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CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History Set 5 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History with Solutions Set 5 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History Set 5 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1. Question paper comprises five Sections – A, B, C, D, and E. There are 34 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A – Question I lo 21 are MCQs of 1 mark each.
  3. Section B – Question no. 22 lo 27 are Short Answer Type questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60-80 words.
  4. Section C – Question no 28 to 30 are Long Answer Type questions. carrying 8 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 300-350 words.
  5. Section D – Question no. 31 to 33 are Source-based questions with three sub-questions and are of 4 marks each.
  6. Section-E – Question no. 34 is Map-based, carrying 5 marks that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions has to be attempted.

Section-A
Objective Type Questions.

Question 1.
What is the meaning of Mesopotamia? [1](A) Land between two bridges
(B) Land between two rivers
(C) Land between two poles
(D) None of the above
Answer:
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: Mesopotamia means “land between two rivers.” The term “Mesopotamia” originates from the Greek words “mesos” (meaning “middle”) and “potamos” (meaning “river”), referring to the region located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in ancient times.

Question 2.
For which of the following reasons, writing would have begun in the Mesopotamian civilization? [1](A) For recording transactions
(B) For leisure activities
(C) For paintings on pottery
(D) None of the above
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Writing in the Mesopotamian civilization, particularly cuneiform script, began primarily for administrative purposes, including recording transactions such as trade, taxation, and legal matters. It served as a practical means of record-keeping and communication in this early complex society.

Question 3.
I am a remarkable military leader from Mongolia but not a religious leader. Identify me from the given picture. [1](A) Timur
(B) Genghis Khan
(C) Guyuk
(D) Ogedei
Answer:
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire and a skilled military leader and strategist.

Question 4.
Who established the Principate and when? [1](A) King Augustus in 27 BCE
(B) King Augustus in 17 BCE
(C) King Augustus in 7 BCE
(D) King Augustus in 70 BCE
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Augustus, originally known as Octavian, became the first Roman emperor and established the Principate system of government in 27 BCE, marking the end of the Roman Republic.

Question 5.
A guild was a group of people associated with ………………………. . [1](A) monks
(B) farmers
(C) craft and industry
(D) lords
Answer:
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: A guild is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft trade in a particular territory. They were formed to promote the economic interests of their members as well as to provide protection and mutual aid. Guilds were common in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Question 6.
Tax paid by traders for safe passage and conduct within the Mongolian territory was known as? [1](A) Yam
(B) Baj
(C) Qubcur
(D) Tama
Answer:
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: The tax paid by traders for safe passage and conduct within the Mongolian territory was known as baj. The baj was a toll or tax that was paid to the Mongol rulers in exchange for safe passage through their territory. It was a way for the Mongols to control trade and to generate revenue. The baj was also a way for the Mongols to assert their authority over other peoples.

Question 7.
……………………….. discovered New Zealand by following Jansz’s path. [1](A) A.J. Tasman
(B) A.J. James
(C) A.J. Cooper
(D) A.J. Nash
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Abel Janszoon Tasman was a Dutch explorer who discovered New Zealand in 1642. He was following the path of Willem Jansz, who had sighted the northern coast of Australia in 1606. Tasman explored the coasts of both the North and South Islands of New Zealand, but he did not land. He named the islands Staten Landt and New Zeeland, after the Dutch province of Zeeland.

Question 8.
Fill in the blank.
The lord gave a piece of land, ……………………. to the knight and promised to protect it as in the feudal order. [1](A) Fief
(B) Serfdom
(C) Indenture
(D) Plantation
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: A fief was a piece of land that is granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and military service. The lord was obligated to protect the fief and the vassal was obligated to pay homage to the lord and to serve him in times of war.

Question 9.
Consider the following statements and find out what is not a criterion for the eligibility of a priest- [1](j) He should be socially and mentally sound.
(ii) He should neither be a woman nor a peasant.
(iii) He will observe celibacy throughout life.
(A) Only 1
(B) 1, 3
(C) 2, 3
(D) Only 2
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: A priest should not be a woman and nor a peasant and he has to follow the path of celibacy.

