishandeva Raya. His writings tells about the efficient irrigation facilities and water conservation practised in the Empire. He also left and vivid account of the markets in the empire. He stated that many rich merchants with fine houses lived in the empire. In the market rubies, diamonds, emeralds, pearls etc were brought and sold.

He also wrote about regular evening fair organised in the empire. where goods of everyday use was sold. On irrigation he. mentioned the construction of giant tank under the rule of Krishnadeva Raya. It was constructed by broking down a hill and fifteen or twenty thousand men were involved in its construction, He also compared the capital city with the Rome, and
wrote that it was equal in size enriched by different varieties of flora from atI it’s sides. Thus, the accounts of Portuguese travellers throw light on every aspect of the empire and its architecture, trade and commerce, settlement pattern and state of agriculture.

Question 29.
Enumerate the architectural features of Harappan cities that indicate meticulous planning. What ideas can be grasped about
the town planning of the ancient civilisation? (4+4)
Or
Give an account of art and craft production in Harappan civilisation and also explain it’s various centre for procuring raw materials. (4+4)
Answer:
The architectural features pointing to town planning are as follows
The Harappan cities were well planned The cities wire divided into two sections. First was the one lower and higher, i.e. the Citadel, Second was much larger but lower, i.e. the lower town. Both these sections were walled arid physically separated from each other.

The city had a huge well, a great granary and beautiful designs on buildings. One of the most distinctive features of Harappan
cities was the carefully planned drainage system. If we look at the plan of the lower town, the roads and streets were laid out along an appoximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles.

Most of the residential buildings were centered on a courtyard, with rooms on all sides. the courtyard was probably the centre of activities such as cooking and weaving. There were no windows in the walls along the ground level, The main entrance does not give a direct view of the interior of the courtyard.

Every house had its own bathroom. with drains connected through the walls to the street drains. Some houses have remains of staircases to reach a second story or the root.

Many houses had wells, often in a room that could be reached from outside and used by passers-by. Total number of wells in Mohenjodaro was about 700.

In construction of buildings in Mohenjodaro. elaborate planning was done. For example, all building activity within the city was restricted to a fixed area on the platforms.

It signifies that settlement was first planned and then implemented accordingly. Bricks of standardised ratio were used at all Harappan settlements.

The following ideas can be grasped about the town planning of the ancient civilisation Planning The well-defined streets, houses and public buildings points to proper civil engineering planning. It shows the concern of higher authorities.

Hygiene The drainage system in every house points to the value of maintaining hygiene for good health. Interdependence The presence of lower town and Citadel side by side, the presence of proper drainage systems points to socially just interactions leading to healthy interdependence.

Public Structure It is the hallmark of any well-planned and managed city. The cities of Harappan civilisations, had many public structures such as great bath, granaries. stadium, structures for water conservation etc, which signifies general concern for the public welfare, Presence of Civil Sense Archaeologists have not found any evidences of encroachment of public lands such as
roads by the dwelling units of the common people. Further on public roads, there was arrangement for lighting at regular intervals, it corroborate the importance of civic sense present in the people of Harappan civilisation.
Or
Art and Craft Production
The people of Harappan Civilisation were highly expertise in art and craft production. Archaeologist has discovered many cities almost exclusively devoted to craft production, including bead-making shell cutting, and metal-working. seal making and weight-making The materials used in making all these crafts were carnelian, jasper. crystal, quartz, copper. bronze, gold. shell, faience, and terracotta The city of Chanhudaro was famous for craft production. Further, the beads were made of different shapes and form like disc-shaped, cylindrical.

spherical, barrel-shaped and segmented Special drills were found at Chanhudaro, Lothal and Dholavira. The city of Nageshwar and Balakot located near the coast were specialised centres for making shell objects-including bangles, ladles, and inlay. It was
transported to the other settlement. In addition to it, they were also highly proficient in bronze art and in production of terracotta figuring.

This artistic product were widely used by the people of large urban settlements such as Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Further, proximity to the dockyard and presence of Harappan seals in Ditmun and cities of Mesopotamian civilisation point towards the long distance trade of these products.

