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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 4 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science with Solutions Set 4 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 4 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

  • The question paper consists of five sections (A, B, C D and E) with 30 questions in total.
  • All questions are compulsory.
  • Question numbers 142 are multiple choice questions of one mark each.
  • Question numbers 13-18 are of 2 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 50-60 words each.
  • Question numbers 19-23 are of 4 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 100-120 words each, There is an internal choice in two of the 4 marks questions.
  • Question numbers 24-26 are passage, cartoon, and ma p-based questions. Anszver accordingly.
  • Question numbers 27-30 are of 6 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 1 70-180 words.
  • There is an internal choice in 6 marks questions.

Section-A

Question 1.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Choose the appropriate option as answer:
Assertion (A): State intervention in the economy is necessary to ensure social justice and reduce economic inequalities.
Reason(R): Without state intervention, free markets tend to work in favour of the already privileged, leading to widening gaps between the rich and the poor. [1](a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: The Assertion states that state intervention in the economy is necessary to ensure social justice and reduce economic inequalities, which is correct. The Reason provided explains why state intervention is necessary by highlighting that without it, free markets tend to favour the already ‘privileged, leading to wider wealth gaps between the rich and the poor.

Question 2.
Arrange the following events in chronological order and choose the correct option:
(i) Lord Rippon took the initiative in creating local elected government bodies. These were called the local boards.
(ii) Local governments got a fillip after the 73 and 74th Constitution Amendment Acts.
(iii) P.K.Thungon Committee recommended constitutional recognition for the local government bodies.
(iv) The Community Development Programme was launched to promote people’s participation in local development. [1](a) i, ii, iii, iv
(b) i, iv, iii, ii
(c) iv, ii, iii, i
(d) i, iii, iv, ii
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation:
(i) Lord Rippon took the initiative in creating local elected government bodies. These were called the local boards. (1882)
(ii) The Community Development Programme was launched to promote people’s participation in local development. (1952)
(iii) P.K.Thungon Committee recommended constitutional recognition for the local government bodies. (1988) .
(iv) Local governments got a fillip after the 73rd” and 74th Constitution Amendment Acts. (1992)

Question 3.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Choose the
appropriate option as answer:
Assertion (A): It is generally accepted that the Indian Constitution has created a strong Central Government.
Reason (R): India at the time of independence was not only divided into provinces created by the British, but there were more than 500 princely states which had to be integrated into existing States or new States had to be created. [1](a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: The Assertion is correct in stating that the Indian Constitution has created a strong Central Government. However, the Reason provided does not directly explain why the Indian Constitution has a strong Central Government. The Reason talks about the challenges of integrating princely states at the time of independence, but it does not specifically link this to the creation of a strong Central Government in the Indian Constitution.

Question 4.
………………… is appointed by the Central Government and therefore, his actions are often viewed as interference by the Central Government in the functioning of the State Government. [1](a) Governor
(b) Chief Minister
(c) Sarpanch
(d) Mayor
Answer:
Option (a) is correct
Explanation: The Governor is appointed by the Central Government and serves as the constitutional head of state in India. While the Governor is supposed to act as the representative of the President and work as a link between the state and the Central Government, their actions are sometimes perceived as interference in the functioning of the State Government. This perception arises because the Governor’s role includes the exercise of certain discretionary powers and responsibilities that can impact the state’s administration and political affairs.

Question 5.
What does the ‘veil of ignorance’ concept propose? [1](a) Ignoring the interests of others while making economic decisions
(b) Making decisions based on personal self-interest only
(c) Considering the potential disadvantages and benefits of different economic policies for all individuals in society
(d) Hiding information from the public to maintain control over resources.
Answer:
Option (c) is correct
Explanation: The ‘veil of ignorance’ concept, proposed by John Rawis, suggests that when making decisions about the organisation of society and economic policies, individuals should imagine themselves in a position of complete impartiality and ignorance about their own social status, economic standing, and personal attributes, in this hypothetical situation, they do not know which position they would occupy in the future society. The purpose of this thought experiment is to encourage individuals to consider the potential consequences of different policies and arrangements for all members of society, including the most disadvantaged. By doing so, it aims to promote fair and just policies that benefit everyone, regardless of their particular circumstances.

