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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science with Solutions Set 3 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

  • The question paper consists of five sections (A, B, C, D, and E) with 30 questions in total. All questions are compulsory.
  • Question numbers 1-12 are multiple choice questions of one mark each.
  • Question numbers 13-18 are of 2 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 50-60 words each.
  • Question numbers 19-23 are of 4 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 100-120 words each. There is an internal choice in two of the 4 marks questions.
  • Question numbers 24-26 are passage, cartoon, and map-based questions. Answer accordingly.
  • Question numbers 27-30 are’ of 6 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 170-180 words.
  • There is an internal choice in 6 marks questions.

Section-A

Question 1.
Match the following: [1]

List Subjects
A. Article 368 i All authorities, civil and judicial, in the territory of India shall act in aid of the Supreme Court.
B. Article 144 ii Parliament may in exercise of its constituent power amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of this Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down in this article.
C. Article 257 (1) iii Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats. the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority with respect to- the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule.
D. Article 243G iv The executive power of every State shall be so exercised as not to impede or prejudice the exercise of the executive power of the Union, and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a State as may appear to the Government of India to be necessary for that purpose

(a) A-i B-ii C-iii D-iv
(b) A-ii B-i C-iv D-iii
(c) A-iii B-i C-iv D-ii
(d) A-ii B-iv C-i D-iii
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation:
A. Article 368: ii. … Parliament may in exercise of its constituent power amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of this Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down in this article.

B. Article 144: j. … All authorities, civil and judicial, in the territory of India shall act in aid of the Supreme Court.

C. Article 257(1): iv. The executive power of every State shall be so exercised as not to impede or prejudice the exercise of the executive power of the Union, and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a State as may appear to the Government of India to be necessary for that purpose.

D. Article 243G: iii. Powers, authority, and responsibilities of Panchayats.-………, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority …with respect to the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule.

Question 2.
Justice in ancient Indian society was associated with: [1](a) Punishing wrongdoers
(b) Maintaining dharma or a just social order
(c) Pursuing personal interests
(d) Rewarding the virtuous
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: In ancient Indian society, justice was associated with the concept of ‘dharma,’ which means righteousness or duty. Maintaining dharma or a just social order was considered a primary duty of the kings and rulers. The idea of justice in this context focused on upholding moral and ethical principles to ensure harmony and welfare in society.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions

Question 3.
According to the principle of treating equals equally, how should individuals be treated? [1](a) Based on their work and actions, not on their group affiliations
(b) Based on their caste or gender, not on their work
(c) Based on their economic status, not on their actions
(d) Based on their political affiliations, not on their work.
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: According to the principle of treating equals equally, individuals should be treated based on their work, actions, and merits, not on their group affiliations such as caste, gender, race, or religion.

Question 4.
What do civil liberties refer to in a democratic system? [1](a) Economic freedom for individuals
(b) Rights to equality before law and political participation
(c) Right to express one’s views freely and the right to protest
(d) Right to form political parties and join them.
Answer:
Option (c) is correct.
Explanation: Civil liberties in a democratic system refer to the rights and freedoms that protect individuals’ autonomy and enable their active participation in society. These include the right to express one’s views freely, the right to protest, the right to a free and fair trial, and other fundamental freedoms that safeguard individual liberties and foster a vibrant democratic culture.

Question 5.
The idea of universal franchise is based on the notion of: [1](a) Democratic self-government
(b) Hierarchical societies
(c) Authoritarian rule
(d) Non-participation in public affairs.
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: The idea of universal franchise is based on the principle of democratic self-government. It means that the political order of a nation is based on the will of every single member of society. Each citizen has the right to vote and participate in political processes, allowing them to influence decisions that affect their lives and the overall governance of the country.

Question 6.
What do our rights ensure regarding the state’s authority? [1](a) Dominance of the state over individuals
(b) Respect for individual life and liberty
(c) Suppression of individual well-being
(d) Enforcement of laws without force.
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: Our rights ensure that the authority of the state is exercised without violating the sanctity of individual life and liberty. The state may have sovereign authority and can enforce laws, but it must do so while upholding the rights and well-being of its citizens.