Question 10.
Arrange in chronological order- [1](i) Black Death
(ii) Great famine in Europe
(iii) Peasants’ revolts
(iv) Hundred Years War between England and France
(A) 2,4,1,3
(B) 2,1,4,3
(C) 1,4,3,2
(D) 3,1,4,2
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The Great Famine in Europe (1315- 17) was a period of widespread crop failure and famine that lasted for three years. The Black Death was a plague pandemic that killed an estimated 30- 50% of the European population between 1347-51. The Peasants’ Revolts were a series of uprisings by peasants in England in 1381. The Hundred Years’ War (1337- 1453) was a long and bloody conflict between England and France. The war was fought over control of the French throne, and it lasted for over 100 years.

Question 11.
Who set up the ‘Society of Jesus’ in 1540? [1](A) Ignatius Loyola
(B) Copernicus
(C) Johannes Kepler
(D) Martin Luther
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The Society of Jesus in the year 1540 was established by “Ignatius Loyola.”

Question 12.
Fill in the blank. [1]………………………. was the father of modern physiology.
(A) Andreas Vesalius
(B) Rouseauu
(C) Samuel Hahneman
(D) Louis Pasteur
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The tag of Father of Modern Physiology has been given to Andreas Vesalius.

Question 13.
The theory of the earth as part of a sun-centered system was made popular through the book ‘Cosmographical Mystery’ by ……………….. . [1](A) Galileo
(B) Copernicus
(C) Kepler
(D) Newton
Answer:
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) popularised the idea that the Earth was part of the solar system in his book Cosmographic Mystery. Kepler was a German scientist who took the theory of Nicolaus Copernicus to its perfection.

Question 14.
The U.S.A. purchased Alaska from which one of the following countries? [1](A) Canada
(B) France
(C) Russia
(D) Mexico
Answer:
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: The purchase of Alaska by the USA was done from Russia for strategic purposes.

Question 15.
identify the thinker who wrote this: India was a country that was destroyed by a non-country that is the East India Company. [1](A) Miyake Setsurei
(B) Liang Qichao
(C) Ueki Emori
(D) Fukuzawa Yukichi
Answer:
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: The famous statement, “India was a country that was destroyed by a non-country that is the East India company” was given by a Chinese minister Liang Qichao.

Question 16.
The Great Australian Silence was the work of which of the following personalities? [1](A) Henry Reynold
(B) W.E.H Stanner
(C) Rousseau
(D) Tesman
Answer:
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: The Great Australian Silence was one of the famous works of writer W.E.H. Stanner.

Question 17.
Which years did the Long March take place? [1](A) 1932-33
(B) 1931-32
(C) 1934-35
(D) 1930-31.
Answer:
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: The Long March took place between 1934 to 1935 by the communists to show their strength in China.

Question 18.
In 1868, which place was renamed Tokyo (meaning eastern capital) by the Emperor? [1](A) Kyoto
(B) Edo
(C) Osaka
(D) Nara
Answer:
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: The city of Edo was renamed as Tokyo in the year 1868.

Question 19.
The first president of the Chinese Republic was: [1](A) Dr. Sun Yat-sen
(B) Mao Ze Dong
(C) Chiang Kai-shek
(D) Deng Xiaoping
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The first President of the Chinese Republic was Sun Yat-sen.

Question 20.
What term was used for native people of Australia? [1](A) Indians
(B) Indigenous people
(C) Aborigine
(D) Red Indian
Answer:
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: The native people of Australia were known as Aborigines.

Question 21.
In his book ……………………., Karl Marx defined the American frontier as the final positive capitalist ideal. [1](A) Grundrisse
(B) Das Kapital
(C) The Communist Manifesto
(D) The German Ideology
Answer:
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: In his book Grundrisse, Karl Marx defined the American frontier as the final positive capitalist ideal. Karl Marx has been a critic of capitalism and an ardent supporter of communism.