Question 6.
According to Nehru, what does secularism mean in independent India? [1](a) Favouring one religion at the expense of others
(b) Adopting a state religion
(c) Providing equal protection to all religions
(d) Complete separation between religion and state.
Answer:
Option (c) is correct
Explanation: According to Nehru, secularism in independent India meant that the state would provide equal protection to all the religions and would not favour one religion at the expense of others. This principle of equal treatment of all religions was essential for maintaining the unity and integrity of India.

Question 7.
Match the following: [1]

List I List II
A. Gram Sabha (i) Lower House of the Parliament.
B. Rajya Sabha (ii) Local self-government body at the village level.
C. Lok Sabha (iii) Village-level assembly consisting of all adult members registered as voters in the area.
D. Gram Panchayat (iv) Upper House of the Parliament.

(a) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iv), D-(iii)
(b) A-(i), B-(iii), C-(iv), D-(ii)
(c) A-(iii), B-(iv), C-(i), D-(ii)
(d) A-(iii), B-(ii), C-(iv), D-(i)
Answer:
Option (C) is correct
Explanation: Gram Sabha: village-level assembly consisting of all adult members registered as voters in the area

  • Rajya Sabha: Upper House of the Parliament
  • Lok Sabha: Lower House of the Parliament.
  • Gram Panchayat: local self-government body at the village level.

Question 8.
…………………. is the time of the Parliament session during which the members of Parliament put questions to the ministers and it is mandatory for the ministers to answer the questions. [1](a) Zero hour
(b) Budget session
(c) Question hour
(d) Monsoon session
Answer:
Option (c) is correct
Explanation: Question Hour is the time of the Parliament session during which the members of Parliament put questions to the ministers, and it is mandatory for the ministers to answer the questions. This is an essential part of the parliamentary proceedings and allows Members of Parliament (MPs) to seek information, seek clarifications, and hold the government accountable for its actions and policies.

Question 9.
While appointing the Prime Minister, the President selects ……………… . [1](a) Leader of the largest party in the Lok Sabha
(b) Leader of the largest party in the alliance which secures a majority in the Lok Sabha
(c) The leader of the largest party in the Rajya Sabha
(d) Leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Option (d) is correct
Explanation: While appointing the Prime Minister, the President of India selects the leader of the alliance or party that has the support of the majority in the Lok Sabha (the lower house of Parliament). The President invites the chosen leader to form the government and assume the office of the Prime Minister. The appointment is based on the principle that the Prime Minister should have the confidence of the majority in the Lok Sabha to effectively govern the country.

Question 10.
Which of the following is the primary purpose of the Rajya Sabha? [1](a) To represent political parties in the States
(b) To exercise control over the Union Parliament
(c) To protect the powers of the States and provide representation to them
(d) To directly elect the President of India.
Answer:
Option (c) is correct
Explanation: The primary purpose of the Rajya Sabha is to represent the States and provide a platform for their voices to be heard at the national level. It serves as a mechanism to protect the interests and powers of the States in the federal system of government in India.

Question 11.
What distinguishes Indian secularism from some Western models of secularism? [1](a) Indian secularism is anti-religious, while Western secularism is not.
(b) Indian secularism seeks complete separation of religion and state.
(c) Indian secularism emphasises peaceful coexistence of different religious communities.
(d) Indian secularism does not protect minority rights.
Answer:
Option (c) is correct
Explanation: The distinguishing feature of Indian secularism is that it emphasises the peaceful coexistence of different religious communities. Unlike some Western models of secularism, which may focus on complete separation of religion and state, Indian secularism aims to protect and provide equal treatment to all religions while promoting harmony and understanding among diverse religious groups within the country.