Question 7.
India’s ability to remain united despite its diversities is attributed to: [1](a) Its adoption of federalism through the Constitution
(b) Strong leadership and military power
(c) Economic growth and technological advancements
(d) Strict enforcement of linguistic and cultural assimilation.
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: India’s ability to remain united despite its diversities can be attributed to its adoption of federalism through the Constitution. Federalism is a system of government that allows both regional and national governments to have their respective powers and responsibilities. It accommodates diversity and allows different regions and states to have some autonomy while remaining a part of the larger nation.

Question 8.
What is the main characteristic of federalism? [1](a) Autonomous regional governments with dual citizenship
(b) Shared power and responsibilities between regional and national governments
(c) A single set of citizenship and identity for all citizens
(d) Dominance of the Central Government in all matters
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: The main characteristic of federalism is the concept of shared power and responsibilities between regional (state) and national (central) governments. Each level of government has distinct powers and responsibilities, and they coexist with separate systems of government. Federalism allows for a balance of authority and promotes cooperation between different levels of governance.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions

Question 9.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Choose the appropriate option as answer:
Assertion: Directive Principles of State Policy were incorporated in the Constitution hut they were not made
legally enforceable.
Reason: The makers of our Constitution aimed to strike a balance between setting important goals and allowing flexibility for policy-makers to adapt to changing circumstances.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are a set of guidelines and principles provided in Part IV (Article 36 to Article 51) of the Indian Constitution. These principles lay down the fundamental goals that the government should aim to achieve for the overall welfare of the people and the establishment of a just society. Unlike Fundamental Rights, which are justiciable and can be directly enforced by the courts, Directive Principles are not legally enforceable by the courts. Instead, they serve as moral and ethical directives for governance. This balance between setting important goals and allowing adaptability was a conscious decision to ensure effective governance without compromising on long-term ideals.

Question 10.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Choose the appropriate option as answer:
Assertion: The time has come to move to a concept of human rights and global citizenship
Reason: It might make it easier to deal with problems which extend across national boundaries and which therefore need cooperative action by the people and governments of many states. [1](a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: The time has come to move to a concept of human rights and global citizenship. This statement expresses the idea that in the current global context, it is relevant and important to shift towards considering human rights as a global concern and to view individuals as global citizens. This assertion is subjective, reflecting a perspective that many people and organizations hold, especially as the world becomes more interconnected.

Reason: It might make it easier to deal with problems which extend across national boundaries and which therefore need cooperative action by the people and governments of many states. This statement logically Explains the assertion. If there is a shift towards a concept of global citizenship and recognition of common human rights, it becomes easier to address global challenges that cross national borders. Problems like climate change, pandemics, terrorism, and environmental issues require collaborative efforts involving multiple countries and their citizens.

Question 11.
The ………………………. of the Supreme Court establishes it as an umpire in all disputes regarding federal matters. (self) [1](a) Writ Jurisdiction
(b) Original Jurisdiction
(c) Exclusive Jurisdiction
(d) Advisory Jurisdiction
Answer:
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: The original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court refers to its authority to hear and decide cases directly, without these cases being heard in lower courts first. In the context of federal matters, the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court establishes it as an umpire in disputes between different levels of government (Union and States). This means that the Supreme Court can directly hear and settle disputes involving federal issues, making it a pivotal institution for resolving such conflicts.

Question 12.
……………… is an institutional mechanism to provide representation to the States. Its purpose is to protect the powers of the States. Therefore, any matter that affects the States must be referred to it for its consent and approval.(self) [1](a) Rajya Sabha
(b) Lok Sabha
(c) Panchayat
(d) High Court
Answer:
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: The Rajya Sabha is the upper house of the Parliament of India and represents the states and union territories. It plays a significant role in the federal structure of India by providing a platform for states representation and safeguarding their interests. Certain matters, as defined in the Constitution, require the consent and approval of the Rajya Sabha to ensure the protection of states’ powers and interests.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions

Section-B

Question 13.
who elects the members of Legislative Assembly? [2]Answer:
The state is divided into constituencies. Only one candidate can be elected from each constituency. All eligible voters on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise vote and elect a representative from the various candidates of their constituency.

