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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science with Solutions Set 5 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

  • The question paper consists of five sections (A, B, C, D, and E) with 30 questions in total.
  • All questions are compulsory.
  • Question nui;ibers 1-12 are multiple choice questions of one mark each.
  • Question numbers 1348 are oJ2 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 50-60 words each.
  • Question numbers 19-23 are of 4 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 100-120 words each. There is an internal choice’ in two of the 4 marks questions.
  • Question numbers 24-26 are passages. cartoon and map-based questions. Answer accordingly.
  • Question numbers 27-30 are of marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 170-180 words.
  • There is an internal Choice in 6 marks questions.

Section-A

Question 1.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Choose the appropriate option as answer:
Assertion (A): Every village has to be self-sustained and capable of managing its affairs. [1]Reason (R): The independence of India should mean the independence of the whole of India
(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: Mahatma Gandhi believed in the concept of Gram Swaraj’ (self-governance at the village level). He emphasised that self-sustained villages would contribute to the overall well-being and progress of the nation. The Reason reflects the broader goal of Tndia’s independence movement, ‘which aimed at achieving sovereignty and self-rule for the entire nation. It implies that true independence should encompass every region, community, and individual within the country.

The Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion. Gandhi’s idea of self-sustained villages aligns with the notion that true independence for India would be achieved when every part of the country, including its villages, is self-sufficient and capable of managing its own affairs.

Question 2.
How does political theory influence our ideas and feelings about political matters? [1](a) It encourages us to become more extreme in our opinions
(b) It makes us indifferent to political issues
(c) It motivates us to be more moderate in our ideas and feelings
(d) It still a radical approach to political thinking.
Answer:
Option (c) is correct.
Explanation: Political theory encourages individuals to examine their ideas and feelings about political matters more carefully, leading to more moderate and thoughtful opinions.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

Question 3.
Why might political rights have little value for someone living on the payment and struggling to meet basic needs? [1](a) They already have access to adequate wages and reasonable working conditions.
(b) They require additional facilities and economic rights to meet basic needs.
(c) They are not interested in participating in the political process.
(d) They do not believe in the importance of political rights.
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: For someone living in poverty and struggling to meet basic needs, political rights a lone may have little value. Additional facilities and economic rights are needed to address their basic needs effectively.

Question 4.
The chief instrument through which judicial activism has flourished in India is ………………….. . [1](a) Public Interest Litigation (PIL)
(b) Original Jurisdiction
(c) Basic Structure Doctrine
(d) Single Constitution
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: Public Interest Litigation (PIL) is a legal mechanism that allows individuals or organisations to approach the courts to seek remedies for issues that affect the general public or violate Fundamental Rights. PIL has been a significant instrument through which judicial activism has flourished in India.

Question 5.
In his book Citizenship and Social Class (1950), Marshall defined …………………. as “a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess the status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the status is endowed.” [1](a) Identity
(b) Citizenship
(c) Civil Rights
(d) Equality
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: In his book titled Citizenship and Social Class published in 1950, T.H. Marshall defined Citizenship as ‘a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community. All who possess the status are equal with respect to the rights and duties with which the status is endowed.’

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

Question 6.
What is the primary basis of a nation’s existence? [1](a) Shared language
(b) Common Religion
(c) Collective beliefs and aspirations
(d) Shared race and descent.
Answer:
Option (c) is correct.
Explanation: A nation is primarily an imagined’ community held together by the collective beliefs, aspirations, and imaginations of its members. While shared language, religion, race, and descent can be factors in some nations, they are not present in all nations, making collective beliefs and aspirations the essential basis for the existence of a nation.

Question 7.
What does “positive liberty” in political theory focus on? [1](a) Ensuring individual inviolability and non-interference
(b) Expanding opportunities for individual development in material, political, and social domains
(c) Defining the minimum area of non-interference for individuals
(d) Improving the relationship between the individual and society.
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation; Positive liberty is concerned with ‘freedom to and focuses on improving the conditions and nature of the relationship between the individual and society. It aims to enable the development of the individual through material, political, and social opportunities.

