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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History with Solutions Set 10 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions

  1. Question paper comprises five Sections – A, B, C, D, and E. There are 34 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A: Question 1 to 21 are MCQs of 1 mark each.
  3.  Section B: Question no. 22 to 27 are Short Answer Type Questions. carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60-80 words.
  4. Section C: Question no 28 to 30 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 300-350 words.
  5. Section D: Question no. 31 to 33 are Source Based Questions with three sub-questions and are of 4 marks each.
  6. Section E. Question no. 34 is Map-based, carrying S marks that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
  8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.

Section A
Section A consists of 21 questions of 1 mark each

Question 1.
Consider the following statements regarding Harappan Civilisation and choose the correct option. (1)
I. The Harapparis ate plants and animals products.
II. Evidence of ploughed field was found at Banawali.
III. Lothal is a small town which was famous for crafts production.
IV. Bones of deer and gharial are also found.
Option
(a) Only (i) is correct
(b) Only (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) Only (i) and (iii) are correct
(d) Only (i) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(d) Only (i) and (iv) are correct

Question 2.
Identify the feature of Harappan Civilisation.
I. It was a large rectangular tank.
II. It was in a country yard surrounded by a corridor on all four sides.
III. There were rooms on three sides.
IV. Water from tank flowed into a huge drain.
(a) The Great Tank
(b) The Great Bath
(c) The Great Washroom
(d) Great Wall
Answer:
(b) The Great Bath

Question 3.
Match the following. (1)

State Capital
A. Anga 1. Rajgir
B. Magadha 2. Champa
C. Kashi 3. Varanasi
D. Vatsa 4. Kaushambi

Codes
(a) A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4
(b) A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
(c) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
(d) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
Answer:
(a) A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4

Question 4.
Identify the states related to the sixteen Mahajanapadas with the help of the given information. (1)
It was the most powerful Mahajanapada.
Initially. Rajagriha (Rajgir) was the Capital, but later shifted to the Pataliputra.
Options
(a) Magadha
(b) Vatsa
(c) Anga
(d) Avanti
Answer:
(a) Magadha

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions

Question 5.
Read the following statements carefully and identify the name of the movement from the information given below. (1)
I. It was led by Muhammad Ah and Shaukat All.
II. The Congress supported this movement and Mahatma Gandhi sought to conjoin it to the Non-cooperation Movement.
(a) Khilafat Movement
(b) Salt Satyagraha Movement
(c) Deoband Movement
(d) Wahabi Movement
Answer:
(a) Khilafat Movement

Question 6.
Choose the incorrect option from the following statements with reference to Buddha’s life. (1)
(a) He was born in Lumbini, Nepal.
(b) He attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya.
(c) He gave his first sermon in Sarnath.
(d) He attained Nirvana in Vaishali.
Answer:
(d) He attained Nirvana in Vaishali.

Question 7.
……………………. was the ruler of Bhopal who provided money for the preservation of the ancient site of Sanchi Stupa.
(a) Shabjehan Begum
(b) Jahanara Begum
(c) Rukaiyya Begum
(d) Roshanara Begum
Answer:
(a) Shabjehan Begum

Question 8.
Which of the following characteristic features is not related to the bricks found in Harappan sites? (1)
(a) Sun-dried bricks
(b) Baked bricks
(c) Coloured bricks
(d) Standard ratio of bricks.
Answer:
(c) Coloured bricks

Question 9.
The Brihadeeswara temple is constructed by rulers of ……………………….. .(1)
(a) Vijayanagar Empire
(b) Chalukyas Dynasty
(c) Chola Empire
(d) Hoysalas Dynasty
Answer:
(c) Chola Empire

Question 10.
In which of the following places the independent government was proclaimed during Quit India Movement? (1)
(a) Lucknow
(b) Calcutta
(c) Muzaffarpur
(d) Satara
Answer:
(d) Satara