Section-B
Short answer Type Questions.

Question 22.
Describe the achievements of Mesopotamian civilization in detail. [3]OR
Throw some light on the development of writing in Mesopotamia. [3]Answer:
The first civilization to flourish in Mesopotamia was the Sumerian civilization. Some of the main features of this civilization are listed below:
Political life: There were many city states that were ruled by the priest kings Patesti’. The king had to perform many duties which he discharged with the help of his officials.

Economic Life: Their main occupation was agriculture, domestication of animals and trade. They were the first to cultivate wheat and were also skilled craftsmen who invented the potter’s wheel.

Art: Their artistic legacy is visible in the ornamentation of their temples and buildings. They introduced the columns, vaults, and arches. There was development of various crafts.

Social life: The Sumerian society was male-dominated and stratified, divided into three classes and slavery was also prevalent. The women occupied a high position.

Religious life: Many Gods were worshipped. Enlil was the chief God. Temples called ‘Ziggurats’ were built. Priests occupied a high position in society and there was also belief in life after death which is evident from the grave goods.

Science: Great progress was made in mathematics, astronomy, astrology, and medicine. Sixty was the unit used in their system of numerals. They devised the calendar dividing a year into 12 months and 365 days and also knew about the solar and lunar eclipses.
OR
The Sumerians initially used a pictographic script. As the economy had become sufficiently complex by 3500 BCE, it became necessary to keep record of various transactions rather than rely on memory alone. Since it was the temples which were engaged in these extensive economic activities, they pioneered the use of a written script.

Clay tablets were used for writing. Impressions were made on wet clay tablets with a hard, pointed device. The clay tablets were then left to dry in the sun or were baked in the oven. This made them permanent.

The earlier such tablets were pictograms of nature of temple accounts and ration lists. Later, these were simplified so that only the bare outline was depicted. Later, by 2600 BCE the script evolved into what is known as the ‘cuneiform’ script. Wedge-shaped signs were made on the clay tablets. Each symbol was a combination of these wedges. Thus, writing conveyed the system of sounds in visual form. The sound they represented was not a single consonant or a vowel but syllables. These signs, therefore, ran into hundreds and were complex. Writing, therefore, was a skilled craft and an enormous intellectual achievement. This was also the reason that only a few could read and write.

Question 23.
By the beginning of the 14th century, the economic expansion of Europe slowed down. What were the reasons behind it? [3]Answer:
Europe’s economic expansion slowed down by the beginning of the 14th century because:
Change in climatic conditions: By the end of the 13th century, the warmth of the previous 300 years of northern Europe was replaced by bitterly cold summers. Seasons for growing crops were reduced at least by a month while it became impossible to grow crops on higher altitudes. Many agricultural farms were also destroyed by storms and oceanic flooding. As a result, government’s income in taxes was reduced.

Intensive Noughing: Due to favourable climate before the 13th century, many pastures and forests were converted into agricultural lands. But the soil was exhausted with intensive agriculture despite the practice of three field rotation of crops. Number of cattle was also reduced due to shortage of pastures.

Shortage of metal money: Output from the silver mines in Austria and Serbia was reduced which resulted in a severe shortage of metal money. Consequently, trade was hit. The shortage of silver forced the government to reduce the silver content of the currency. The government started to mix cheaper metals in the silver to make coinage.

Bubonic plague Infection: Trade expanded in the 13th and 14th centuries. Ships carrying goods from far-off countries started arriving in European parts. Rats came along with ships. These rats were carrying bubonic plague infection. As a result, Western Europe was greatly affected by this infection during 1357-1350. The epidemic killed almost 20% of the European population. At some places, the number of dead was as much as 40% of the population. Many other episodes of plague took place again in 1360s and 1370s. The European population which was 73 million in 1300 was reduced to 45 million in 1400.