Question 12.
What is the highest form of debate in the country? [1](a) The Supreme Court
(b) The President’s Office
(c) The Parliament
(d) The Prime Minister’s Office
Answer:
Option (c) is correct
Explanation: The highest form of debate in the country is the Parliament. it is where Members of Parliament (MPs) from both the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) can freely speak on any matter without fear. The Parliament serves as the central institution for democratic decision-making and discussion on various issues that face the nation.

Section-B

Question 13.
State the important functions of Gram Panchayat. [2]Answer:
The Gram Panchayat performs vital functions such as electing members of the Nyaya Panchayat, conducting Panchayat meetings, undertaking developmental activities, and serving as a link between the local villagers and the State Government. These responsibilities contribute to local governance, development, and resolving disputes at the village level.

Question 14.
What are the qualifications for the person to be a member of Legislative Council? [2]Answer:
The person must be:

  • Should be a Citizen of India.
  • Not less than 30 years of age.
  • Should have a Sound mind.
  • Not holding any office of profit under the government.

Question 15.
How is the position of head of the state in the USA different from that of India? [2]Answer:
The position of the head of state in the USA and India differs in terms of their roles and powers:

  • USA: The head of state in the USA is the President. The President is both the head of state and the head of government. They are the chief executive and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, with significant executive powers.
  • India: The head of state in India is the President. However, the President’s role is largely ceremonial and symbolic. The real executive powers lie with the Prime Minister, who is the head of government and exercises executive authority.

Question 16.
What is the meaning of liberty and fraternity? [2]Answer:
Liberty signifies the freedom from oppression and constraints on one’s actions and thoughts, promoting individual rights and choices. Fraternity emphasises the spirit of brotherhood and solidarity, fostering a sense of community and cooperation among diverse individuals, promoting mutual respect and working together for the common good.

Question 17.
Explain the role of citizens in a democracy?[2]Answer:
Active citizen participation is vital for a successful democracy. While citizens enjoy political rights and freedom of expression, they also have civic duties. These include voting, staying informed, respecting the rule of law, promoting social harmony, contributing to the community, protecting rights, and holding the government accountable. By fulfilling these responsibilities, citizens play a crucial role in upholding democracy and fostering a just and inclusive society.

Question 18.
State the composition of Supreme Court of India? [2]Answer:

  • The Supreme Court of India has 1 Chief Justice and can have a maximum of 25 Other Judges.
  • The Senior-most Judge of the Supreme Court is generally appointed as the Chief Justice of India.
  • The other judges are appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of India.
  • The judges of the Supreme Court retire at the age of 65 years or can resign before the age of retirement.

Section-C

Question 19.
What are the different concepts of justice? [4]Answer:
The different concepts of justice encompass a range of principles and ideologies to achieve fairness and equality in various contexts:
(i) Equal Treatment for Equals: This concept emphasises treating individuals in similar situations or circumstances equally, without any form of discrimination based on characteristics like race, gender, or religion.

(ii) Proportionate Justice: Advocating for punishment or rewards to be proportionate to the magnitude of the offense or contribution, ensuring a balanced response to actions.

(iii) Recognition of Special Needs: Acknowledging the necessity of providing additional support and accommodations to individuals or groups facing disadvantages or unique challenges.

(iv) Just Distribution: Focusing on the equitable distribution of resources, opportunities, and benefits in society, aiming to address disparities and promote social and economic justice. These diverse concepts of justice serve as guiding principles in legal systems, social policies, and ethical frameworks to create a more just and inclusive society for all.

Question 20.
What is a state? Why is it necessary? [4]Answer:
A state is a defined political entity or an organized community under a single government, governing a specific geographical territory. It possesses the authority to exercise control, establish laws, maintain order, and represent its citizens both domestically and internationally.

States are necessary for several reasons. First, they provide a framework for governance, ensuring the protection of individual rights and collective interests. They maintain social order and resolve conflicts through the rule of law. States also facilitate the provisìon of essential services such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure, contributing to societal development. Additionally, states are vital actors in the global arena, engaging in diplomatic relations, trade, and cooperation with other states. Overall, the existence of states is essential for the stability, prosperity, and functioning of modern societies.