Question 8.
In democratic societies, political equality typically includes: [1](a) Providing equal opportunities for economic growth
(b) Ensuring equal distribution of wealth and property
(c) Granting equal citizenship and basic rights to all members of the state
(d) Guaranteeing equal access to cultural resources.
Answer:
Option (c) is correct.
Explanation: In democratic societies, political equality generally involves granting equal citizenship to all members of the state, which includes basic rights like the right to vote, freedom of expression, movement, association etc.

Question 9.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Choose the appropriate option as answer:
Assertion (A): Judicial activism has blurred the line of distinction between the executive, legislature and the judiciary.
Reason (R): The court has been involved in resolving questions which belong to the executive.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: The Assertion correctly states that judicial activism has led to a blurring of the distinction between the executive, legislature, and judiciary. Judicial activism refers to situations where the judiciary plays an active role in interpreting laws and making decisions that may traditionally fall under the purview of the executive or legislative branches.

The Reason is also correct in stating that the court has been involved in resolving questions that belong to the executive. However, the Reason does not directly explain why judicial activism has led to the blurring of the line of distinction between the branches of government. While the Reason acknowledges the involvement of the court in executive matters, it does not fully explain the cause-and-effect relationship between this involvement and the blurring of distinctions mentioned in the Assertion.

Question 10.
Match the following:

List I List II
A. Federalism (i) The constitution makers provided a number of special measures to protect the interests of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes such as the reservation of seats in legislatures.
B. Social Justice (ii) States should neither help nor hinder religions.
C. Secularism (iii) Every person of either sex who has attained the age of eighteen is entitled to vote for the House of Representatives or Parliament.
D. Universal Franchise (iv) An institutional mechanism to accommodate two sets of polities – one at the regional level and the other at the national level.

(a) A-iv, B-i, C-ii, D-iii
(b) A-i, B-iii, C-ii, D-iv
(c) A-iv, B-ii, C-iii, D-i
(d) A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
A. Federalism – iv. An institutional mechanism to accommodate two sets of polities – one at the regional level and the other at the national level.
Explanation: Federalism involves the distribution of powers and responsibilities between a central/national government and regional governments. This allows for a division of authority and governance at multiple levels.

B. Social Justice – i. The constitution makers provided a number of special measures to protect the interests of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes such as the reservation of seats in legislatures.

Explanation: Social justice aims to ensure fair treatment, opportunities, and resources for all members of society, especially those who are marginalised or disadvantaged. The provision of special measures like reservations for historically disadvantaged groups is a means to achieve social justice.

C. Secularism – ii. States should neither help nor hinder religions.
Explanation: Secularism involves the separation of religion from the functions of the state. It ensures that the government remains neutral in religious matters and does not promote or inhibit any particular religion.

D. Universal Franchise – iii. Every person of either sex who has attained the age of eighteen is entitled to vote for the House of Representatives or Parliament.
Explanation: Universal franchise refers to the right of every eligible citizen to vote in elections. It ensures that all adult citizens have an equal say in choosing their representatives.

Question 11.
Feminism advocates for: [1](a) Special privileges for women over men
(b) Equal rights for women and men
(c) Women’s superiority over men
(d) Men’s dominance over women
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: Feminism advocates for equal rights for women and men. It is a political and social movement that seeks to challenge and dismantle the patriarchal systems and structures that perpetuate gender-based inequalities and discrimination. Feminists strive for a society where women and men have the same opportunities, rights, and access to resources, and where gender does not determine one’s position or treatment in society.

Question 12.
In a democracy, what should be the scope of a citizen’s political identity? [1](a) It should he limited to one dominant identity.
(b) It should encompass various identities that people may have.
(c) It should exclude identities based on gender and religion.
(d) It should be determined by the state
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: in a democracy, the political identity of a citizen should be inclusive and encompass various identities, including gender, caste, religion, language, or region, that a person may have.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

Section-B

Question 13.
State two political dimensions of justice. [2]Answer:
Two political dimensions of justice are:
(i) Legal Equality: This dimension of justice emphasises that all individuals should be treated equally under the law, regardless of their social, economic, or political status. It ensures that laws are applied without discrimination and that everyone has the same rights and protections before the legal system.