Question 14.
What do you mean by Right to Life? [2]Answer:
The Right to Life means:

  • To live without fear, injury, and external danger.
  • No individual has the right to take away his/ her own life also, which means that to commit suicide is also an offence.

Question 15.
Define sub-nationalism. [2]Answer:
Sub-nationalism refers to the allegiance, identity, or loyalty of individuals or groups to a specific region or subnational entity within a larger nation-state. It is a form of identity and attachment that people feel towards their own state, province, region, or local community, which may transcend or coexist with their national identity. Various regions within India have demanded separate statehood to address their unique socio-economic and cultural concerns. For example, Telangana was formed as a separate state in 2014, after years of demands for regional autonomy.

Question 16.
Which system of elections is followed in India – FPTP or PR system? [2]Answer:
In India, we follow both the election systems. The FPTP system is followed in elections of Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha. The PR system is followed in the elections of President of India, Vice President of India, Rajya Sabha, and Vidhan Parishad.

Question 17.
List the powers of the governor of a state. [2]Answer:
The powers of the governor are:

  • He or she is head of the state.
  • He or she is responsible for maintaining law and order in the state.
  • He or she is responsible for all important state-level appointments.
  • He or she has the authority to appoint chief minister, other ministers as well as dismiss the Council of Ministers.
  • All the laws of the state are passed in the name of the Governor.

Question 18.
Define the role of the modern state in the citizenship. [2]Answer:
The modern state plays a crucial role in citizenship by legally recognizing individuals as citizens based on certain criteria. It ensures citizens’ rights, such as voting and freedom of expression, and provides social benefits and welfare. The state encourages political participation and upholds citizens’ rights and protections. Citizenship also entails responsibilities like obeying laws and paying taxes. The state represents citizens in international relations and promotes inclusivity and diversity within the nation.

Section-C

Question 19.
Which of the two Houses of Parliament is called Permanent House and why? [4]Answer:
The Rajya Sabha, which is the Upper House of Parliament in India, is often referred to as the Permanent House. The term Permanent Houses is used because members of the Rajya Sabha are not subject to periodic re-elections like the members of the Lok Sabha (Lower House). The members of the Rajya Sabha serve a fixed term of six years, and only a portion of the members retire after every two years.

As a result, the Rajya Sabha is a continuous body, and one-third of its members retire and are replaced every two years. On the other hand, the Lok Sabha, being the Lower House, is dissolved before the end of its five-year term, and new elections are held to elect new members. This is why the Lok Sabha is not considered a Permanent House like the Rajya Sabha. The continuity in the Rajya Sabha ensures a degree of stability in the Parliament and provides an opportunity for experienced members to contribute to the legislative process over an extended period.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions

Question 20.
State some exceptions to the Right to Equality. [4]Answer:
The Right to Equality, enshrined in the Indian Constitution, is subject to certain exceptions to ensure social justice and inclusivity. These exceptions allow for affirmative action measures, such as reservations in educational institutions and ‘public employment for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes. Protective discrimination for women and children is also permitted to promote gender equality.

Reasonable classification based on rational criteria is allowed to achieve specific objectives, while age limitations can be imposed for various services and opportunities. Additionally, laws for Scheduled and Tribal Areas protect the unique cultural and social interests of these communities. These exceptions are aimed at addressing historical injustices and fostering a more equitable society without compromising the core principles of equality and justice for all.

Question 21.
List four features of the Indian Constitution that give greater power to the Central Government than the State Government. [4]Answer:
Several features of the Indian Constitution give greater power to the Central Government (Union government) than the State Governments. Here are four such features:
(i) Unitary Features within Federal Structure:
The Indian Constitution has certain unitary features, which means that in specific areas, the Central Government has more power than State Governments. For instance, matters listed in the Union Ust (e.g., defense, foreign affairs, currency) are exclusively under the jurisdiction of the Central Government.

(ii) Residuary Powers: The Central Government has the authority over residuary powers, meaning any matter not explicitly mentioned in any of the three lists (Union, State, and Concurrent) is within the jurisdiction of the Central Government.

(iii) Emergency Provisions: The Constitution provides for three types of emergencies:
national, state, and financial emergencies. During such emergencies, the Central Government gains more authority and can assume control over various aspects of state governance.