Question 21.
What are the safeguards that are available to rights? [4]Answer:
Legal Protections: Enshrining rights in constitutions and laws to provide a basis for legal recourse in case of violations.
Courts and Judiciary: Independent and impartial courts to interpret and apply the law, protecting rights through adjudication.
Human Rights Commissions: Bodies that investigate and address human rights violations, offering remedies to victims.
International Human Rights Treaties: Binding agreements that oblige countries to protect human rights, with recourse at international forums. Civil Society and Advocacy Groups: NGOs and advocacy organizations monitor rights abuses and work to protect and promote rights. Media and Freedom of Expression: A free press exposes rights abuses and acts as a check on government power.

Question 22.
Explain the following Writs of Indian Constitution: [4](i) Habeas Corpus
(ii) Mandamus
(iii) Prohibition
(iv) Certiorari.
OR
Explain the nature of Fundamental Rights. [4]Answer:
(i) Habeas Corpus: Habeas Corpus is a Latin term that translates to ‘you shall have the body.’ It is a legal writ used to protect an individual’s Fundamental Right to personal liberty. When a person is detained or imprisoned, Habeas Corpus allows them or someone acting on their behalf to challenge the legality of the detention.

(ii) Mandamus: Mandamus is a legal order issued by a court compelling a public official or government agency to perform a duty that they are legally obligated to perform but have refused or neglected to do so. It is used when there is a clear legal right and a corresponding duty on the part of the official or agency.

(iii) Prohibition: Prohibition is a legal writ issued by a higher court to a lower court or tribunal, prohibiting it from exceeding its jurisdiction or acting beyond its legal authority. It is used to prevent a lower court from proceeding with a case when it is outside its legal scope.

(iv) Certiorari: Certiorari is a legal writ issued by a higher court to review and quash the decision of a lower court or tribunal. It is employed when a party believes that the lower court has made an error in its judgment or acted beyond its authority.
OR
Fundamental Rights are enshrined in Part III of the Indian Constitution. They are fundamental to the country’s democratic structure and play a crucial role in upholding the rights and dignity of its citizens.

The nature of Fundamental Rights in India can be described as follows:
(i) Enforceable by the Judiciary: Indian citizens can seek legal remedies through the courts if their Fundamental Rights are violated, making them justiciable.

(ii) Equality and Non-Discrimination: The Constitution guarantees equality before the law and prohibits discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.

(iii) Reasonable Restrictions: While Fundamental Rights are guaranteed, they are not absolute and can be restricted in specific circumstances for reasons like public order, morality, or national security.

(iv) The Indian Constitution differentiates between certain rights that are available to all residents of India and other rights that are specifically granted only to Indian citizens.

Question 23.
What is protective discrimination? [4]OR
Do you agree that an affirmative action helps in minimising the social inequalities present in the society? Give reasons for your answer. [4]Answer:
Protective discrimination is a policy aiming to address historical and social inequalities by providing special advantages or preferences to disadvantaged groups in society. Governments implement measures like reservations in education and employment, quotas in government services, special economic programs, and educational support to uplift marginalized communities, such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes.

The goal is to create a more equitable and inclusive society, promoting equal opportunities and empowering underprivileged sections. While protective discrimination is intended to bridge gaps and ensure social justice, it remains a subject of debate due to concerns about reverse discrimination and potential challenges in merit-based selection. Nonetheless, it continues to be an important tool in the pursuit of a more just and balanced society.
OR
Affirmative action, if implemented thoughtfully aid with proper consideration, can help minimise social inequalities in society. It addresses historical disadvantages faced by marginalized communities, granting them access to opportunities previously denied. By enhancing representation in education, workplaces, and public offices, affirmative action empowers marginalized groups to participate ¡n decision-making processes and break the cycle of poverty.