(ii) Political Participation: This dimension relates to the right of individuals to participate in political processes and decision-making. It ensures that citizens have the opportunity to vote, express their opinions, and engage in public affairs, contributing to the democratic functioning of a society.

Question 14.
Was Mahatma Gandhi in favour or against the implementation of Panchayati Raj System? [2]Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi was a strong contender for implementation of Panchayati Raj System. His idea of independence of the country was that independence must start from the bottom-most level of the country, that is, the villages. He was against centralization of power at the centre only and wanted that every village must be self-sustained as far as local issues are concerned.

Question 15.
Define a secular state. [2]Answer:
A secular state is a political entity that maintains a strict separation between government institutions and religious organizations. In a secular state, the government remains neutral in matters of religion, treating all religious beliefs and practices equally and not favouring or endorsing any particular religion.

This ensures that citizens have the freedom to practice their religion without interference from the state, and it prevents the government from imposing religious beliefs on its citizens.

Question 16.
State the importance of Right to Religion. [2]Answer:
The Right to Religion is a fundamental human entitlement, encompassing freedom of belief and practice. it safeguards diverse cultural expressions, enabling individuals to make personal spiritual choices. This rights significance lies in its role in promoting tolerance, preventing conflicts, and nurturing social harmony. It upholds democratic values, empowering citizens to participate in civic life. Moreover, it ensures protection against discrimination, fostering equality and inclusion. By respecting diverse religious beliefs, societies can achieve peaceful coexistence and uphold the principles of human rights.

Question 17.
How are equality and uniformity different? [2]Answer:
Equality and uniformity are distinct concepts with different implications:
Equality refers to the fair and just treatment of individuals, ensuring that everyone has equal rights, opportunities, and protections under the law. it focuses on addressing disparities, promoting social justice, and providing equal access to resources and opportunities regardless of individual differences.

Uniformity involves treating everyone in the same standardised manner, often without regard for individual circumstances or needs. It emphasises consistency and sameness in rules, regulations, or treatment. While uniformity can be efficient in certain contexts, it may overlook existing inequalities and fail to accommodate diverse situations, potentially leading to unfair outcomes.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

Question 18.
What is the role of Preamble to the Constitution? [2]Answer:
The Preamble to the Constitution serves as an introductory statement, declaring the fundamental values and aspirations of a nation. It outlines guiding principles, sources of authority, and the purpose of the Constitution. It acts as a moral compass, influencing legislation, legal interpretation, and inspiring citizens. It underscores unity, sovereignty, and democratic ideals while guiding the nation’s governance within its defined principles.

Section-C

Question 19.
What is the concept of justice as per Plato? [4]Answer:
Plato, the ancient Greek philosopher, conceptualized justice in his seminal work ‘The Republic.’ According to him, justice is achieved when each individual in society fulfills their role and responsibilities in harmony with the greater whole. He introduced the concept of a just society as one organised into three classes: rulers, guardians, and producers. In this ideal society, justice prevails when individuals perform their designated tasks, guided by reason and virtue. Plato believed that when every person plays their role effectively and without infringing on others’ rights, a state of balance and harmony emerges, resulting in a just and well-ordered society. His vision emphasised the alignment of individual virtue and social harmony as the foundation of justice.

Question 20.
List some of the criticisms of the Constitution of India. [4]Answer:
Some criticisms of the Constitution of India are:

  • Unwieldiness: Critics argue that the Constitution is criticized for being extensive and unwieldy due to its comprehensive nature, encompassing numerous details in a single document.
  • Unrepresentative: The Constitution is deemed unrepresentative due to the restricted franchise during the formation of the Constituent Assembly, which some critics argue does not adequately capture the diverse opinions and needs of the population.
  • Cultural Alienation: Some criticize the Constitution for being perceived as alien to Indian cultural ethos, suggesting that it is a partly Western and modern document that may not fully resonate with traditional Indian values.

