CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 2 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science with Solutions Set 2 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Political Science Set 2 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

  • The question paper consists of fíve sections (A, B, C, D, and E) with 30 questions in total. All questions are compulsory.
  • Question numbers 142 are multiple choice questions of one mark each.
  • Question numbers 13-18 are of 2 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 50-60 words each.
  • Question numbers 19-23 are of 4 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 100-120 zvords each. There is an internal choice in two of the 4 marks questions.
  • Question numbers 24-26 are passage, cartoon, and map-based questions. Answer accordingly.
  • Question numbers 2 7-30 are of 6 marks each. Answers to these questions should not exceed 170 – 180 words.
  • There is an internal choice in 6 marks questions.


Question 1.
Match the following: [1]

List Subjects
A. Original Jurisdiction (i) It refers to the authority of a higher court to hear appeals from lower courts and to review their decisions.
B. Writ Jurisdiction (ii) It refers to the authority of a court to provide opinion on legal questions referred to it by the President or the Governor.
C. Appellate Jurisdiction (iii) It refers to the authority of a court to hear a case for the first time.
D. Advisory Jurisdiction (iv) It refers to the authority of a higher court to correct actions of lower courts or authorities.

(a) A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv
(b) A-ii, B-iii, C-i, D-iv
(c) A-iii, B-iv, C-i, D-ii
(d) A-iii, B-ii, C-i, D-iv
Option (c) is correct.
A. Original Jurisdiction: It refers to the authority of a court to hear a case for the first time.
B. Writ Jurisdiction: It refers to the authority of a higher court to issue writs for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights or to correct actions of lower courts or authorities.
C. Appellate jurisdiction: It refers to the authority of a higher court to hear appeals from lower courts and to review their decisions.
D. Advisory Jurisdiction: It refers to the authority of a court to provide advice or opinion on legal questions referred to it by the President or the Governor.

Question 2.
How do rights constrain state actions? [1](a) By limiting the state’s authority over individuals
(b) By restricting the stat&s involvement in education
(c) By ensuring the stat&s financial independence
(d) By reducing the state’s obligations to the people
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: Rights place certain limits on the actions of the state, preventing it from infringing upon the fundamental liberties and freedoms of individuals. They ensure that the state’s authority is exercised within the boundaries set by the Constitution and the protection of individual rights.

Question 3.
The political philosophy of the Indian Constitution can be described as: [1](a) Authoritarian and centralised
(b) Liberal, democratic, egalitarian, secular, and federal
(c) Conservative and traditionalist
(d) Socialist and communist
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: The political philosophy of the Indian Constitution is liberal, democratic, egalitarian, secular, and federal, reflecting its commitment to freedom, equality, social justice, and national unity.

Question 4.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). [1]Choose the appropriate option as answer:
Assertion: The liberalism of the Indian Constitution differs from classical Western liberalism.
Reason: It links liberalism to social justice, recognizing the importance of protecting the interests of marginalised groups through measures like reservations
(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: The assertion accurately points out the difference between Indian constitutional liberalism and classical Western liberalism. The reason further elaborates on this difference by indicating how the Indian approach integrates liberalism with social justice. The reason aligns well with the assertion.

Question 5.
According to the concept of natural rights, why are these rights considered inalienable? [1](a) Because rulers grant them to the people
(b) Because they are derived from property rights
(c) Because they are given by the law of nature and cannot be taken away
(d) Because society collectively decides on them.
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: According to the concept of natural rights, these rights are considered inalienable because they are believed to be inherent in human beings and are granted by the Law of nature itself. They cannot be taken away by any authority or government.

Question 6.
How does knowledge of political ideas and institutions benefit citizens? [1](a) It empowers them to become experts in political science
(b) It allows them to express their opinions about politics more confidently
(c) It enables them to participate in public discussions and decision-making responsibly
(d) it helps them become famous politicians and bureaucrats.
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: Knowledge of political ideas and institutions empowers citizens to engage in public discussions, make informed decisions, and participate responsibly in the democratic process.

Question 7.
……………………. are the three natural rights of man identified by political theorists in the 17th and 18th centuries. [1](a) The right to education, freedom of speech. and privacy
(b) The right to life, liberty, and property
(c) The right to equality, justice, and healthcare
(d) The right to vote, assembly, and religion
Option (b) is correct.
The three natural rights of man identified by political theorists in the 17th and 18th centuries are the right to life, liberty, and property as proposed by thinkers like John Locke.