Moreover, it fosters diversity, enriching perspectives and promoting a more tolerant society. However, affirmative action may encounter challenges such as potential reverse discrimination, criticisms of fairness, and concerns about perpetuating stereotypes. To be effective, these policies must be carefully designed, regularly evaluated, and adjusted to meet evolving societal needs. Furthermore, complementary measures, like targeted social and economic development programs, are necessary to address root causes of inequality. While affirmative action is a valuable tool to promote social justice, a comprehensive and multifaceted approach is required to truly minimize social inequalities in a long term.

Section-D

Question 24.’
Read the passage and answer the questions that follows: [4]besides, as we saw in the section on jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, in the case of federal relations too, the Supreme Court can use the review powers if a law is inconsistent with the distribution of powers laid down by the Constitution. Suppose, the Central Government makes a law, which according to some States, concerns a subject from the State list. Then the States can go to the Supreme Court and if the court agrees with them, it would declare that the law is unconstitutional. In this sense, the review power of the Supreme Court includes power to review legislation on the ground that they violate Fundamental Rights or on the ground that they violate the federal distribution of powers. The review power extends to the laws passed by State legislatures also.
(i) The judicial review empowers the ………………….. of India to examine whether the provisions of the legislation passed by the legislature are in line with the provisions of the Constitution of India or not. [1](a) Prime Minister
(b) Supreme Court
(c) District Court
(d) President
Answer:
(i) Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: Judicial review is a power vested in the Supreme Court of India to review and examine the constitutionality of laws passed by the legislature. The Supreme Court has the authority to assess whether the laws align with the provisions and principles laid down in the Constitution of India.

(ii) What are the powers of the Supreme Court of India during a judicial review? [1](a) Accept the legislation
(b) Decline the legislation
(c) Promote the legislation
(d) Review the legislation
Answer:
(ii) Option (d) is correct.
Explanation: During a judicial review, the Supreme Court of India has the power to review and assess the constitutionality of legislation passed by the legislature. If the court finds that the law is inconsistent with the Constitution or violates Fundamental Rights, it can declare the law as unconstitutional and strike it down, effectively declining its validity.

(iii) Is it an important and a necessary feature of Indian judiciary? [1](a) Yes
(b) No
(c) Slightly important
(d) None of these
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: Yes, judicial review is an important and necessary feature of the Indian judiciary. It ensures that the laws passed by the legislature are in conformity with the Constitution and do not violate the Fundamental Rights of citizens. Judicial review is essential for upholding the principles of the rule of law and maintaining the constitutional balance of power between the legislature and the judiciary.

(iv) The Supreme Court can use the review powers if a law is …………………………. with the distribution of powers laid down by the Constitution. [1](a) in accordance
(b) distorted
(c) inconsistent
(d) favorable
Answer:
Option (c) is correct.
Explanation: The passage mentions that the Supreme Court can use its review powers if a law is inconsistent with the distribution of powers laid down by the Constitution. In other words, if a law encroaches upon the powers reserved for states or the center as defined by the Constitution, the Supreme Court can review and assess its validity to ensure the proper federal distribution of powers.

Question 25.
Read the passage and answer the questions that follows: 4
Broadly, two types of disputes keep recurring. One is the border dispute and other is river dispute. States have certain claims over territories belonging to neighbouring States. Though language is the basis of defining boundaries of the States, often border areas would have populations speaking more than one language. So, it is not easy to resolve this dispute merely on the basis of linguistic majority. One of the long-standing border disputes is the dispute between Maharashtra and Karnataka over the city of Belgaum. Manipur and Nagaland too, have a long-standing border dispute. The carving out of Haryana from the erstwhile State of Punjab has led to disputes between the two States not only over border areas, hut over the capital city of Chandigarh. This city today houses the capital of both these States. In 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi reached an understanding with the leadership of Punjab. According to this understanding, Chandigarh was to be handed over to Punjab, but this has not happened yet.
(i) How is language related to defining boundaries of States, and why can it be challenging to resolve disputes based solely on linguistic majority?[2](ii) What has led to the dispute between Punjab and Haryana? [2]Answer:
(i) in the context of defining boundaries of States, language plays a significant role as it is often used as a determining factor in demarcating regional boundaries. In many cases, States are created or organised based on linguistic similarities among their populations. However, the challenge arises when border areas have diverse populations with multiple languages spoken. In such situations, relying solely on linguistic majority to resolve disputes can be problematic. It may lead to the marginalization of linguistic minorities, potentially resulting in tensions and conflicts between different linguistic groups.