Question 21.
What is the importance of the Keshavananda Ruling in India? [4]Answer:
Keshavananda Ruling in India holds immense importance as a landmark judicial decision. In 1973, the Supreme Court of India delivered the Keshavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala ruling, which upheld the concept of the ‘basic structure doctrine. This ruling established that certain fundamental features of the Constitution, which form its basic structure, cannot be amended by the Parliament. The decision has acted as a bulwark against arbitrary changes to the Constitution’s core principles and values, ensuring its stability and preserving democratic governance. The ruling’s significance lies in safeguarding the Constitution’s integrity while allowing for necessary reforms to adapt to evolving societal needs.

Question 22.
What is Article 21 of the Constitution of India so important? [4]OR
Is it true to say that the Local Government is the true base of democracy? [4]Answer:
Article 21 of the Constitution of India holds immense significance as it guarantees the Fundamental Right to life and personal liberty. This article ensures that every person has the right to live with dignity, free from any arbitrary deprivation of life or personal freedom. It encompasses a wide range of rights, including the right to privacy, bodily integrity, and a pollution-free environment. Article 21 acts as a cornerstone of human rights protection, enabling individuals to seek redressed and justice in case of any violation of their personal liberties.

The Supreme Court of India has interpreted Article 21 expansively, extending its scope beyond mere survival to encompass the quality of life and well-being. Its importance lies in its role as a safeguard against government action that threatens an individual’s life or personal liberty.
OR
The assertion that local government is the true base of democracy holds merit. Local government, also known as grassroots democracy, empowers citizens at the community level to actively participate in decision-making and governance. It brings governance closer to the people, facilitating their direct involvement in matters that impact their immediate surroundings.

Local governments are better equipped to understand local needs and tailor policies accordingly. This decentralized approach enhances citizen participation, accountability, and responsiveness, making local government an essential foundation for a robust democratic system.

Question 23.
Write a note on jurisdiction of High Courts. [4]OR
Which form of government is advocated by our Constitution – Unitary or Federal? [4]Answer:
The High Courts in India serve as the apex judicial authorities within each state jurisdiction, playing a crucial role in the country’s legal system. With 25 High Courts, including those covering multiple states and union territories, they oversee matters of significant legal importance. High Courts wield considerable authority, issuing directives, orders, and writs such as Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo Warranto, and Certiorari. This jurisdiction is exercised not only within their geographical domain but also extends to cases where the cause of action arises, even if not within their territory. Moreover, High Courts have the power of superintendence over all courts in their jurisdiction, enabling them to establish rules, regulate proceedings, and maintain judicial standards. The role of High Courts is critical in safeguarding Fundamental Rights and ensuring justice prevails across India’s diverse legal landscape.
OR
The Constitution of India distinctly advocates a federal form of government, with a careful balance of federal and unitary elements. The Constitution delineates a clear division of powers between the Central Government (Union) and State Governments. It establishes a dual polity, with separate jurisdictions and responsibilities, while upholding the supremacy of the Constitution as the paramount law.

An independent judiciary interprets and safeguards this federal structure. Although federal in its design, the Constitution incorporates unitary features such as a single citizenship, residual powers vested in the Central Government, and the authority to intervene in state matters under specific circumstances. This nuanced blend of federalism and unitariañs aims to preserve unity, integrity, and effective governance within the diverse and complex Indian context.

Section-D

Question 24.
Read the passage and answer the questions that follows:
Let us look at a very different kind of secularism practiced in Turkey in the first half of the twentieth century. This secularism was not about the principled distance from organised religion, instead, it involved, active intervention in and suppression of, religion. This version of secularism was propounded and practiced by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. He came to power after the first war. He was determined to put an end to the institution of Khalifa in the public life of Turkey. Ataturk was convinced that only a clear break with traditional thinking and expressions could elevate Turkey from the sorry state it was in. He set out in an aggressive manner to modernise and secularise Turkey.