(iv) Appointment of Governors: The Central Government appoints Governors for states. While Governors are representatives of the President, who is the head of the Union, this gives the Central Government a level of influence and control over state matters.

Question 22.
Why Indian Constitution is said to be ‘a living document’?
OR
Explain the two types of justice promised by our Constitution to citizens of India? [4]Answer:
The Indian Constitution is often referred to as ‘a living document’ due to its adaptability and flexibility. It is not rigid or static but designed to evolve with the changing needs of the country. Through the process of amendments, it can be modified to address emerging challenges and societal requirements. The judiciary’s role in interpreting the Constitution allows for new perspectives and evolving societal norms to be considered. The Preamble’s guiding principles and the Constitution’s contemporary relevance in addressing modern issues like environmental protection and technological advancements further substantiate its status as a living and dynamic document that remains integral to India’s democratic fabric.
OR
The Indian Constitution pledges two vital forms of justice to its citizens: Economic Justice and Political Justice, each playing a crucial role in fostering a just and harmonious society. Economic Justice pertains to equitable distribution of resources, elimination of economic disparities, and securing basic necessities for all. This principle is reinforced through Directive Principles of State Policy advocating equal pay, humane working conditions, and promoting cooperative societies. land reforms, reservation policies for marginalized groups, and prohibition of untouchability further support economic equity.

Political Justice ensures equal political participation, safeguarding citizens’ rights and democratic principles. Universal adult franchise, Fundamental Rights like freedom of speech, and an independent judiciary uphold this aspect. The separation of powers and an accountable government prevent political imbalances. These two forms of justice complement each other, as political empowerment aids in advocating economic rights, while economic well-being enhances citizens’ effective participation.

This synergy echoes the Constitution’s vision of a holistic and just society, where economic and political opportunities are open to all, irrespective of social or economic backgrounds.

Question 23.
Distinguish between a citizen and an alien.
OR
Write a note on global citizenship. [4]Answer:
A citizen is a person who holds full membership and enjoys all the rights and privileges of a specific country, usually by birth or naturalization. An alien, also known as a foreigner or non-citizen, is an individual who resides in a country but is not a citizen of that country. Aliens may be temporary residents or have a visa status.

Citizens typically have the right to vote, run for public office, and enjoy various legal protections, social benefits, and opportunities available to the nationals of that country. Aliens have limited rights and privileges in comparison to citizens. Their access to certain government benefits and services may be restricted.

Citizenship is acquired through birth within the country’s territory or through descent from citizen parents or by undergoing a naturalization process. Aliens maintain citizenship in their home country and may acquire temporary residency or permanent residency in the host country through visas or other legal means.

Citizens owe allegiance to the country of their citizenship and are entitled to protection and representation from their government. Aliens maintain allegiance to their home country and may have limited diplomatic protection from their embassy or consulate in the host country.
OR
Global citizenship refers to a concept that transcends national boundaries and emphasises the interconnectedness of individuals with the global community. It embodies a sense of shared responsibility for addressing global challenges, promoting human rights, and working collaboratively for the betterment of the planet and its inhabitants an era of unprecedented connectivity, global citizenship encourages individuals to see themselves as members of a larger, unified world, rather than solely identifying with their nationality.

It emphasises values of tolerance, empathy, and respect for cultural diversity. Global citizens recognize that local actions can have far-reaching global consequences, from environmental issues to social inequalities. The notion of global citizenship is promoted through education, awareness campaigns, and international cooperation. It aims to cultivate a sense of duty towards promoting sustainable development, social justice, and peaceful coexistence.

Embracing global citizenship allows individuals to contribute positively to a world facing complex challenges that transcend borders, thereby fostering a more inclusive and compassionate global community.