(ii) The carving out of Haryana from the erstwhile State of Punjab has led to a dispute not only over border areas but also over the capital city of Chandigarh, which currently houses the capital of both these States. The issue goes beyond territorial boundaries and involves political, administrative, and economic considerations. Despite an understanding reached in 1985 between the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and the leadership of Punjab to hand over Chandigarh to Punjab, the transfer has not happened yet, further fuelling the dispute.

Question 26.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows:

The constitution makers have to address themselves to very different aspirations. Here is Nehru trying to balance between different visions and ideologies.
(i) Can you identify what these different groups stand for?
(ii) Who do you think prevailed in this balancing act? [4]Answer:
(i) The different groups illustrated here represent different sections of the society categorized on the basis of religion, culture, caste, and region. These groups had different preferences and represented the two opposite groups of nationalists – the liberals and the radicals.

(ii) At the end, both the songs were accepted. Vande Mataram became our National Song and Jana Gana Mana became our National Anthem. Both the songs are shown equal respect by all the citizens of the country. The acceptance of these songs by the Indians shows that the citizens of India accept all diversities of India.

Section-E

Question 27.
Why is it necessary for a country to have a clear demarcation of powers and responsibilities in the constitution? [6]OR
Name and explain the different types of Liberty. [6]Answer:
his essential for a country to have a clear demarcation of powers and responsibilities in the constitution for several reasons:
(i) Prevents Abuse of Power: A clear division of powers between different branches of government (such as the executive, legislative, and judiciary) ensures that no single authority becomes too powerful and prevents the abuse of power.

(ii) Checks and Balances: A well-defined separation of powers allows each branch to act as a check on the others, maintaining a balance and preventing any one branch from dominating the others.

(iii) Rule of Law: Clarity in the constitution ensures that everyone, including government officials, is bound by the rule of law. It provides a framework for governance based on laws and established principles.

(iv) Protects Fundamental Rights: A dear allocation of powers protects the Fundamental Rights of citizens by establishing mechanisms to enforce and safeguard these rights.

(v) Stability and Predictability: A well-structured constitution brings stability and predictability to the functioning of the government and helps in the smooth functioning of the state.

(vi) Sets the Framework for Governance: A clear demarcation of powers provides a framework for how the government operates, making it easier to resolve disputes and conflicts.

(vii) Facilitates Effective Governance: When responsibilities are clearly defined, it facilitates effective decision-making and efficient governance.
OR
There are three main types of liberty:
(i) Civil Liberty: This refers to the individual’s freedom from government interference in personal matters, such as freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and privacy. Civil liberty protects individuals’ rights to express themselves and engage in various activities without unjustified state intervention.

(ii) Political Liberty: Political liberty encompasses the rights of individuals to participate in the political process, including the right to vote, stand for public office, and engage in political activities. It ensures that citizens have a say in shaping government policies and decision-making.

(iii) Economic Liberty: Economic liberty relates to the freedom to engage in economic activities without excessive government control or interference. This includes the right to own property, engage in trade, and pursue economic opportunities freely. Together, these types of liberty form the basis for a free and democratic society, providing individuals with the necessary rights and freedoms to lead fulfilling lives and participate in the governance of their country.