Ataturk changed his own name from Mustafa Kenial Pasha to Kemal Ataturk (Ataturk translates as Father of the Turks). The Fez, a traditional cap worn by Muslims, was banned by the Hat Law. Western clothing was encouraged for men and women. The Western (Gregorian) calendar replaced the traditional Turkish calendar. In 1928, the new Turkish alphabet (in a modified Latin form) was adopted.
(i) Kemal Ataturk was earlier known as: [1](a) Mustafa Kernal Pasha
(b) Father of the Turks
(c) Osman
(d) None of these
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, a prominent political and military leader, was originally known by his birth name Mustafa Kemal Pasha. He later adopted the name Kemal Ataturk, which means “Father of the Turks,” as a symbol of his leadership and modernization efforts in Turkey.

(ii) What steps were taken by Ataturk to promote secularism in Turkey? [1](a) He put an end to the institution of Khalifa.
(b) He declared Turkey as a secular state.
(c) The traditional cap of Muslims was banned.
(d) All of these
Answer:
Option (d) is correct.
– He put an end to the institution of Khalifa.
– He declared Turkey as a secular state.
– The traditional cap of Muslims was banned.
Explanation: Kernal Ataturk introduced a series of reforms to promote secularism in Turkey. Firstly, he abolished the institution of Khalifa, the religious and political authority of Islam, emphasizing the separation of religious and political powers. Secondly, Ataturk declared Turkey a secular state, signaling the intent to distance the government from religious influence. Lastly, he implemented measures such as banning the Fez (a traditional cap worn by Muslims) and encouraging Western clothing to modernize Turkish society and reduce religious symbolism.

(iii) The Turkish calendar replace with the: [1](a) Bhartiya Panchang
(b) Gregorian Calendar
(c) Chinese Calendar
(d) Egyptian Calendar
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: Kernal Ataturk introduced several modernisation initiatives, including changing the calendar system. The traditional Turkish calendar was replaced with the Western (Gregorian) calendar, aligning Turkeys timekeeping with international standards and contributing to modernization efforts.

(iv) The Fez was banned by the …………………. .[1](a) Cap Law
(b) Cloth Law
(c) Hat Law
(d) Western Law
Answer:
Option (c) is correct.
Explanation: Ataturk’s efforts to modernize Turkey included changing clothing norms. The Fez, a traditional cap worn by Muslims, was banned under the Hat Law. This law was part of Ataturk’s broader reforms to encourage Western attire and discourage traditional religious symbols as a way to promote secularism and modernization.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

Question 25.
Read the passage and answer the questions that follows:
The Indian bureaucracy today is an enormously complex system. It consists of the All-India Services, State Services, employees of the local governments, and technical and managerial staff running public sector undertakings. Makers of our Constitution were aware of the importance of the non-partisan and professional bureaucracy. They also wanted the members of the civil services or bureaucracy to be impartially selected on the basis of merit. So, the Union Public Service Commission has been entrusted with the task of conducting the process of recruitment of the civil servants for the government of India. Similar public service commissions are provided for the States also. Members of the Public Service Commissions are appointed for a fixed term. Their removal or suspension is subject to a thorough enquiry made by a judge of the Supreme Court.
(i) Define bureaucracy. [1](ii) ‘What is the composition of bureaucracy in India? [2](iii) How is bureaucracy appointed? [1]Answer:
(i) Bureaucracy refers to a structured and organized administrative system characterized by hierarchical authority, division of labour, specialization, and adherence to established rules and procedures. It is responsible for implementing government policies, managing public services, and ensuring the efficient functioning of government institutions.

(ii) The bureaucracy in India comprises various components, including:
All-India Services: These are prestigious civil services at the national level, including the Indian Administrative Service (lAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), and Indian Foreign Service (IFS). State Services: Similar to All-India Services, these civil services operate at the state level and handle administrative functions within their respective states.

Local Government Employees: These are employees working in local government bodies such as municipalities and panchayats. Technical and Managerial Staff: Individuals working in public sector undertakings, responsible for technical, managerial, and operational aspects of government-owned industries and organizations.