Question 11.
Which among the following Sufi saint was called as the lamp of the entire land? (1)
(a) Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi
(b) Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki
(c) Shaikh Nizarnuddin Auliya
(d) Shaikh Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakar
Answer:
(a) Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions

Question 12.
Which among the following is written by Abul Hamid Lahori? (1)
(a) Akbar Nama
(b) Jahangir Nama
(c) Alamgir Nama
(d) Badshah Nama
Answer:
(d) Badshah Nama

Question 13.
Which is the meaning of ‘Shabad’ from the given extract? (1)
(a) Guru Nanak expressed his ideas through hymns called ‘Shabad’.
(b) Suli songs
(c) Persian text containing poems
(d) All of the above.
Answer:
(a) Guru Nanak expressed his ideas through hymns called ‘Shabad’.

Question 14.
The Mansabdari System as the Administrative System introduced by Mughal Emperor ………………… in …………………. .(1)
(a) Jahangir, 1569
(b) Babur, 1527
(c) Akbar, 1571
(d) Shahjahan, 1629
Answer:
(c) Akbar, 1571

Question 15.
Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). (1)
Assertion (A) Santhals felt that it was high time to rebel against the zamindars.
Reason (R) Zamindars continuously increasing their control over the forest areas.
Codes
(a) Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true
Answer:
(a) Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A

Question 16.
Identify the person shown in the circle (1)
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions 1
(a) Abul Kalam Azad
(b) GB Pant
(c) BR Ambedkar
(d) Lai Bahadur Shastri
Answer:
(a) Abul Kalam Azad

Question 17.
Kabir’s poetry has literary as well as a philosophical significance. Select the most appropriate option from the following that
describes this essence. (1)
(a) God is one who just has different names.
(b) God is vested in all saguna forms.
(c) God is a philosophy in isolation from rituals.
(d) God is based on reincarnation.
Answer:
(a) God is one who just has different names.

Question 18.
Which one of the following dynasties built Hiriya Canal’ in Vijayanagara? (1)
(a) Tuluva
(b) Sangama
(c) Aravidu
(d) Saluva
Answer:
(b) Sangama

Question 19.
What was the reason of Simon Commission visited to India? Choose the correct option from the following. (1)
(a) To suggest changes in Constitution.
(b) To granting special privileges to minorities.
(c) To granting separate electorate to Dalits.
(d) To enquiring the excesses of Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
Answer:
(a) To suggest changes in Constitution

Question 20.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi reach Dandi? (1)
(a) Because he wanted to break the Salt Law.
(b) Because he wanted to organise a satyagraha there.
(c) Because he was forced to go there by the British.
(d) Because he wanted to give a speech there.
Answer:
(a) Because he wanted to break the Salt Law.

Question 21.
What was founded by Britishers to acquire more cotton? (1)
(a) The Cotton Supply Association
(b) The Manchester Cotton Company
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(c) Both (a) and (b)

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions

Section B
Section B consists of 6 questions of 3 marks each

Question 22.
How did archaeologists made a division between the social and economic life of the Harappan people? (3)
Answer:

Archaeologists generally use certain strategies to trace whether there were social or economic differences amongst the people living within a particular culture.

These include studying burials and things of luxury, etc. Burials At burials in Harappan sites, the dead were generally laid in pits. Sometimes, there were differences in the way the burial pit was made. In some instances, the hollowed-out spaces were lined with bricks.

Some graves contain pottery and ornaments. Jewellery has been found in burials of both men and women at the cemetery in Harappa. In some instances, the dead were buried with copper mirrors. Burials containing jewellery, and precious stones can be of rich men and women. While other burials may be of common people. Items of Luxury or Utility Another strategy to identify social differences is to study artifacts, which archaeologists broadly classify as utilitarian and luxurious.

The first category (utilitarian) includes objects of daily use made fairly easily out of ordinary materials such as stone or clay. These include querns, and pottery. needles, flesh-rubbers, etc, and are usually found distributed throughout settlements.