Question 24.
What changes did Renaissance bring about in the contemporary life of the people? [3]Answer:
Changes brought about by Renaissance included:

  • The old age thinking of religious superstitions was given up and humanism was encouraged.
  • New ideas and a rational outlook with scientific beliefs were adopted.
  • It inspired the contemporary artists and writers and philosophers to write about ‘man’ and his accomplishments.
    Many new universities were established that taught humanism.
  • With the coming of the printing press, education and knowledge spread quickly.

Question 25.
New Delhi and Canberra were named as the capital cities of British India and the Commonwealth of Australia, respectively, in 1911. Compare and contrast the native people’s political status in various countries during the period. [3]Answer:
The political status of native people in various countries in 1911 varied greatly. In some countries, such as Australia and Canada, they had a certain degree of self-government while in others, such as India, they had very little political power.

Australia was a self-governing dominion within the British Empire in 1911. This meant that it had its own government, but the British monarch was still the head of state. The native people of Australia, also known as Aboriginal people, had very little political power. They were not allowed to vote in federal elections and were subject to discrimination by the white settlers.

Canada was also a self-governing dominion within the British Empire in 1911. The native people of Canada, also known as First Nations, had a slightly more favorable political status than Aboriginal people in Australia. They were allowed to vote in federal elections, but they were still subject to discrimination by the white settlers.

India was a colony of the British Empire in 1911. This meant that it was ruled directly by the British government. The native people of India had very little political power. They were not allowed to vote in elections and were subject to discrimination by the British rulers.

The United States was an independent country in 1911. However, the native people of the United States, also known as Native Americans, had very little political power. They were not allowed to vote in federal elections and were subject to discrimination by the white settlers.

Question 26.
How did Augustus’ reign witness the progress made in the field of art and literature? [3]Answer:
His reign ushered in a period of peace and prosperity.

  • Augustus constructed many significant buildings and temples.
  • He re-fortified the frontiers of his empire.
  • He separated the army work from civilian work.
  • He divided his kingdom into hundreds of provinces.
  • He made army more powerful to consolidate and strengthen his empire.

Question 27.
Discuss how the daily life was transformed as Japan developed. [3]OR
Give a brief description about Chiang Kai-Shek. [3]Answer:
Japan’s transformation into a modern society had far-reaching effects on everyday life.
The old patriarchal household system which comprised several generations living together gave way to nuclear families where husband and wife lived together as breadwinners and homemakers. The new concept of home-generated demands for new types of domestic goods like rice cookers, American grills, etc. Women had more time for leisure like reading. Idea of gender equality led many to seek employment. Several construction companies came into existence and offered housing on monthly installments to people. From 1878, public parks were opened for entertainment. The first radio station was opened in 1925 and movies began to be made in 1899.
OR
Chiang Kai-Shek (1887-1975) became the leader of the Guomindang after Sun Yat-Sen’s death. Soon after becoming a leader, he launched a military campaign to control the warlords and the regional leaders who had usurped authority. In 1927, communists were becoming too powerful and as his sympathies lay with the land owners and the businessmen a purification movement was launched in which thousands of communists, trade union leaders, and peasants were massacred. He advocated a secular and rational Confucianism and also sought to militarise the nation. He encouraged women to cultivate the four virtues of chastity, appearance, speech, and work and recognise their role as confined to the household.

Section-C
Long Answer Type Questions.

Question 28.
Discuss in detail some basic features of Roman Society concerning the institution of family and economy which made it look quite modern. [8]OR
Describe the main changes made during the Late Antiquity. What were its effects? [8]Answer:
Society

  • The widespread prevalence of the nuclear family.
  • Wife did not transfer property without her husband’s authority but retained full rights in the property of her natal family. They enjoyed considerable legal rights in owning and managing property.
  • Divorce was relatively easy and needed no more than notice of intent to dissolve the manage.
  • Prevalence of vast diversity in religious cults. A plurality of languages was spoken, there was diversity of dress and costume, the food people ate, and even in the form of social organisation and patterns of settlement.
  • The concept of amusement and public baths.