(iii) Members of the civil services or bureaucracy in India are appointed through a rigorous and impartial process. The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) conducts the recruitment process for civil servants in the Central Government. Similarly, State Public Service Commissions (SPSCs) are responsible for selecting civil servants at the state level. The selection is based on merit and involves competitive examinations, interviews, and evaluations of candidates’ qualifications, skills, and aptitudes.

Question 26.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows:
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions 1
(i) These members of the ruling party are trying to listen to the ‘tiny’ opposition. Was this the effect of our electoral system? [2](ii) What is the significance of the cartoon? [2]Answer:
(i) The effect of the electoral system in the context of the cartoon appears to be that despite the small size of the opposition, the ruling party members are attentive to their voices. This has been true for a long time when there was only one-party dominance in the country both in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. There were very few representatives in the opposition and some of the nominated members of the Rajya Sabha that acted as opposition for the government. The cumulative effect of all the members in the opposition was very tiny as compared to the effect of those in the ruling party. This suggests that the electoral system in India promotes a democratic environment where even a small opposition can be heard and its views considered.

(ii) The cartoon illustrates the idea that in India, even when the opposition is relatively small in comparison to the ruling party, the voices and opinions of the opposition are still valued and acknowledged. It highlights the democratic principle of inclusivity and the importance of diverse viewpoints in governance. The cartoon implies that the ruling party’s willingness to listen to the opposition contributes to the functioning of a healthy democracy and ensures that decisions are made in the best interest of the country.

Section- E

Question 27.
What is meant by the term Freedom? What is the difference between the negative and positive conceptions of liberty? [6]OR
What is meant by social constraints? Are constraints of any kind necessary for enjoying freedom? State any two safeguards that can be put in place to maintain the state of Liberty. [6]Answer:
Freedom refers to the state of being free from constraints, coercion, or interference. It encompasses the ability to make choices, pursue one’s desires, and engage in activities without undue limitations. Freedom is a fundamental value in democratic societies and is often associated with individual rights and autonomy.

The negative conception of liberty emphasises the absence of external restrictions or obstacles that hinder an individual actions. In this view, individuals are considered free when they are not coerced or prevented from acting according to their will. Negative liberty is concerned with protecting individuals from interference by others or the state, allowing them to exercise their rights and make choices without external constraints.

The positive conception of liberty focuses on the capacity of individuals to pursue their goals and develop their potential. It goes beyond the absence of constraints and considers the presence of enabling conditions that empower individuals to lead fulfilling lives.

Positive liberty involves providing opportunities, resources, and social conditions that allow individuals to achieve their aspirations and realize their potential. The difference between negative and positive conceptions of liberty lies in their emphasis.

Negative liberty emphasises non-interference and the absence of constraints, while positive liberty emphasises empowerment, self-realization, and the availability of opportunities. Negative liberty is concerned with protecting individual rights and limiting the power of external entities, while positive liberty is concerned with ensuring that individuals have the capability to lead meaningful and autonomous lives.
OR
Social constraints refer to the norms, rules, expectations, and cultural values that shape and regulate individual behaviour and choices within a society. These constraints are often derived from the collective beliefs, traditions, and standards of the community. They can influence how people interact, express themselves, and make decisions, contributing to social cohesion and order.

Constraints of some kind are necessary for enjoying freedom within a society. While this might seem paradoxical, certain constraints are essential to prevent one person’s exercise of freedom from infringing upon the rights and freedoms of others. For example, laws against violence and theft constrain individual behaviour but create an environment where people can go about their lives without constant fear for their safety and property.

Safeguards to Maintain the State of Liberty:
(i) Independent Judiciary as Custodian of the Constitution: An independent judiciary acts as a vital safeguard by ensuring that the laws and actions of the government are in line with the Constitution. It serves as a check on potential abuses of power protecting citizens’ rights and freedoms.