Archaeologists assume that the objects were luxuries if they are made from costly. non-local materials or with complicated technologies e.g. little pots of faience (a material made of ground sand or silica mixed with colour and a gum and then fired) were probably considered precious because they were difficult to make and must have used to store costly items.

Question 23.
What were the arguments in favour of greater power to the province? (3)
Answer:
The argument in favour of greater power to the provinces were
K Santhanam from Madras, defended the rights of the states, He believed that a reallocation of power was necessary not only to strengthen the state but also the centre.

He felt that center would not be able to function properly if it was overburdened. The centre would be made stronger ¡f some of its functions were transferred to the states. Santhanam believed that the proposed allocation of powers would cripple the states. The fiscal provision. would impoverish the states since most taxes, except land revenue, had been made the preserve of the center. Thus, it was not possible for states to undertake any project of development without sufficient finances.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions

Question 24.
Why was the Charkha chosen as the symbol of nationalism? (3)
Answer:
Charkha was chosen as a symbol of nationalism because of the following reasons

  • Dignity of Labour Charkha symbolised manual labour. Mahatma Gandhi always believed in the dignity of labour. He ‘liked to work with his own hands only and he encouraged manual work.
  • Machines Enslave Human Beings Gandhiji opposed machines, as they enslave human beings.
  • He adopted Charkha, as he wanted to glorify the dignity of manual labour and not of the machines and technology.
  • A Medium of Self-reliance Gandhiji believed that Charkha could make a man self-reliant, as it adds to his income.
  • Break the Boundaries of Caste System The act of spinning at Charkha wheel enabled Gandhij to break the boundaries of traditional caste system. Gandhi wanted to make Charkha as a symbol of nationalism. So, Gandhiji encouraged other national leaders to spin Charkha for some time daily.

Question 25.
What were the salient features of temple architecture under the Vijayanagara Empire? (3)
Answer:
The salient features of temple architecture under the Vijayanagara Empire were

  • They introduced the construction of huge gateways around the temple. It was called Raya gopuram and were constructed on such a massive scale that it often dwarfed the towers on the central shrine.
  • They also started the construction of long, pillared corridors also called as mandapas, It ran around temple shrines within the temple complex.
  • For instance, the Kalyana mandala of Virupaksha temple was meant to celebrate the divine marriage.
  • Another important feature of the temple complex was the chariot streets that extended from temple gopuram in the straight line.
  • These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with the pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.
  • In the construction of temples and public buildings, they also utilised the widespread use of sculptures. It was meant for decoration purposes. For instance, the Hazara Rama temple included scenes from the Ramayana sculpted on the inner walls of the Shrine.

Question 26.
Write about any three sources that are used by historians to study Mauryan Empire. (3)
Or
What are the limitations of inscriptional evidence in understanding political and economic history of India? (3)
Answer:
Historians have used a de variety of sources to study the history of the Mauryan Empire. Some of the sources are as follows
Things found in archaeological excavation, especially sculpture, are regarded as important sources.
Contemporary works like writings of Megasthenes, and Arthashasthra by Chanakya are important sources regarding that period. It gives an idea about Mauryan administration.
The Mauryas were also mentioned in later Buddhist, Jaina, Puranic and Sanskrit literature.
Or
The limitations of inscriptional evidences in understanding the political and economic history of India are as follows
Several thousand inscriptions were discovered, but not all of them were deciphered or translated
The context of inscriptions invariably projected the perspective of the person who commissioned it. For instance, routine agriculture practices, the joys and sorrows of common people were not mentioned in these inscriptions, From the mid-20th century, historians became more interested in political and economic changes in society. This led to fresh investigations of old sources. Here, inscriptions had their own limitations to interpret the political and economical history of India.