Section-D

Question 24.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Though freedom is guaranteed in our Constitution, we encounter new interpretations all the time. This is a bit like playing a game; as we play chess or cricket, we learn how to interpret the rules. In the process, we discover new and broader meanings of the game itself. Similarly, the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by our Constitution continually being reinterpreted in response to new circumstances. For instance, the right to life has been interpreted by the Courts to include the right to a livelihood. The right to information has been granted through a new law. Societies frequently encounter new challenges which generate new interpretations. The Fundamental Rights guaranteed by our Constitution have been amended and expanded over time through judicial interpretations and government policies which are designed to address new problems.
(i) What is the main reason for the continual reinterpretation of Fundamental Rights? [1](a) To limit the scope of rights
(b) To make the Constitution more complex
(c) To address new challenges and circumstances
(d) To avoid legal controversies
Answer:
Option (c) is correct.
Explanation: The passage mentions that Fundamental Rights are continually reinterpreted in response to new circumstances and challenges. The main reason for this reinterpretation is to ensure that these rights remain relevant and effective in addressing the evolving needs of society.

(ii) The right to life, as interpreted by the Courts, has expanded to include the right to ……………… .[1](a) Education
(b) Liberty
(c) Privacy
(d) lively hood
Answer:
Option (d) is correct.
Explanation: The passage states that the right to life has been interpreted by the Courts to include the right to a livelihood. This expansion means that individuals have the right not only to life itself but also to the means necessary to sustain that life, such as the right to earn a livelihood.

(iii) How does the passage compare interpreting Fundamental Rights to playing chess or cricket? [1](a) Both involve physical exertion
(b) Both have rigid and unchanging rules
(c) Both require specialised skills
(d) Both involve learning to interpret rules over time
Answer:
Option (d) is correct.
Explanation: The passage uses the analogy of playing chess or cricket to describe the process of interpreting Fundamental Rights. Just as individuals learn to interpret the rules of a game as they play, the interpretation of Fundamental Rights evolves over time as new challenges and circumstances arise.

(iv) The main message of the passage is to emphasise: [1](a) The immutability of the Constitution
(b) The simplicity of legal interpretations
(c) The need for stricter laws
(d) The dynamic nature of constitutional interpretations
Answer:
Option (d) is correct.
Explanation: The passage highlights how Fundamental Rights are continually reinterpreted to adapt to changing circumstances and challenges. This emphasises the dynamic nature of constitutional interpretations, suggesting that the understanding of Fundamental Rights evolves to remain relevant and effective.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions

Question 25.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows:
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions 1
(i) They say elections are carnival of democracy. But this cartoon depicts chaos instead. Is this true of elections always? [2](ii) Is it good for democracy? [2]Answer:
(i) No, this is not always true for the elections. In general, the elections are conducted in a peaceful manner maintaining law and order of the state. In many well-established democracies, elections are generally conducted smoothly, with proper procedures, oversight, and minimal disruptions. However, in some cases, elections might face challenges like voter irregularities, accusations of fraud, polarization, or heated political debates. The presence of chaos during elections is not a universal characteristic, but rather a possibility that arises in certain circumstances.

Question 26.
Read the passage and answer the questions that follows:
The Constitutional amendments assigned as many as 29 subjects to the local governments. All these subjects are related to functions linked to local welfare and development needs. The experience with the functioning of local government in the past decade has shown that local governments in India enjoy Limited autonomy to perform the functions assigned to them. Many States have not transferred most of the subjects to the local bodies. This means that the local bodies cannot really function in an effective manner. Therefore, the entire exercise of electing so many representatives becomes somewhat symbolic. Some people criticise the formation of the local bodies because this has not changed the way in which decisions are taken at the Central and the State level. People at the local level do not enjoy much powers of choosing welfare programmes or allocation of resources.
(i) What is the common principle in choosing the subjects covered under the State list? [2](ii) State one point of criticism for ¡ocal government. [2]Answer:
(i) These subjects are carefully chosen based on a common principle, which is that they are related to functions linked to local welfare and development needs. In other words, these subjects pertain to matters that directly affect the well-being and development of the local communities. The purpose of assigning these subjects to the local governments is to enable them to address the specific needs and concerns of their respective regions.

The subjects cover a wide range of areas, such as healthcare, education, sanitation, local infrastructure development, social welfare, and more. These are essential services that directly impact the lives of the people living in the local communities.

(ii) One point of criticism for local governments is that their formation has not significantly changed the way decisions are taken at the central and State levels. Despite being assigned various subjects related to local welfare and development, the actual decision-making power and control over resources still remain concentrated at higher levels of government.