Question 28.
Is it true to say that Politics serves for the common good? [6]OR
What does the right to national self-determination imply? Illustrate with suitable examples the factors that lead to the emergence of nationalist feelings. [6]Answer:
Yes, it is true to say that politics serves for the common good. At its core, politics is about governing and managing a society in a way that promotes the welfare and well-being of all its citizens. The primary purpose of political systems and institutions is to address the collective needs, interests, and aspirations of the people they represent. Effective political leadership and policymaking strive to tackle social challenges, reduce inequalities, and create an environment where individuals can thrive. Through democratic processes, citizens have the opportunity to voice their concerns, participate in decision-making, and hold their elected representatives accountable.

Politics plays a crucial role in formulating and implementing policies that address public health, education, social security, infrastructure, and environmental protection. It seeks to create an inclusive and just society where everyone has equal opportunities and access to essential services. While political processes may face challenges and disagreements, the ultimate goal remains the common good – fostering a harmonious and prosperous society where the needs and rights of every citizen are valued and protected. By working together, citizens and their representatives can strive for a shared vision of a better future, making politics a force for positive change and collective progress.
OR
The right to national self-determination implies that a group of people has the right to determine their political status, form their own government, and freely choose their economic, social, and cultural development. It asserts the idea that nations have the inherent right to shape their own destinies and be free from external interference.

Illustrative example: One of the significant examples of the right to national self-determination is the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. After decades of being part of a centralized communist state, several Soviet republics, such as Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, exercised their right to self-determination and declared independence, forming their own sovereign nations.

Factors leading to the emergence of nationalist feelings:

  • Historical Identity and Heritage: Shared history, culture, language, and traditions can create a strong sense of identity and cohesion, fostering nationalist sentiments.
  • Oppression or Suppression: Suppression of cultural or political rights by a dominant group or external power can trigger nationalism.
  • Colonialism and Imperialism: Colonized or subjugated peoples often seek to regain independence and assert their national identity against colonial powers.
  • Ethnic and Regional Divisions: Divisions based on ethnicity, language, or region may fuel nationalist feelings as a means of asserting group identity and interests.
  • Economic Disparities: Economic disparities between regions or groups can create grievances and mobilize nationalist movements seeking economic autonomy.
  • Political Grievances: Political exclusion or marginalization of certain groups can lead to the emergence of nationalist movements demanding greater representation and self-governance. Symbolic Events: Events like revolutions, uprisings, or independence movements can galvanize nationalist sentiments and mobilize people for self-determination.

Question 29.
Share the ideas and contribution of Martin Luther King Jr. in the Civil Rights Movement launched in the us. [6]OR
Write a detailed note on political rights of citizens. [6]Answer:
Martin Luther King Jr. was a prominent civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. His ideas and contributions were instrumental in advancing the cause of racial equality and justice.

Some of his key ideas and contributions include:

  • Nonviolent Resistance: King strongly believed in the power of nonviolent resistance as a means to bring about social change. He was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence and applied it to the American civil rights struggle, advocating for peaceful protests and civil disobedience.
  • Civil Rights Leadership: As the leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), King organised and led numerous nonviolent protests, marches, and boycotts to challenge racial segregation and discrimination.
  • Birmingham Campaign: King’s leadership in the Birmingham Campaign of 1963 brought international attention to the civil rights struggle in the US. The campaign aimed to desegregate Birmingham’s public facilities and led to his famous ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail.’
  • March on Washington: In August 1963, King delivered his iconic ‘I Have a Dream’ speech during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The speech called for an end to racial segregation and envisioned a future where people would be judged by their character, not the color of their skin.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964: King1s advocacy and the efforts of the Civil Rights Movement contributed significantly to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed segregation and discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965: King and the Civil Rights Movement also played a crucial role in securing the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which aimed to protect and enforce the voting rights of African Americans.

OR
Political rights of citizens refer to the Fundamental Rights and freedoms that individuals possess to participate in the political process, shape government policies, and hold their elected representatives accountable. These rights are crucial for the functioning of a democratic society, as they empower citizens to have a say in the governance of their country and play an active role in decision-making. Political rights ensure that the government remains accountable and responsive to the needs and aspirations of the people.