Question 27.
Analyse Bernier’s account of the urban centers. (3)
Or
Explain the views of Bernier about a more complex social reality of the Mughal Empire. (3)
Answer:
The picture of urban oent res from Bernier’s account was
The cities and towns were ruined with contaminated air, its fields overspread with bushes and full of dirty stagnant water
Bemier described Mughat cities as camp towns. This means these towns owed their existence and depended on trie imperiai court for their survival. He believed that these came into existence when the imperial court moved in and they would decline once when the imperial court moved out.
Bernier suggested that urban centers did not have viable social and economic foundations and were dependent on imperial protection.
Or
Bernier’s descriptions give hints about a more complex social reality. His views about this were as follows
He felt that artisans had no incentive to improve the quality of their manufactures since profits were appropriated by the state. Manufacturing was thus everywhere in decline.
He also pointed out that large quantities of the world’s precious metals flowed into India. as manufactures were exported in exchange of gold and silver.
He also noticed the existence of a prosperous merchant community, engaged in long-distance exchange.

 

Section C
Section C consists of 3 questions of 8 marks each

Question 28.
Discuss the nature of the Revolt of 1857. What values were reflected by Indians during the Revolt of 1857? (4+4)
Or
Describe how the British celebrated those, who they believed saved the English and repressed the rebels during the Revolt of
1857? (8)
Answer:
Nature of Revolt of 1857
The main ground for the uprising had been prepared by the soldiers. The soldiers working in the British army had revolted, therefore it was called as sepoy mutiny. Important and immediate cause of the revolt was that the soldiers refused to use the greased cartridges. moreover, there were many other causes such as annexation of Awadh, loss of employment for artisan
and high taxation on peasantry.

It was the first war of Independence. Lakhs of artisans farmers and soldiers struggled together against the British rule. At most of the centres of the revolt, leadership was provided by traditional leaders, taluqdars and religious leaders. Prominent among them were Nana Sahib at Kanpur, Rani Laxmi Bai at Jhansi. Hindus and Muslims took part in this revolt unitedly. The masses except some middle-class and urban intelligentsia who kept themselves of a loof, took active part in the struggle against the British at almost all centres of uprisings.

Values Reflected by Indians
The Revolt of 1857 showed certain values. These were
The sepoys who were called rebels by the British.
appealed to all sections of the society irrespective of caste, creed or religion. Thus, it shows unity among the people.
The rulers of Princely States appealed to their subjects and the people of those states came forward in large numbers. Moreover, at many places under the insistence of rebels and peasants rulers were compelled to provide leadership to the revolt It shows faith, trust and loyalty.
The ishtaharas put up by the sepoys shows the existence of different communities under the Mughal empire which shows harmony and peaceful co-existence.
Common people helped the sepoys. peasants gave food and everyone helped in whichever way they could. This reflects the general care and concern for every person. Thus, the revolt show unity, concern and compassion among the people.
Or
The British celebrated those who they believed saved the English and repressed the rebels during the Revolt of 1857 by the various types of paintings which were meant to provide a range of different emotions and reactions also. In an example of this type, ‘Relief of Lucknow’, which has been painted by Thomas Jones Barker in 1859 is particularly remarkable in this regard.

Henry Lawrence, the Commissioner of Lucknow, gathered all the Christians and took refuge along-with them in heavily fortified residency after the rebel forces besieged Lucknow.

Lawrence was killed, but the residency continued to be defended under the command of Colonel Inglis. On 25th September James Outram and Henry Havelock arrived out through the rebel forces and reinforced the British Garrisons.

Twenty days later, Collin Campbell who had been appointed as new commander of the British forces in India, reached with huge reinforcements and rescued the besieged British Garrison. In British accounts, the siege of Lucknow became a story of survival heroic resistance and the ultimate triumph of British power.

The arrival of Collin Campbell has been depicted as an event of celebration in Jones Barker’s painting. Campbell, Havelock and Outram. the three British heroes have been painted in the middle of the canvas. The gestures of the hands of the persons standing around them forcefully attract visitors to the middle of the painting.

The victorious figures of the heroes in the middle symbolising the re-establishment of British power and control is the main objective of these paintings and was to reassure the English in the power of their government. These paintings clearly conveyed the message that crisis was over and the revolt had been finished and the British had succeeded in re-establishment of their power and authority.