Question 8.
In the following question, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Choose the appropriate option as answer: [1]Assertion: Unlike in mathematics where there can be one definition of a triangle or square, we encounter many definitions of equality or freedom, or justice.
Reason: This is because terms like equality concern our relationships with other human beings rather than with things.
(a) Both the Assertion and the Reason are correct, and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) Both the Assertion and the Reason are correct, but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) The Assertion is incorrect, but the Reason is correct.
(d) The Assertion is correct, but the Reason is incorrect.
Option (a) ¡s correct.
Explanation: The Assertion is correct in stating that terms like equality, freedom, or justice can have multiple definitions, unlike mathematical concepts that usually have more precise definitions. The Reason is also correct in noting that terms like equality involve human relationships. The multiple definitions can arise from philosophical, cultural, historical, and contextual factors, in addition to the relational aspect mentioned in the Reason.

Question 9.
Why did the Constitution makers establish a difficult procedure for the removal of judges? [1](a) To prevent judges from facing any consequences for misconduct
(b) To ensure that judges could function without fear of removal
(c) To discourage anyone from attempting to remove judges
(d) To make the process of judicial appointments more challenging.
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: The difficult procedure for the removal of judges was established to ensure their independence and security of tenure, allowing them to function without fear or favour.

Question 10.
What must the rulers remember in a democratic state? [1](a) To priorities their own interests over individual rights
(b) To be accountable for their actions and pursue the well-being of the people
(c) To enforce laws with force and authority
(d) To rely on international organisations for governance.
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: In a democratic state, rulers must remember that they are accountable for their actions and must priorities the well-being and interests of the people they govern.

Question 11.
What do political rights in a democracy provide to citizens? [1](a) Right to participate in the political process
(b) Right to a free and fair trial
(c) Right to receive medical facilities from the state
(d) Right to establish institutions for teaching onets language and culture.
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: Political rights in a democracy provide citizens with the right to participate in the political process, such as voting, electing representatives, and joining political parties.

Question 12.
……………………… ensure that the authority of the state is exercised without violating the sanctity of individual life and liberty.
(a) Rights
(b) Duties
(c) Directive Principles of State Policy
(d) Citizenship
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: Rights ensure that the authority of the state is exercised without violating the sanctity of individual life and liberty. In a democratic society, individuals possess certain Fundamental Rights that protect them from undue interference or oppression by the state. These rights are enshrined in the constitution and are considered essential for upholding human dignity and promoting individual freedoms.


Question 13.
Is Indian Constitution rigid or flexible? [2]Answer:
The Constitution is considered rigid because it requires a special and complex amendment procedure for making changes to certain fundamental aspects, or in a basic article of the Constitution. On the other hand, the Constitution is considered flexible because it also allows for relatively easier amendments to other non-fundamental aspects.

Question 14.
Write a short note on historical background of rights. [2]Answer:
Rights have a historical background rooted in the political theories of the 17th and 18th centuries. During this period, philosophers argued that rights were inherent and derived from natural law, making them inalienable and beyond the control of rulers or societies. Over time, the concept of natural rights shifted towards human rights, emphasising the equal entitlement of all individuals. These rights have been used to challenge oppression and promote human dignity, and they continue to shape the pursuit of justice and equality in the modern world.

Question 15.
What is the system of elections? [2]Answer:
The system of elections allows citizens to choose their representatives through voting The elections are usually conducted in a democracy. Different electoral systems like First-Past-The-Post, Proportional Representation, and Single Transferable Vote Influence election outcomes and representation. Free and fair elections are vital for upholding democracy and giving people a say in governance.

Question 16.
What do you mean by equality before law? [2]Answer:
Equality before the law is a fundamental principle enshrined in the Indian Constitution. Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees equality to all citizens and ensures that the state shall not deny any person equal protection of laws. This means that every individual, regardless of their caste, religion, gender, or economic status, is equal in the eyes of the law. It prohibits any discrimination and ensures that everyone has equal access to justice and legal remedies.

Question 17.
What are the required qualifications for a person to be a Member of Legislative Assembly? [2]Answer:
To be eligible for a Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) in India, the person must fulfil the following criteria:

  • The person must be a citizen of India.
  • The person should not be less than 25 years of age.
  • The person must be of a sound mind.
  • The person should not hold any office of profit under the Government.