Some key political rights of citizens include:
(i) Right to Vote: Universal suffrage ensures that all eligible citizens have the right to participate in elections and choose their representatives in government. This right forms the cornerstone of democracy, as it allows citizens to elect leaders who will represent their interests and values.

(ii) Right to Stand for Public Office: Citizens have the right to run for public office and seek positions of leadership within the government. This right ensures that individuals with diverse backgrounds and perspectives can participate in governance and contribute to public service.

(iii) Right to Information: Citizens have the right to access information held by the government, ensuring transparency and accountability in governance. This right enables citizens to make informed decisions and scrutinize the actions of public officials.

(iv) Right to Petition: Citizens can submit petitions to the government to address grievances, seek redress, or propose changes to policies. Petitions allow citizens to communicate their concerns directly to the authorities.

Question 30.
What are the qualities of a good citizen? [6]OR
What is the role played by the Election Commission of India? [6]Answer:
Qualities of a Good Citizen:
Being a good citizen involves fulfilling certain responsibilities and displaying positive qualities that contribute to the well-being of society. Some qualities of a good citizen include:

  • Respect for the Law: Good citizens respect and abide by the laws of the land. They understand that laws are essential for maintaining order and ensuring a fair and just society.
  • Civic Responsibility: Good citizens actively participate in civic duties, such as voting in elections, engaging in community service, and being informed about public issues.
  • Respect for Others: Good citizens treat others with respect, regardless of their differences in beliefs, backgrounds, or opinions. They promote inclusivity and tolerance.
  • Responsibility and Accountability: Good citizens take responsibility for their actions and accept the consequences of their decisions. They are accountable for their contributions to society.
  • Patriotism: Good citizens have a sense of patriotism and love for their country. They take pride in their nation’s achievements and work towards its progress.
  • Environmental Consciousness: Good citizens are environmentally conscious and practice sustainable habits to protect the environment for future generations.
  • Honesty and Integrity: Good citizens value honesty and integrity in their personal and professional lives. They are trustworthy and act with moral principles.
  • Social Awareness: Good citizens are aware of societal issues and are willing to contribute to solving them. They engage in discussions on social justice, equality, and human rights.
  • Cooperation and Empathy: Good citizens cooperate with others and show empathy towards those in need. They work towards building a compassionate and harmonious community.
  • Continuous Learning: Good citizens value education and are open to continuous learning, staying informed about local and global issues.

OR
The Election Commission of India (ECI) plays a crucial role in the democratic process of India. Its primary responsibility is to conduct free and fair elections in the country. Some key roles and functions of the Election Commission of India include:
(i) Conducting Elections: The ECl is responsible for conducting elections to the Lok Sabha (House of the People), State Legislative Assemblies, and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). It oversees the entire electoral process, from voter registration to the announcement of results.

(ii) Electoral Roll Management: The ECI maintains the electoral roll, which includes the names of eligible voters across the country. It ensures the inclusion of eligible voters and takes measures to prevent fraudulent practices like bogus voting.

(iii) Setting Election Guidelines: The ECI formulates guidelines and codes of conduct for political parties and candidates during
elections. It ensures a level playing field for all contestants and maintains the integrity of the electoral process.

(iv) Voter Education: The ECl conducts voter education programs to inform citizens about the electoral process, voting rights, and the significance of participating in elections.

(v) Monitoring Election Expenditure: The ECI monitors the expenditure of political parties and candidates during elections to prevent excessive spending and ensure transparency.

(vi) Election Security: The ECI collaborates with law enforcement agencies to ensure the security and safety of voters, polling stations, and election-related activities.

(vii) Dispute Resolution: The ECI resolves election-related disputes and complaints through a fair and impartial process.

(viii) Electoral Reforms: The ECI suggests electoral reforms to enhance the efficiency and fairness of the electoral system in India.

The Election Commission of India plays a crucial role in upholding the principles of democracy, ensuring that elections are conducted in a transparent and credible manner, and empowering citizens to exercise their right to vote and participate in the governance of the country.


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