(ii) Enshrinement of Fundamental Rights:
Incorporating Fundamental Rights into the Constitution provides individuals with legally protected rights that cannot be easily infringed upon by the government or any other entity. These rights serve as a shield against arbitrary actions, ensuring that individuals can express themselves, associate freely, and engage in various activities without unwarranted interference.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

Question 28.
A State must protect the lives and rights of its citizens. However at times its own actions are a source of violence against some of its citizens. Comment with the help of some examples. [6]OR
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Nationalism. [6]Answer:
It is indeed a fundamental responsibility of a state to protect the lives and rights of its citizens. However, there are instances when a state’s actions can lead to violence against certain segments of its own population. Here are some examples that highlight this complex dynamic:
(i) Protests Against CAANRC (2019-2020):
The protests against the Citizenship Amendment Act (CM) and the proposed National Register of Citizens (NRC) led to clashes between protesters and security forces in various parts of India. Some instances of excessive use of force and police action against protesters have raised concerns about the state’s approach to handling dissent.

(ii) Kashmir Conflict: The conflict in Jamrnu and Kashmir has witnessed both state security forces and militant groups engaging in violence, leading to civilian casualties. The state’s handling of security measures and human rights concerns has been a subject of debate and criticism.

(iii) Naxalite-Maoist Conflict: The Naxalite-Maoist insurgency in certain regions of India has seen state security forces combating armed groups. While the state aims to restore law and order, instances of violence against civilians and human rights abuses have been reported.
OR
Advantages of Nationalism:
(i) Unity and Identity: Nationalism can foster a sense of unity and identity among a diverse population. It helps people identify with a common culture, history, and values, leading to a stronger sense of belonging and community.

(ii) Patriotism and Civic Engagement: Nationalism encourages patriotism and civic engagement, motivating citizens to actively participate in the betterment of their country. People feel a sense of responsibility towards their nation’s progress and well-being.

(iii) National Pride and Morale: Nationalism can boost national pride and morale, leading to increased confidence and a positive self-image. This can have positive effects on various aspects of society, including economic growth and international relations.

Disadvantages of Nationalism:
(i) Ethnocentrism and Exclusion: Nationalism can lead to ethnocentrism, where one’s own nation is viewed as superior to others. This can result in discrimination, exclusion, and conflicts with minority groups or neighboring countries.

(ii) Suppression of Diversity: Excessive nationalism might suppress cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity within a nation. Minority groups may face assimilation pressures, which can undermine cultural richness and social harmony.

(iii) Potential for Aggression: Hyper-nationalism can escalate into aggressive behaviour, including militarism and expansionism. This aggressive stance can lead to international tensions and conflicts.

Question 29.
Is politics different from political science? Why or why not? [6]OR
Imagine that you were to rewrite the provisions regarding federalisnt Write an essay of not more than 300 words making your suggestions about:
(i) division of powers among the centre and the States,
(ii) distribution of financial resources,
(iii) methods of resolving inter-state disputes and
(iv) appointment of Governors. [6]Answer:
Yes, politics and political science are distinct concepts, although they are closely related. Politics refers to the activities, actions, and processes that involve the governance and decision-making within a society, organisation, or government. It encompasses the exercise of power, the formulation of policies, the negotiation of conflicting interests, and the implementation of laws and regulations. Politics involves interactions between individuals, groups, and institutions to influence or control public affairs. Political science is an academic discipline that systematically studies politics, government, and political behaviour.

It seeks to understand the theories, concepts, and structures underlying political processes, institutions, ideologies, and policies. Political science analyses the dynamics of power, the functioning of governments, the behaviour of political actors, and the impact of political decisions on society.

It employs research methods, data analysis, and theoretical frameworks to gain insights into political phenomena. While politics deals with the practical activities of governance and decision-making, political science is the academic field that systematically studies and analyses these activities using theoretical frameworks and research methods. They are intertwined in the sense that political science seeks to understand, explain, and inform the practice of politics.
OR
(i) Federalism, as enshrined in the Constitution, plays a pivotal role in balancing power and fostering cooperation between central and State Governments. However, in today’s dynamic world, it is imperative to reassess and refine the provisions of federalism to ensure efficient governance and equitable distribution of resources.