The lack of genuine decentralisation hampers the true spirit of local governance and grassroots democracy. In many cases, decisions regarding welfare programs and resource allocation are still made by officials and bureaucrats at higher levels, without much input or participation from the local population.

Section-E

Question 27.
Give two examples each to support the following conclusions about the Indian Constitution:
(i) The Constitution was made by credible leaders who commanded peoples’ respect.
(ii) The Constitution has distributed power in such a way as to make it difficult to subvert it.
(iii) The Constitution is the locus of people’s hopes and aspirations.
OR
What are the various elements of liberty? [6]Answer:
(i) The Constitution was made by credible leaders who commanded peoples’ respect:
Example 1: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the chief architect of the Indian Constitution, was a credible leader who commanded immense respect from various sections of society. As the chairman of the drafting committee, his leadership and expertise ensured the drafting of a comprehensive and progressive Constitution. Ambedkar’s commitment to social justice and equality is reflected in the inclusion of Fundamental Rights and the abolition of untouchability.

Example 2: The Constituent Assembly, which framed the Constitution, consisted of eminent leaders from diverse backgrounds and ideologies. Prominent figures like Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad were among the respected leaders who actively participated in the drafting process. Their collective wisdom and commitment to democratic values instilled credibility and legitimacy to the Constitution.

(ii) The Constitution has distributed power in such a way as to make it difficult to subvert it:
Example 1: The division of powers between the Central Government and State Governments under a federal structure is an example of how power is distributed to prevent its concentration in one authority. The Constitution delineates a clear separation of power sand responsibilities between the center and the states, ensuring a system of checks and balances. This distribution of power prevents any one authority from becoming too dominant and safeguards against potential abuses of power.

Example 2: The Indian Constitution established an independent judiciary with the power of judicial review. The judiciary acts as a guardian of the Constitution and has the authority to strike down any laws or actions that are unconstitutional. This mechanism acts as a safeguard against any attempt to subvert the Constitution by any organ of the government, ensuring that all actions are in line with the principles and values enshrined in the Constitution.

(iii) The Constitution is the locus of people’s hopes and aspirations:
Example 1: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution begins with the phrase, ‘We, the people of India,’ indicating that the Constitution derives its authority from the people. It reflects the aspirations and collective will of the diverse Indian population. The Preamble’s commitment to justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity resonates with the hopes of the people for a just and inclusive society.

Example 2: The inclusion of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution reflects the people’s aspirations for justice, equality, and social welfare. The Fundamental Rights guarantee individual liberties, while the Directive Principles lay down the guidelines for a just and equitable society. These provisions demonstrate that the Constitution seeks to fulfill the people’s aspirations for a better and more equitable future.

OR
Liberty is a complex and multifaceted concept that holds immense importance in shaping the fabric of societies and the lives of individuals. At its core, liberty refers to the state of being free from oppressive restrictions or external control. It encompasses a wide range of elements that collectively contribute to the empowerment and well-being of individuals within a society.
(i) One of the fundamental elements of liberty is individual autonomy. This entails the freedom of individuals to make choices and decisions about their own lives without undue interference from external forces. It includes the right to hold and express one’s beliefs, opinions, and thoughts without fear of censorship or persecution.

(ii) Personal freedom, encompassing the freedom of movement, association, and assembly, is also a crucial aspect of liberty that allows individuals to live their lives with dignity and self-determination.

(iii) Economic freedom is another vital element of liberty. It grants individuals the right to engage in economic activities, own property, and make voluntary transactions in the marketplace. It involves limited government intervention in economic affairs, fostering an environment conducive to entrepreneurship and innovation.

(iv) Liberty also involves political participation, enabling citizens to engage in the political process through voting, running for office, and advocating for their interests.

Equality is intertwined with liberty, as a society that promotes equal opportunities and treatment empowers individuals to pursue their aspirations and goals without discrimination.

Social tolerance is vital for liberty, as a society that respects diverse opinions, beliefs, and lifestyles fosters an inclusive environment where individuals can coexist harmoniously.