Economy

  • People preferred to live in urban centers.
  • Cities were the bedrock of the imperial system as the cities were better provided for.
  • There were disputes between the rich and the poor.
  • There was constant exchange of commodities between various regions e.g., wine from Campania, wheat from Sicily and Byzantium, olive oil from Spain.
  • There was diversified application of water power, hydraulic mining techniques were used in the Spanish silver and gold mines. Their level of output was not reached again till the 19th century.
  • They had a well-organised commercial and banking network. There was widespread use of money by ways of silver denarius and gold solidus.
  • Competition amongst regions for control of the main markets. e.g., olive oil.
  • Behind the broad movements, the prosperity of the regions rose and fell depending on how effectively they could organise production, transport and quality of the goods.

OR

Late Antiquity was a period of rapid change and transformation that spanned several centuries. It was the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages. The period roughly corresponds to the late third century up to the sixth or seventh century depending on location.

The main changes made during the Late Antiquity were:

  • Emperor Constantine declared Christianity as the official religion of the empire.
  • There was rise of Islam in the seventh century.
  • Provincial boundaries were reorganised by abandoning the territories of little economic or strategic importance and frontiers were fortified.
  • Constantine also made changes in the economic sphere by introducing the gold coin solidus’.
  • There was considerable rural investment, which reflected in the economic growth.
  • Investments were also made in new technologies such as screw presses, multiple water mills and long-distance trade with the East was revived.

Effects:

  • Strong urban prosperity.
  • The ruling elites became wealthier and more powerful.
  • Rural estates generated vast incomes in gold as money was extensive in circulation.
  • With Christianisation of the empire, boundaries between religious communities became fluid.

Question 29.
Muhammad laid the foundations of a new political structure. Discuss. [8]OR
Describe the major events of the Mongol tribe that took place after the death of Genghis Khan. [8]Answer:

  • For the Mongols, Genghis Khan was the greatest leader of all times.
  • He united the Mongol people, freed them from interminable tribal wars and Chinese exploitation.
  • He brought them prosperity, fashioned a grand transcontinental empire, and restored trade routes and markets that attracted distant travellers.
  • Although the Mongol Khans themselves belonged to a variety of different faiths- Shaman, Buddhist, Christian, and eventually Islam, they never let their personal beliefs dictate public policy.
  • They recruited administrators and armed contingents from people of all ethnic groups and religions.
  • The historians are now researching the ways the
  • Mongols provided ideological models for later regimes like the Mughals to follow.
  • The nature of documentation on the Mongols makes it virtually impossible to understand the inspiration that led to the establishment of a confederation of the fragmented groups.
  • At the end of the 14th century, Timur, another monarch who aspired to universal dominion, hesitated to declare himself monarch because he was not of Genghis Khanid descent.
  • Today after years of Soviet control, Mongolia is recreating its identity as an independent nation.
  • It has honoured Genghis Khan as a great national hero, whose achievements are recounted with pride, forging national identity that can carry the nation into the future.

OR

  • The major events that took place after the death of Genghis Khan are as follows:
  • The Mongol military forces met with a few reversals in the decades after 1230 but quite noticed ably after 1260 the original impetus of campaigns could not be sustained in the West.
  • Although Vienna, and beyond it western Europe as well as Egypt was within the grasp of Mongol forces, their retreat from the Hungarian steppes and defeat at the hands of the Egyptian forces signalled the emergence of new political trends.
  • There were two facets to this, one the internal politics of succession within the Mongol family. These interests were more important than the pursuit of campaigns in Europe.
  • The second compulsion occurred as Jochi and Ogodei lineages were marginalised by the Toluy branch of Genghis Khan’s descendants.
  • Toluyid interests in the conquest of China increased during the 1260s forces and supplies were increasingly diverted into the heartland of the Mongol dominion.
  • As a result, the Mongols fielded a small understaffed force against the Egyptian military.
  • Their defeat and the increased preoccupation with China of the Toluyid family marked the end of Western expansion.
  • Consequently, conflict between the Jochi and Toluyid descendants along the Russian-Iranian frontier diverted the Jochids away from the European campaigns.
  • This did not arrest their campaigns in China which was reunited under the Mongols. Paradoxically at this moment of the greatest successes that internal turbulence between the members of the ruling family manifested itself.