Mesopotamian texts mention the products from Harappan civilsations such as camnelian lapis lazuli, copper, gold and varieties of wood. These were produced in many urban cities of this civilisation.

Centre for Procuring Raw Materials
Materials for some craft production were locally available and some materials were transported from outside the alluvial plain The terracotta toy models of bullock carts suggest that it was used for transportation and procurement of raw materials in addition to the use of reverine routes. They also sent expeditions to other areas.

  • They obtained different materials from different cities. which were as follows
  • Shell from Nageshwar, Balakot, and Shortughai.
  • Blue Stone (Lapis Lazuli) from Afghanistan.
  • Carnelian (a glossy stone) from Bharuch in Gujarat.
  • Steatite from South Rajasthan and North Gujarat.
  • Archaeologists have named the Khetri area of
  • Rajasthan as Ganeshwar-Jodhpur culture. From this area, copper has been obtained.
  • Gold from South India

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions

Question 30.
Give a detailed account on the life of Paharias. What was the impact of aggresive push by Britisher for settled agriculture on
their life? (4+4)
Or
Examine the causes that led to Permanent Settlement in Bengal. Also identify the consequences of it. (4 +4)
Answer:
Life of Paharias
The Paharias were tribal people living in and around Rajmahai hills in Eastern India. The lite of the Paharias as hunters, shifting cultivators, food gatherers, charcoal producers, silkworm rearers was intimately connected to the forest. The detailed account of the lite of Paharias are as follows

  • They lived on forest produce and practised shifting cultivation. They cleared patches of forest by cutting bushes and burning the undergrowth.
  • These patches of land was enriched by the potash from the ash. Then they grew a variety of pulses and millets on this patches of land.
  • They scratched the ground lightly with hoes cultivated the cleared land for a few years, then left to fallow so that it could recover its fertility. Meanwhile.
  • They move to new areas repeating the same pattern of cultivation.
  • They used the patches of grass on the land as pastures for their cattle. Apart from providing assistance in livelihood, these cattles aided them with mlk and other products vital for nutritional security. They also served as beasts of burden.
  • They collected mahua for food and brewing liquor, silk cocoons and resin for sale and wood for charcoal production. This products were exchanged for the agricultural products.
  • They also raided the plains where the settled agriculturalists lived It was necessary for survival, especially during scarcity.
  • Aggreived by their frequent raids, the zamindars negotiated peace settlements with the chief of Paharias tribe. They used to get tributes from the zamindars. Thus, general life of Paharias was embedded in the matrix ot shifting cultivation, dependence on forest and minimal contact with outsiders.

Impact of Settled Agriculture on Paharias
In last decade of the 18th century. British colonial authorities aggressively pushed for settled agriculture in Eastern India, They encouraged forest clearance and zamindars and jotedars turned uncultivated lands into rice fields.

  • It was done with the objective of increasing revenue collection, producing crops for expoils and for establishing a settled, ordered society.
  • However, it had disastrous consequences for paharias as given below
  • With the rise of settled agriculture, the area under forests and pastures contracted. The livelihood of Pabarias was significantly hampered.
  • It also lead to more conflict between farmers and Paharias as the latter began to raid settled villages with increasing regularity.
  • In the 1770s the British embarked on a brutal policy of extermination. Many Paharias were killed and subsequent policy of pacification were also refused by many Paharias chief.
  • In the end Paharias withdrew deep into the mountains. insulating themselves from hostile forces and carrying on a war with the outsiders.