Firstly, the division of powers between the central and State Governments needs a comprehensive review. A clear demarcation of powers, responsibilities, and jurisdictions should be outlined. The Central Government could be responsible for national security, foreign affairs, and macroeconomic policies, while states could oversee education, healthcare, and local infrastructure. This would streamline decision-making, prevent overlaps, and promote efficient policy implementation.

(ii) Secondly, the distribution of financial resources must be recalibrated to reduce disparities among states. A more equitable revenue-sharing mechanism should be established, based on factors like population, development indicators, and fiscal capacity. This would ensure that states with fewer resources receive adequate support for development projects and public services, fostering inclusive growth.

Thirdly, resolving inter-State disputes can be enhanced through a strengthened conflict-resolution framework. A permanent Interstate Disputes Tribunal could be established, comprising legal experts, representatives from the central and State Governments, and neutral mediators. This Tribunal could ensure timely and unbiased resolution of disputes, promoting harmony and cooperation among states.

(iii) Lastly, the appointment of Governors requires a de-politicized approach. Governors should be appointed based on merit, integrity, and experience, rather than political affiliations. A transparent selection process, involving the President, Central Government, and relevant state stakeholders, would ensure that Governors act as impartial custodians of the Constitution and promoters of cooperative federalism.

In conclusion, redefining the provisions of federalism is crucial to adapt to the evolving needs of governance. A well-defined division of powers, fair distribution of financial resources, effective mechanisms for resolving disputes, and unbiased appointment of Governors will foster cooperative federalism, strengthen national unity, and ensure the efficient functioning of our diverse and vibrant democracy. Such a recalibration would uphold the essence of federalism while promoting the collective welfare of all citizens.

Question 30.
Discuss briefly some of the new rights claims which are being put forward in our country today, for example the rights of tribal people to protect their habitat and the way of life, or the rights of children against bonded labour. [6]OR
Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner? Discuss about the composition of the Apex authority in India for smooth running of the Elections. [6]Answer:
In contemporary India, there is a growing recognition of the need to address a wide range of rights claims to ensure a more inclusive and equitable society. Some of the new rights claims being put forward reflect the evolving social and legal landscape, emphasising the protection of marginalised and vulnerable groups.

A few prominent examples include:
(i) Rights of Tribal People: Indigenous and tribal communities are demanding recognition and protection of their rights to ancestral lands, habitats, and traditional ways of life. These rights seek to safeguard their cultural heritage, prevent displacement due to development projects, and ensure their active participation in decision-making processes that affect their lives.

(ii) Rights of Children Against Bonded Labour:
Child rights activists and organisations are advocating for stronger measures to eradicate bonded and forced child labour. The focus is on ensuring every child’s right to education, protection from exploitation, and access to a safe and nurturing environment. Legal provisions and enforcement mechanisms are being strengthened to combat child labour and provide rehabilitation for affected children.

(iii) LGBTQ+ Rights: The LGBTQ + community is demanding equal rights and protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. The decriminalization of homosexuality and the push for anti-discrimination laws reflect the ongoing struggle for the recognition of LGBTQ+ rights as fundamental human rights.

(iv) Environmental Rights:
With increasing environmental degradation and climate change, there is a call for recognizing the rights of communities impacted by ecological damage. These rights include access to clean air, water, and a healthy environment, along with the ability to hold corporations and governments accountable for environmental violations.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 5 with Solutions

(v) Women’s Rights:
While women’s rights have been a long-standing issue, new claims focus on broader aspects such as combating gender-based violence, ensuring equal representation in decision-making bodies, and challenging regressive social norms that perpetuate discrimination and inequality.
OR
The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Council of Ministers, till 1989, there was no provision for more than one election commissioner. The Election Commission of India is the apex authority in India for the smooth running of the elections, there are some Election Commissioners also appointed by the President of India.

The Chief Election Commissioner presides over the Election Commission of India although he! she has the same powers as those of the other Election Commissioners. They are appointed for a six-year term or continue till the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed before the expiry of the term, by the President if both the Houses of Parliament make such a recommendation with a special majority. The Election Commissioners can be removed by the President of India.


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