Question 29.
Who were the Alvars and the Nayanars? What relations they had with the Southern states? (2+6)
Or
The wide range of text produced in and around Sufi khanqahs had helped immensely in reconstruction of history of Sufism. In this regard explain Malfuzat, Maktubat, and Tazkiras as the sources used to reconstruct the history of Sufi traditions. (8)
Answer:
Alvars were those who were immersed in devotion of Vishnu and Nayanars were leaders who were devotees of Shiva. They sang hymns in Tamil in praise of their gods and travelled from one place to another.

The following relationship existed between the state and Alvars and Nayanars
There is evidence for sLates like those of the Pallavas and Pandyas during sixth to ninth centuries CE. Though Buddhism and Jainism had support from merchant and artisan communities from centuries, but they received only occasional royal support.
Opposition to Buddhism and Jainism was one of the major themes in the poet’s Tamil bhakti hymns. This could be seen in compositions of the Nayanars.

Historians explained this opposition as a competition between members of other religious traditions for royal support. Powerful Chola rulers of ninth to thirteenth centuries supported Brahmanical and Bhakti traditions by making land grants and constructing temples of Vishnu and Shiva.

Some of the most magnificent Shiva temples, like those at Chidambaram, Than javur, and Gangaikonda Cholapuram were constructed with the support of Chola rulers. During this, some of the most beautiful representations of Shiva in bronze sculpture were produced.

The visions of the Nayanars inspired artists. Vellala peasants respected both Nayanars and Alvars. So, rulers tried to win these peasants’ support as well. By building very impressive temples, the Chola kings tried to claim divine support and proclaim their own power and status.

These kings also introduced the singing of Tamil Shiva hymns in the temples under royal patronage, taking the initiative to collect and Organise them into a text called Tevaram.

From inscriptions, we have evidence that around 945 CE, Chola ruler Parantaka I, had dedicated for religious purpose, the metal images of Appar, Sambandar and Sundarar n a Shiva temple.
Or
The Sufism in India started after the arrival of Shaikh Muinuddin Sijzi at Ajmer in 1191 AD. He initiated the Chisti Silsila in India. Gradually the Sutis all over the country began to organise communities around their hospices which was also known as Khanqah. These Khanqah apart from serving the centre of all social life related lo the Sut ism also served as centre where wide variety of text were composed.

This text help immensely in our understanding about Sut ism and in their historical reconstruction. The important texts composed around Khanqah are discussed below Malfuzat It means uttered i.e. conversations of Sufi saints. Fawa’id-al-Fu’ad is an example of early text on maltuzat.

It was the collection of conversations of Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya, compared by Amir Hasan Sijzi Dehlavi a noted Persian poet. Maltuzats were compiled by different Sufi salsas with the permission of the Shaikhs The ultimate motto of these texts was to teach moral values. We can see several such texts from different parts of the subcontinent, including the Deccan.

Maktubat It means written collections of letters written by Sufi masters to their disciples and associates. These give us information about the Shakespearean experience of religious truth that he wanted to share with others. They also show the life conditions of the recipients and are responses to their aspirations and difficulties.

They include’ the difficult and daily life regular activities. Maktubat-i Imam Rabbani, written by Naqshbandi Shaikh Ahmad are among the most frequently discussed by scholars. The ideology of Shaikh Ahmad was different from the liberal and non-sectarian views of Akbar.

Tazktras It means to mention and memorialise biographical accounts of saints. The fourteenth-century Siar-ul-Auliya of Amir Khwurd Kirmani was the first Sufi tazkira written in India. It was mainly about Chishti saints. The most famous tazkira was the Akhbar-ul-Akhyar of Abdul Haqq Muhaddis Dehlavi. The authors of the tazkiras often tried to establish the previous
history of their own orders and glorify their spiritual ancestors.