Or

  • The permanent settlement of Bengal was brought into effect by the East India Company headed by the Governor-General Lord Cornwallis in 1793. Under this agreement, land revenue was fixed between the Company and the Zamindars.
  • It was signed amid the agrarian crisis in Bengal accompanied by recurrent famines. British believed that by securing property rights and permanency in the rate of revenue demand will encourage investment in agriculture.
  • A part from these other causes leading to permanent settlement in Bengal are as follow
  • Firstly, Company kept the revenue price high with an idea that if the initial price would be low, then they would never be able to claim a share of increased income from land when prices rose and cultivation expanded
  • Hence, the Company argued that the burden on Zamindars would decline with expanded agricultural production and price rise.
  • Secondly, during the 1790s, the prices of agricultural produce were decreased with made the ryots difficult to pay their dues to the Zamindar.
  • Thirdly, as the revenue was fixed, it had to be paid punctually on time regardless of the harvest.
  • A law was introduced which came to be known as the Sunset Law. According to the law, if payment did not come in by sunset of the specified data, the zamindari was liable to be auctioned.
  • Fourthly, the power of the zamindar was initially limited to collect rent from the ryots and manage his zamindari.
  • However, the enactment of permanent settlement led to the several consequences for the zamindars. These were The Zamindar’s troops were disbanded, custom duties abolished and their cutcheries (courts) were brought under the supervision of a collector appointed by the company.

They lost the power to organise local justice and the local police. The collectorate emerged as an alternative centre of authority.
An officer of the zamindar, the arnlah, carne to the village at the time of rent collection to keep an eye on the process.
Bad harvests and low prices made the ryots difficult to pay dues to the zamindars.

Sometimes ryots deliberately delayed the revenue payment. Rich ryots and village headmen, jotedars and Mandais were against the zamindars.

The judicial process was long drawn to prosecute defaulters. In Burdwan, there were over 30,000 pending suits for arrears of rent payment in 1798.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 Source based questions of 4 marks each

Question 31.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Moistening the Rose Garden of Fortune
In this extract, Abu’l Fazi gives a vivid account of how and from whom he collected this information: …………….. to Abu’l Fazi son of Mubarak this sublime mandate was given. “Write with the pen of sincerity the account. of the glorious events and of our dominion-conquering victories Assuredly, I spent much labour and research in collecting the records and narratives of his Majesty’s actions and I was long time interrogating the servants of the State and the old members of the illustrious family.

I examined both prudent, truth-speaking old men and active-minded, right-actioned young ones and reduced their statements to writing. The Royal commands were issued to the provinces, that those who from old service remembered, with certainty or with adminicle of doubt, the events of the past, should copy out the notes and memoranda and transit them to the court.

(Then) a second command shone fourth from the holy presence-chamber, to with-that the materials which had been collected should be recited in the royal hearing, and whatever might have to be written down afterwards, should be introduced into the noble volume as a supplement, and that such details as on account of the minuteness of the inquiries and the minutes of affairs, (which) could not then be brought to an end, should be inserted afterwards at my leisure.

Being relieved by this royal order-the interpreter of the Divine ordinance from the secret anxiety of my heart, I proceeded to
reduce into writing the rough draughts (drafts) which were void of the grace of arrangement and style. I obtained the chronicle of events beginning at the 19th Year of the Divine Era, when the Record Office was established by the enlightened intellect of
his Majesty, and from its rich pages1 I gathered the accounts of many events.

Great pains too, werc taken to procure the originals or copics of most of the orders which had been issued to the provinces from accession up to the present day I also took much trouble to incorporate many of the reports which ministers and high officials had submitted, about the affairs of the empire and the events of foreign countries.

And my labor-loving soul was satiated by the apparatus of inquiry and research. I also exerted myself energetically to collect
the rough notes and memoranda of sagacious and well-informed men. By these means, I constructed a reservoir for’ irrigating and moistening the rose garden of fortune (the Akbarnama).
(i) Who authorised Abu’l Fazi to write the history of the Mughal period? (1)
(ii) How did the author get authentic information to write this memoirs? List any two methods. (2)
(iii) Whom does the author call the rose garden? What does he mean by moistening and irrigating it? (1)
Answer:
(i) Mughal Emperor Akbar authorised Abul Fazi to write the history of the Mughal period.
(ii) Author get authentic information by following methods

  • He interrogated the servants of the state and the old members of the illustrious family.
  • He examined the statements of all wise and trustful old man.

(iii) Author referred to his Akbarnarna as The rose garden. Moistening and irrigating this garden means to make the information interesting and authentic.