Question 18.
State some characteristics of Politics. [2]Answer:
Politics involves multiple perspectives on justice and desirability in society. It encompasses negotiations, collective decision-making, and the interaction between governments and citizens. Political activity occurs when people engage in activities to promote social development and address common issues. it is a dynamic process that shapes the functioning of society and government actions. Power, conflict, and the pursuit of interests are inherent characteristics of politics.


Question 19.
Do you think studying political theory is like studying mathematics? Give reason. [4]Answer:
Studying political theory is not like studying mathematics as mathematics deals with price concepts and patterns while political theory studies humans and their ideas in the context of power and decision-making.

In mathematics, there are single definitions of terms. In political theory, on the other hand, the definition of Terry very according to the context. Political theory deals with the ideas and the principles that steps the Constitution, governments, and social life in a systematic manner.

On the other hand mathematics deals with the constant concepts their the derived by formula, while the concepts of political theory are at variance and open a Interpretation.

Question 20.
What was the erstwhile Fundamental Right to Property and Work? [4]Answer:
The erstwhile Fundamental Right to Property was guaranteed under Article 31 of the Indian Constitution. It provided for the right to acquire, hold, and dispose of property as a Fundamental Right. However, through the 44th Amendment Act in 1978, the right to property was removed from the list of Fundamental Rights and was made a legal right instead.

As for the Fundamental Right to Work, it was not explicitly mentioned as such in the original Indian Constitution. However, the Right to Work was later incorporated as a Directive Principle of State Policy under Article 41, which directs the state to secure the right to work, education, and public assistance in certain situations.

Question 21.
Is the executive leadership dominant in India? [4]OR
List the situations in which President’s rule can be promulgated in a state. What is the position of the governor in such a situation? [4]Answer:
In India, the executive leadership holds a dominant position within the governance structure. The Prime Minister, as the head of the executive, holds substantial authority in shaping the country’s policies and direction. The executive also controls the administrative machinery and plays a crucial role in day-to-day governance. While India follows a parliamentary system with a separation of powers, the executive often takes a more proactive role in decision-making. However, the Constitution establishes a system of checks and balances to prevent an overly dominant executive. The judiciary and legislature also play important roles in ensuring accountability and upholding the principles of democracy.
I’resident’s rule, also known as the imposition of Article 356 of the Indian Constitution, can be promulgated in a state under certain circumstances including Failure of Constitutional Machinery, Inability to Form a Government, Elections not being held, Breakdown of Law and Order, Violation of Constitutional Provisions. In such a situation, the Governor’s position becomes crucial. The Governor is the constitutional head of the state, representing the President of India. President’s rule is not a permanent measure and should be used sparingly and only when all other alternatives are exhausted. It is aimed at restoring normalcy and ensuring proper governance in the state.

Question 22.
State the main features of the concept of equality. [4]OR
State two positive and two negative aspects of equality? [4]Answer:
The concept of equality refers to the principle of treating all individuals with fairness and impartiality, regardless of their background or characteristics. It involves ensuring that everyone has the same rights, opportunities, and access to resources, and that no one is subject to discrimination or prejudice. Equality encompasses various dimensions, such as political, legal, social, and economic equality, striving for a more inclusive and just society. It also entails affirmative action to address historical disadvantages and promote representation of marginalized groups. The concept of equality is a fundamental value in democratic societies, guiding policies and laws to create an environment where everyone can participate fully and enjoy a life of dignity and respect.
Positive Aspects of Equality: Equality fosters indusivity and fairness by ensuring equal access to opportunities and rights for all individuals, irrespective of their background. It promotes social cohesion and enables people to strive for success, contributing to social mobility and a sense of untiy Negative Aspects of Equality: Overemphasis on strict equality might disregard individual differences and unique needs, limiting personal growth and potential. Additionally, excessive pursuit of economic equality could hamper innovation and productivity, undermining incentives for hard work and entrepreneurship. Balancing these aspects is essential, as embracing equality while recognizing individuality and incentive innovation can lead to a more just and dynamic society that benefits everyone.

Question 23.
State the main elements of nationalism. [4]Answer:
Nationalism encompasses a set of beliefs and sentiments that center around the idea of a shared national identity and collective destiny. It emphasises the importance of the nation-state as a political entity and advocates for its sovereignty and autonomy. Nationalism fosters a strong sense of patriotism and pride in one’s country, often expressed through national symbols, anthems, and rituals. It seeks to unite people from diverse backgrounds under a common national identity and promotes the idea of working together for the greater good of the nation.