Question 30.
Describe the features of the famous Sanchi Stupa in accordance to the structure and sculpture. (4+4)
Or
Discuss the development in sculpture and architecture associated with the rise of Vaishnavism and Shaivism. (8)
Answer:
The Sanchi Stupa was built in the 2nd century BCE and regarded as one of the important stupas in India. It was discovered in 1818.

The structural features of the Sanchi Stupa are

  • The stupa originated as a simple semi-circular mound of Earth, later called Anda. Above the anda was the harmik, a balcony-like structure that represented the abode of the gods. There was a mast called the yashti, arising from the harmika and it was surmounted by a chhatri or umbrella.
  • Around the mound, there was a railing separating the sacred space from the world. There were stone railings and the gateways, which were richly carved and installed at the four cardinal points. An elevation of the great stupa provides a vertical perspective.

The sculptural features of the Sanchi Stupa are

  • Art historians identified the scene depicting the gateways as a scene from the Vessantara Jataka. They often try to understand the meaning of sculpture by comparing it with textual evidence.
  • Many symbols like empty seats, wheels, trees were used to indicate the different teachings of Buddhism in Sanchi stupa. For instance, the empty seat was meant to represent the Mahaparinibbana and wheel stood for the first sermon of Buddha.
  • Other sculptures for example, a beautiful woman swinging from the edge of the gateway holding a tree, depicted Shalabhanjika, who as a woman whose touch caused trees to flower and bear fruit.
  • Depiction of animals like elephants. horses, monkeys and cattle were found there. Animals were used as symbols of human attributes. e.g. elephants were depicted to signify strength and wisdom

There is a motif in Sanchi Stupa that a woman surrounded by lotuses and elephants ants, which seems to be sprinkling water on other, as if performing an Abhisheka or consecration. Some historians thought that it was Maya, the mother of Buddha, while others identified her with a popular Goddess Gajalakshmi (goddess of good fortune).
Or
Vaishnavism and Shaivism are the two branches of Hinduism. In case of Vaishnavism, Lord Vishnu was regarded as the chief deity. In case of Shaivism, Lord Shiva was regarded as the chief deity. Both traditions were part of the Bhakti movement.
This tradition of Vaishnavism and Shaivism also impacted the tradition of architecture and sculpture. The temples developed the house deities. The initial temples were small and simple. It was a small room called Garbhagriha. Later it expanded, a tall structure was built on the Garbhagriha. It was called Shikhara. The walls of the temple were decorated with sculpture. Later the
temples had an elaborate structure.

They have assembly halls, huge walls, big gateways and arrangements for the supply of water. Soon temples were built that had huge entrance and big halls for the comfort of visitors.

Many of these temples were carved out of rocks. These artificial caves were turned into temples. The most important were the Ajivikas. that developed as a sect during the reign of Ashoka. Later a good example of the rock-cut temple is the Kailash Nath temple of the 8th century. It was carved out of a single piece rock.

Sculpture was yet another way of expression. Deities were given many shapes and forms in the sculpture. Shiva has been shown in the form of Unga. Many deities have shown in different forms.

Section D
Section D consists of 3 Source based questions of 4 marks each

Question 31.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Name of Satavahana Kings from Inscriptions These aie the names of several generations of Satavahana rulers, recovered from
inscriptions. Note the uniform title Raja. Also note the following word, which ends with the term puta, a Prakrit word meaning ‘son’. The term Gotami-puta means ‘Son of Gotami’.

Names like Gotami and Vasithi are feminine forms of Gotarna and Vasistha Vedic seers after whom gotras were named.
Raja Gotami-puta Siri-Satakani
Raja Vasithi-puta (sarni-) Siri-Pulumavi
Raja Gotami-puta sami-Siri- Yana-Satakani
Raja Madhari-puta svami-Sakasena
Raja Vasath ¡-puta Chataraparia-Satakani
Raja Hariti-puta Vinhukada
Chutukulanamda-Satakani
Raja Gotami-puta Siri-Vijava-Satakani
(i) What is the importance of gotra in Brahmanical practice? (1)
(ii) How was Satavahana Gotra practice different from the Brahmanical practice? (1)
(iii) What position did women enjoy in the Satavahana society? (2)
Answer:
(i) Gotra’ had immense importance in Brahmanical practice. Women were expected to give up their father’s gotra and adopt that of their husband after marriage and the members of the same gotra could not marry.