Question 32.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah was one of the many maulvis who played an important part in the Revolt of 1857. Educated in
Hyderabad, he became a preacher when young. In 1856, he was seen moving from village to village preaching jehad (religious
war) against the British and urging people to rebel. He moved in a palanquin, with drum beaters in front and followers at the
rear. He was therefore popularly called Danka Shah – the maulvi with the drum (danka). British officials panicked as thousands began following the maulvi and many Muslims began seeing him as an inspired prophet.

When he reached Lucknow in 1856, he was stopped by the police from preaching in the city. Subsequently, in 1857, he was jailed in Faizabad. When released, he was elected by the mutinous 22nd Native Infantry as their leader. He fought in the famous Battle of Chinhat in which the British forces under Henry Lawrence were defeated. He came to be known for his courage and power. Many people in fact believed that he was invincible, had magical powers, and could not be killed by the British. It was this belief that partly formed the basis of his authority.
(i) Who was Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah? From where he ras educated? (1)
(ii) Why was Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah was popular? (2)
(iii) Which battle was fought by Shah and what was the consequences? (1)
Answer:
(i) Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah was one of the many maulvis who played an important pari in the Revolt of 1857. He was educated in Hyderabad.
(ii) He used to move from village to village preaching jehad (religious war) against the British and urging people to rebel, so he became popular.
(iii) He fought the famous Battle of Chinhat in which the British forces under Henry Lawrence were defeated.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions

Question 33.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
‘Proper’ Social Roles
Here is a story from the Adj Parvan of the Mahabharata:
Once Drona, a Brahmana who taught archery to thc Kuru princes, was approached by Eklavya, a forest-dwelling nishada (a
hunting community). When Drona, who knew the dharma, refused to have him as his pupil, Eklavya returned to the forest,
prepared an image of Drona out of clay, and treating it as his teacher, began to practise on his own. In due course, he acquired great skill in archery.

One day, the Kuru princes went hunting and their dog wandering in the woods, came upon Eklavya. When the dog smelt the dark nishada wrapped in black deerskin, his body caked with dirt, it began to bark. Annoyed, Ekiava shot seven arrows into its mouth. When the dog returned to the Pandavas, they were amazed at this superb display of archery. They tracked down Eklavya, who introduced himself as a pupil of Drona.

Drona had once told his favourite student Arjuna, that he would be unrivalled amongst his pupils. Arjuna now reminded Drona
about this. Drona approached Eklavya, who immediately acknowledged and honoured him as his teacher. When Drona demanded his right thumb as his fee, Eklavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it. But thereafter, when he shot with his remaining fingers, he was no longer as fast as he had been before. Thus, Drona kept his word: no one was better than Arjuna.
(i) Explain why Dronacharya refused to accept Eklavya as his pupil? (1)
(ii) Explain how did Eklavya amazed the Pandavas with his display of archery skill? (1)
(iii) Was Dronacharya’s act justified? Give arguments to prove your answer. (2)
Answer:
(i) Eklavya was a Nishada boy so due to his low caste origin, he was not entitled to learn archery from Guru Drona. Therefore, Dronacharya refused to accept him as his disciple.
(ii) Pandavas were amazed by the Archery skills of Eklavya when they saw seven arrows shot at dogs mouth without a wound by him. It proved that he was better archer than Arjuna.
(iii) Dunng Epic age, Varnashrama dharma was very strict. Eklavya belonged to the lower strata of the society. He came to Dronacharya to learn archery from him. As a Guru, Dronacharya should not believe in casteism and would accept him as his
disciple. But Drona was the teacher in Royal family. He had to maintain the rules of the society. Thus he refused Eklavya and maintained his duty. But as a Guru, his work is unjustified.

Section E
Section E consists of Map based question of 5 marks

Question 34.
A. Locate and label the following. (3)
(i) The place where the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre occurred
(ii) The place where Gandhiji launched a Satyagraha against the Indigo planters
Or
(iii) The place where policemen were killed by mob
(iv) Chandragiri
B. On the given political outline map of India, two Mahajanapadas have been marked as 1 and 2. Write their names. (2)
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions 2
Answer:
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 11 with Solutions 3


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