However, nationalism can also have exclusive tendencies, leading to the exclusion of outsiders or minority groups. Throughout history, nationalism has played a significant role in shaping political movements, struggles for independence, and the formation of Nation-States.


Question 24.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follows:
A day in the left urban Indian middle class without immigrant workers.

(i) What is the significance of the cartoon? [2](ii) What are the various tasks being performed in the cartoon? [2]Answer:
(i) The cartoon is an illustration of the impact on urban life in the absence of immigrant workers. It shows the importance of immigrant workers for performing daily chores in an urban city.
(ii) The females or women of the middle-class families are performing daily chores like cleaning the utensils, cooking food, etc. The working females are doing office work. The males are washing clothes, dropping the children to school, going to office etc.

Question 25.
In the given outline political map of India, four states have been marked as (A), (B), (C) and (D). Identify the States having a bicameral legislature write their correct names in your answer book along with the respective serial numbers of the information used and the concerned alphabets as per the format that follows: [4]

Alphabet Concerned Name of the State


Alphabet Concerned Name of the State
(i) A Andhra Pradesh
(ii) B Karnataka
(iii) C Bihar
(iv) D Maharashtra

Question 26.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
In 1978, the Constitution of Sri Lanka was amended and the system of Executive Presidency was introduced. Under the system of Executive Presidency, people directly elect the President. It may happen that both the President and Prime Minister belong to the same political party or to different political parties. The President has vast powers under the Constitution. The President chooses the Prime Minister from the party that has a majority in the Parliament etc. Though ministers must be members of the Parliament, the President has the power to remove the Prime Minister or ministers.

Apart from being the elected Head of State and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the President is also the Head of the Government. Elected for a term of six years, the President cannot be removed except by a resolution in the Parliament passed by at least two-thirds of the total number of Members of Parliament. If it is passed by not less than one-half of the total number of Members of Parliament and the Speaker is satisfied that such allegations merit inquiry, then the speaker can report the matter to the Supreme Court.
(i) When was the Executive Presidency introduced in Sri Lanka? [1](a) 1968
(b) 1978
(c) 1988
(d) 1998
Option (b) is correct.
Explanation: In 1978, the Constitution of Sri Lanka was amended, and the system of Executive Presidency was introduced.

(ii) How is the Prime Minister elected in the Executive Presidency? [1](a) President chooses the Prime Minister from the party with majority in Parliament.
(b) People choose the Prime Minister.
(c) Set of ministers chooses the Prime Minister.
(d) None of the above.
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: The passage states that under the system of Executive Presidency, the President chooses the Prime Minister from the party that has a majority in the Parliament. This means that the President has the authority to appoint the Prime Minister, and the choice is based on the party’s strength in the Parliament.

(iii) In the Executive Presidency President, is also known a [1](a) Head of the State Legislative Council
(b) Head of the judiciary
(c) Head of the Government
(d) Head of the Opposition
Option (c) is correct.
Explanation: The passage mentions that the President under the Executive Presidency system is also the Head of the Government. This implies that the President holds the highest executive authority and is responsible for the functioning of the government.

(iv) Under the system of Executive Presidency, people directly elect the ………………… . [1](a) President
(b) Defence Minster
(c) Chief Minister
(d) None of them
Option (a) is correct.
Explanation: The passage states that under the system of Executive Presidency, people directly elect the President. This means that in the Executive Presidency, the citizens have the power to directly vote for the President, who is the highest authority in the government.


Question 27.
State whether the following inferences about the making of the Indian Constitution are Correct or Incorrect. Give reasons to support your answer.
(i) The Constituent Assembly did not represent the Indian people since it was not elected by all citizens.
(ii) Constitution-making did not involve any major decision since there was a general consensus among the leaders at that time about its basic framework.
(iii) There was little originality in the Constitution, for much of it was borrowed from other countries.
Several reports show that caste groups previously associated with scavenging are forced to continue in this job. Those in positions of authority refuse to give them any other job. Their children are discouraged from pursuing education. Which of their Fundamental Rights are being violated in this instance? [6]Answer:
(i) This statement is incorrect because although there were no direct elections for the members of Constituent Assembly, yet there was adequate representation for all religions, social and, economic groups, and sections of the society. In addition to all these, there were 28 Schedule Caste members also as a part of Constituent Assembly.