Question 28.
What is meant by freedom of expression? What, in your view, would be a reasonable restriction on this freedom? Give two examples.
OR
What characteristics show that India is a secular state? List some suggestions to further strengthen the Indian Secularism. [6]Answer:
Freedom of expression is a fundamental human right that allows individuals to express their thoughts, opinions, ideas, and beliefs without fear of censorship or punishment. It is a cornerstone of a democratic society and essential for the exchange of diverse perspectives, open debate, and the advancement of knowledge and understanding.

Reasonable restrictions on freedom of expression are necessary to protect other equally important rights and interests or to prevent harm to society. Some reasonable restrictions include:
(i) Hate Speech: While freedom of expression allows for the free exchange of ideas, it does not protect hate speech, which promotes violence, discrimination, or hostility against individuals or groups based on attributes such as race, religion, ethnicity, or gender. Hate speech can incite violence and undermine social harmony, making it a reasonable restriction.

(ii) National Security: In certain circumstances, the government may restrict freedom of expression to protect national security. For example, divulging sensitive information related to defence strategies or intelligence operations could jeopardize the safety of a country and its citizens.

it is essential to strike a balance between protecting freedom of expression and addressing potential harms. Reasonable restrictions must be narrowly tailored and applied only when there is a dear and compelling justification to do so. Any restriction should be subject to scrutiny and oversight to prevent abuse and ensure that it does not stifle legitimate speech or dissent. Open dialogue and engagement are crucial for fostering a society where diverse viewpoints can coexist while respecting the rights and dignity of all individuals.
OR
India is considered a secular state due to several characteristics and constitutional provisions that promote the idea of religious neutrality and equal treatment of all religions. Some of the key characteristics that show India is a secular state are:
(i) Equal Treatment of All Religions: The Indian Constitution prohibits discrimination based on religion. All individuals, regardless of their religious beliefs, enjoy equal rights and protections under the law.

(ii) Religious Freedom: The Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion, allowing individuals to practice, profess, and propagate their religion of choice without interference from the state.

(iii) Secularism in State Affairs: The Indian state does not have an official state religion. The government does not interfere in religious matters and maintains a distance from religious institutions.

(iv) Personal Laws: India has separate personal laws for different religious communities, allowing individuals to follow their religious customs and practices in matters of marriage, divorce, and inheritance.

Suggestions to further strengthen Indian Secularism:

  • Strengthening Education on Secularism:
    Introduce curriculum and educational programs that promote the values of secularism, tolerance, and respect for diversity from an early age.
  • Political Accountability: Hold politicians and leaders accountable for promoting communalism and divisive agendas. Encourage political leaders to focus on policies that benefit all citizens, regardless of their religious affiliations.
  • Inclusive Public Spaces: Ensure that public spaces, institutions, and policies are inclusive and do not favor any particular religious group.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 3 with Solutions

Question 29.
What measures have been taken by India to secure social justice?
OR
Which of the following violates the principles of equality and why? [6](a) Every child in class will read the text of the play by turn.
(b) The Government of Canada encouraged white Europeans to migrate to Canada from the end of the Second World War till 1960.
(c) There is a separate railway reservation counter for the senior citizens.
Answer:
India has taken several measures to secure social justice and uplift marginalised sections of society. These measures are aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities and ensuring equal opportunities for all citizens. Some of the key measures include:

Reservation Policy: India has implemented a reservation policy that allocates a certain percentage of seats in educational institutions, government jobs, and elected bodies for Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), and Other Backward Classes (OBCs). This policy aims to provide representation and opportunities to historically disadvantaged communities.

Employment and Wage Policies: Minimum wage laws and various labor welfare initiatives have been implemented to protect the rights of workers, especially those engaged in unorganised sectors. Women Empowerment: Several schemes and programs have been introduced to empower women, such as the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, and Mahila Shakti Kendra. These initiatives aim to improve gender equality and enhance the status of women in society.

Education Initiatives: The government has focused on expanding access to quality education, especially for marginalised communities. Schemes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Mid-Day Meal Scheme aim to increase enrollment and retention rates in schools.

Health Care: Initiatives like the Ayushman Bharat scheme provide health insurance coverage to economically vulnerable sections of society, ensuring access to healthcare services.