(ii) Satavahana gotra practice was different from Brahmanical gotra practice. Women who marned Satavahana rulers retained their father’s gotra after marriage. Also some women belonged to same gotra as that of husband’s gotra, which was against the principle of exogamy as mentioned in the Brahmanical texts.

(iii) Women enjoyed respectable positions in Satavahana society. As the Satavahana rulers were identified through metronymics, this suggests that mothers were important and had a respectable place in society.

For example, Gotami’s son was known as Gotami-Puta, Vasithi’s son was called Vasithi-Puta. The matrilineal descent maintained the name of mother instead of father.

Question 32.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Colin Mackenzie
Born in 1754. Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer. surveyor and cartographer In 1815, he was appointed the First Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier. He says that “It sniggled long under the miseries of bad management before the South came under the benign influence of the British Government.”

By studying Vijavai agara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain “much useful information on many of
these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various tribes of natives forming the general mass of the population to this day.”
(i) Who was Colin Mackenzie? (1)
(ii) Mention what Mackenzie did to make governance of the colony easier.
(iii) According to him, what benefits would the East india Company gain after studying Vijayanagara? Explain in brief. (2)
Answer:
(i) Colin Mackenzie was a famous engineer, surveyor, and cartographer. In 1815, he was appointed as the first Surveyor General of India.

(ii) Colin Mackenzie embarked on collecting local histones. He surveyed historic sites of the empire. His purpose was to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier.

(iii) Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain mud, useful information from his studies, The company could know about the institutions, laws, and customs of Vijayanagara. In fact, the various tribes and natives which have formed the
general mass of the population to this day bears deep influences of these facts.

Question 33.
Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
“British element is gone but they have left the mischief behind:’
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel said
It is no use saying that we ask for separate electorates because it is good for us. We have heard it long enough. We have heard it
for years, and as a result of this agitation, we are now a separate nation. Can you show me one free country where there are separate electorates? If so, I shall be prepared to accept it. But in this unfortunate country if this separate electorate is going to be persisted in, even after the division of the country, woe betide the country; it is not worth living in. Therefore, I say, it is not for my good alone, it is for your own good that I say it, forget the past.

One day, we may be united. The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind. We do not want to perpetuate that mischief (hear, hear). When the British introduced this element they had not expected that they have to go so soon.
They wanted it for their easy administration. That is all right. But they have left the legacy bad. Are we to get out of it or not?
(i) Why separate electorate was considered as a mischief? (1)
(ii) Explain Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s views on the issue of separate electorates system. (2)
(iii) In what ways did Sardar Patel explain that “The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind”? (1)
Answer:

(i) Separate electorates was considered as a mischief because in the name of giving representation to minorities Britishers divided two major communities of India politically.

(ii) According to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, separate electorates would be suicidal to the minorities and would do tremendous harm to them and the whole society.

It was a demand that had turned one community against another, divided the nation, caused bloodshed and led to the tragic partition of the country. He argued that it would permanently isolate the minorities, make them vulnerable and deprive them of any effective say within the government.

(iii) Sardar Patel said that British policy of separate electorate created a division in the people of India and divided them on the basis of religion. This division culminated with partition of the country, Britishers have left the country but negative consequence of that policy still haunted Indians.

Section E
Section E consists of Map based question of 5 marks

Question 34.
A. Locate and label the following. (3)
(i) Place of Quit India Resolution
Or
(ii) Place of Jalianwala Bagh Massacre
(iii) One centre of National Movement in Gujarat
(iv) One city of importance in South India
B. On the given political outline map of India, two places associated with Asokan Pillar inscriptions are marked from 1 and 2. Write their names. (2)
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions 2
Answer:
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Set 10 with Solutions 3


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