(ii) This statement is incorrect because Constitution making involved numerous major decisions, and there were significant debates and disagreements among the leaders regarding various provisions of the Constitution. Issues such as federalism, language, citizenship, and Fundamental Rights were intensely debated before arriving at a consensus.

(iii) This statement is incorrect as the entire Constitution is not borrowed. Some concepts were borrowed from foreign constitution but not as a slavish imitation. The borrowed provisions were debated upon and consensus arrived at before being included in the Constitution.
In this instance, the following Fundamental Rights of the individuals from the caste groups previously associated with scavenging are being violated:

  • Right to Equality (Article 14): The denial of other ob opportunities and forced continuation in scavenging based on their caste constitutes discrimination and violates their right to equality.
  • Right to Freedom of Occupation (Article 19(1) (g)): Forcing them to continue in scavenging and not providing them with alternative employment options violates their right to choose their occupation freely.
  • Right to Education (Article 21A): Discouraging their children from pursuing education deprives them of their right to free and compulsory education, which is guaranteed to all children between the ages of 6 and 14 years.
  • Right to Dignity (Article 21): Forcing individuals to engage in a job traditionally associated with humiliation and low social status violates their right to live with dignity. It is important to note that caste-based discrimination and untouchablity have been abolished by the Indian Constitution, and these violations are contrary to the principles of social justice and equality enshrined in the Constitution.

Question 28.
Analyse the statement, “Political Liberty cannot be imagined without economic liberty”. [6]OR
Briefly discuss the three principles of justice. Explain each with examples.
The statement, “Political liberty cannot be imagined without economic 1iberty highlights the interconnectedness between political and economic freedoms in a society. It implies that true political freedom and individual rights cannot be fully realised without ensuring economic opportunities, security, and welfare for all citizens.

Political liberty refers to the right to participate in the political process. express opinions freely. elect representatives, and engage in political activities without fear of oppression or discrimination. It encompasses the freedom of speech, assembly, and association, among others. These political rights are essential for a functioning democracy, where citizens can have a say in governance and hold their leaders accountable.

However, economic liberty, on the other hand, pertains to the ability of individuals to participate in economic activities freely, access resources, earn a livelihood, and enjoy a certain standard of living. Economic freedom allows people to pursue their economic interests, entrepreneurship, and own property without undue interference from the state or other individuals.

The interdependence between political and economic liberty lies in the fact that without economic security and opportunity, political liberty can be hollow When individuals lack access to basic necessities such as food, shelter, education, and healthcare, their ability to engage in the political process and exercise their political rights effectively is limited. Economic deprivation can lead to marginalization, inequality, and powerlessness, hindering meaningful participation in democratic processes. Moreover, economic disparities can create conditions where a few wealthy individuals or entities hold disproportionate political influence, potentially undermining the principles of democratic representation and fairness.

A society with extreme economic inequality may see political decisions biased in favor of the privileged few, neglecting the needs and interests of the majority.
(i) Equal Treatment of Equals:

  • This indicates the principle of treating people equally.
  • All individuals share certain characteristics as human beings. Therefore, they deserve to be treated equally and provided with equal rights.
  • It includes civil rights like right to life, liberty, and property, political rights like right to vote and social rights related to equal social opportunities. It also prohibits discrimination on the grounds of class, caste, gender and race.
  • For example, two individuals from different backgrounds should be paid same reward for the same kind of job.

(ii) Proportionate justice:

  • This principle indicates rewarding people in proportion to the scale and quality of their efforts.
  • lt is just to reward different jobs differently on the basis of efforts and skills required and the danger involved.
  • Thus, proportionality provides balance to the principle of equal treatment.
  • For example, the reward and compensation for a surgeon and an architect varies according to the skill that is required in their job.

(iii) Recognition of Special Needs:

  • This principle is based on distributing rewards and duties on the basis of special needs of people.
  • On the basis of factors such as age, physical disabilities and Lack of access to good education or health care, special treatment is given in many countries.
  • People with special needs or disabilities are treated unequal in some particular respect and therefore are provided with some deserving and special help.
  • For example, a physically challenged person getting a reserved seat in bus is an example of principle of recognition of special needs.