Poverty Alleviation: The government has implemented various poverty alleviation programs like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) and Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana to uplift the poor and provide them with basic amenities.
OR
(a) Every child in class will read the text of the play by turn.
This statement does not necessarily violate the principles of equality. If every child in the class is given an equal opportunity to read the text of the play by turn, without any discrimination based on factors like gender, caste, or race, then it upholds the principle of equality. However, if certain children are excluded from this opportunity based on unfair grounds, then it would violate the principle of equality.

(b) The Government of Canada encouraged white Europeans to migrate to Canada from the end of the Second World War till 1960. This statement violates the principle of equality as it promotes racial discrimination. Encouraging only white Europeans to migrate to Canada while excluding people of other races from the same opportunities is discriminatory and goes against the idea of equality. Such policies are unjust and perpetuate inequality based on race.

(c) There is a separate railway reservation counter for senior citizens. This statement does not necessarily violate the principles of equality. Providing a separate railway reservation counter for senior citizens is a measure to facilitate and ease their travel experience. It is not inherently discriminatory as it aims to cater to the specific needs of senior citizens, who may require assistance or prefer a more comfortable and accessible process. However, if this separate counter is not available to all senior citizens equally or if it is misused to discriminate against others, then it would violate the principle of equality.

Question 30.
What are the various subordinate courts in India? State jurisdiction of each.
OR
Why is judiciary important in a democratic country? [6]Answer:
In India the Judicial system comprises various levels of courts, with the subordinate courts being an essential components. Subordinate Court plays a Criminal sterol in ensuring access to justice for citizens at the grass root level. In every district in India, there are many types of subordinate court.

These are:

  1. Civil Courts – for Civil Cases.
  2. Criminal Courts – For Criminal Cases.
  3. Revenue Court – for the cases related to the revenue.

Civil Court are ruled by a District Judge, Criminal Courts are ruled by a Session Judge, and in Revenue Court the highest power remains with a board of Revenues, followed by a collection or Commissioner, them a tehsildar and at the lowest level a Naib Tehsildar. Below the District Courts, there are Various Magistrate Court, they deal with lets serious Criminal offenses and civil cases of limited value.

They provides swift and easy justice and easily the burden of higher Court. There are family Courts as a vital components which specialize in resolving matrimonial disputer. Small cases and city Civil Courts. These subordinate Courts strengthen our judicial system and helps the higher courts by reducing their workload.
OR
In a democratic country, the judiciary plays a vital and indispensable role in upholding the rule of law, protecting Fundamental Rights, ensuring the separation of powers, resolving disputes, and safeguarding democracy. Its importance lies in its ability to serve as the ultimate arbiter of justice, ensuring that all citizens, regardless of their position or power, are subject to the law. The judiciary’s role in protecting Fundamental Rights is especially crucial. It acts as a bulwark against potential abuses of power by the government or other individuals and entities. By ensuring that individual liberties are upheld and protected, the judiciary safeguards the democratic ideals of freedom, equality, and justice. Additionally, the judiciary acts as a check on the other branches of government, namely the executive and legislature. It has the authority to review the actions of these branches to ensure that they adhere to the Constitution and the principles of democracy.

This function of the judiciary ensures that no branch of government becomes too powerful or acts beyond its prescribed limits. The judiciary also plays a significant role in settling disputes between individuals and organizations, as well as conflicts between different levels of government. By providing an impartial and independent forum for dispute resolution, it fosters a sense of trust and confidence in the legal system. Furthermore, the judiciary’s ability to interpret and apply the Constitution is of paramount importance in addressing constitutional issues that arise in a democratic society. It ensures that the constitution remains a living document, relevant to the changing needs and aspirations of the people. A strong and independent judiciary is a hallmark of a vibrant democracy.

It upholds the values of justice, fairness, and equality and instills public trust and confidence in the legal system. To further strengthen Indian democracy, it is crucial to safeguard the independence of the judiciary, ensure timely and efficient dispensation of justice, and promote transparency and accountability in its functioning. Additionally,, efforts should be made to enhance access to justice for all citizens, particularly marginalised and vulnerable sections of society. By continuously striving to improve the judiciary’s functioning and maintaining its integrity, India can uphold the principles of democracy and ensure a just and equitable society for all its citizens.


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