Question 29.
Write a detailed note on powers of President of India [6]OR
“Indian democracy is now ready to shift from a crude First Past the Post system to a system of Proportional Representation”. Do you agree with this statement? Give your reasons for or against this statement. [6]Answer:
The powers of President of India can be categorised as:
(i) Legislative powers – These powers include:

  • Nominating 12 members to Rajya Sabha.
  • Giving assent to bills to make them laws.
  • Dissolving Lok Sabha.
  • Calling a joint session of the two Houses of the Parliament.
  • Imposing President’s Rule in a State.
  • Issuing ordinances when Parliament is not in session.

(ii) Executive powers – These powers include:

  • Appointing leader of the majority party as Prime Minister of India.
  • Appointing Governors, Lieutenant Governors. Ambassadors, Chief Justice of India, Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, Attorney General of India, Chairman of UPSC, etc.
  • Acting as the supreme commander of the armed forces.

(iii) Judicial powers – These powers include:

  • Granting pardon or commuting punishment of any criminal.
  • Appointing Chief Justice of India and other judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.

(iv) Financial powers – These powers include:

  • The President has the power to give or withhold his/her assent to Money Bills passed by the Parliament.
  • The President has control over the Contingency Fund of India.
  • The President lays the Union Budget before Parliament. While the Budget is prepared by the government, it is presented in the name of the President.

It is the correct time to shift from FPTP system to Proportional Representation system.
This is because:

  • There are more than two political parties in India. To give a fair representation to all the parties, proportional representation system is better.
  • This system ensures that the political parties get seats in proportion to the number of votes cast in their favour.
  • PR allows smaller political parties and minority groups to gain representation in proportion to their vote share, leading to a more inclusive and diverse parliament.
  • Under FPTE votes cast for losing candidates have no impact, leading to a significant number of wasted votes.” PR ensures that all votes contribute to the representation of parties in parliament.

However, FPTP often leads to stable governments with clear mandates, whereas PR can result in coalition governments, which might be less stable and efficient.

Question 30.
India truly secular? Why or why not? [6]OR
Which form of government is advocated by our Constitution – Unitary or Federal? State any four features of Indian Constitution that have provided base for a strong Central Government.
India is a secular state, as enshrined in its Constitution, and it is evident through various provisions and practices within the country. Secularism, in the context of India, means that the state maintains an equal distance from all religions and does not promote or favour any particular religion. It allows for freedom of religion, protects religious minorities, and upholds the principle of non-discrimination based on faith.

Evidence of India being a secular state:
(i) Constitution: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution declares India to be a ‘sovereign socialist secular democratic republic. The term ‘secular’ was added to the Preamble through the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976, emphasising India’s commitment to secular principles.

(ii) Equality of Religions: The Indian Constitution guarantees religious freedom to all citizens. Article 25-28 ensures the right to profess, practice, and propagate any religion. It prohibits discrimination on religious grounds.

(iii) State Neutrality: The state does not promote any particular religion or religious practices. It maintains equal distance from all religions and does not endorse religious rituals or ceremonies.

(iv) Personal Laws: India recognises different personal laws for various religious communities, allowing individuals to follow
their religious laws in matters of marriage, divorce, inheritance, and adoption.

(v) Minority Protection: The state takes special measures to protect the interests of religious and linguistic minorities. It provides educational and cultural rights to religious minorities.

The form of government advocated by the Indian Constitution is federal with a strong center. India follows a Quasi-Federal system where power is divided between the Central Government and the State Governments, but the center holds a significant authority in certain matters. Four features of the Indian Constitution that provide a base for a strong Central Government are:
(i) Distribution of Powers: The Indian Constitution divides powers between the central and State Governments through the Union List, State List, and Concurrent List. However, in case of any conflict or inconsistency between central and state laws on concurrent subjects, the central law prevails.

(ii) Single Citizenship: Unlike some federal countries where citizens may hold dual citizenship (state and federal), India provides for a single citizenship for all citizens throughout the country. This strengthens the idea of a unified Indian nation.

(iii) Emergency Provisions: The Indian Constitution grants the Central Government the authority to dedare emergencies (national, state, and financial) in certain situations, which empowers the center to take control over the state administration during emergencies.

(iv) Residuary Powers: In a federal setup, residuary powers, i.e., powers not specifically assigned to either the central or State Governments, are usually given to the states. However, in India, residuary powers are vested with the Central Government, further enhancing its authority.

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