Question 30.
What is meant by the ‘Great Leap Forward’? What were its benefits? [8]OR
Discuss the political system under Tokugawa Shogun. [8]Answer:
The Great Leap Forward was a five-year economic and social campaign launched by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) ¡ri 1958. The campaign was an attempt to rapidly transform the country’s agricultural and industrial base and was characterized by mass mobilization and the use of backyard furnaces to produce steel.

The Great Leap Forward was a disaster. It resulted in widespread famine, economic chaos, and the deaths of millions of people. The exact number of deaths is unknown, but estimates range from 30 to 45 million.

There were some benefits to the Great Leap Forward. For example, it did lead to some increases in industrial production, and it also helped to improve literacy rates. However, these benefits were far outweighed by the costs.

The Great Leap Forward is considered to be one of the darkest periods in Chinese history. It is a reminder of the dangers of utopian thinking and the importance of careful planning and execution when undertaking major economic and social reforms.

Here are some of the benefits of the Great Leap Forward:
Increased industrial production: The Great Leap Forward did lead to some increases in industrial production, particularly in the production of iron and steel.

Improved literacy rates: The Great Leap Forward also helped to improve literacy rates, as millions of people were enrolled in literacy classes. Increased agricultural production: There was also some initial increase in agricultural production, as farmers were encouraged to work harder and longer hours.
OR
The political system under the Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1868) was a complex and hierarchical system that was designed to maintain peace and stability in Japan. The shogun, who was the military ruler of Japan, was at the top of the political system. He was assisted by a council of elders, called the roju, and a bureaucracy of officials.

Here are some of the key features of the political system under the Tokugawa shogunate:
Centralized government: The shogun was the supreme ruler of Japan, and he had absolute power over the daimyo and the other classes of society. Feudal system: The daimyõ were granted control of provinces in return for their loyalty to the shogun. They were required to pay taxes to the shogun and to provide him with military support.

Samurai class: The samurai were the warrior class of Japan. They were responsible for protecting the daimy and their families, and they also played a role in maintaining law and order.

Meritocracy: The Tokugawa shogunate was a meritocracy, meaning that people were promoted based on their skills and abilities, rather than their social status.

Isolationism: The Tokugawa shogunate adopted a policy of isolation, which meant that Japan was closed to foreign trade and contact. This policy was designed to protect Japan from foreign influences and to maintain its own cultural identity.

Section-D
Source-based Questions.

Question 31.
Read the below passage and answer the following questions.
According to the Bible, the flood was meant to destroy all life on earth. However, God chose a man, Noah, to ensure that the life could continue after the flood. Noah built a huge boat, an ark. He took a pair each of all known species of animals and birds on boat the Ark, which survived the flood. There was a strikingly similar story in the Mesopotamian tradition, where the principal character was called Ziusudra or Utnapishtim.
(a) Who was chosen by God to save Life on earth? [1](b) How Noah saved the World? [1](c) What is Ziusudra? [2]Answer:
(a) Noah
(b) He took a pair each of all known species of animals and birds on boat, the ark, which survived the flood.
(c) Ziusudra is the Sumerian counterpart of Noah.

Question 32.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
In Benedictine monasteries, there was a manuscript with 73 chapters of rules which were followed by monks for many centuries. Here are some of the rules they had to follow:
Chapter 6: Permission to speak should rarely be granted to monks.
Chapter 7: Humility means obedience.
Chapter 33: No monk should own private property.
Chapter 47: Idleness is the enemy of the soul, so friars and sisters should be occupied at certain times in manual labour, and at fixed hours in sacred reading.
Chapter 48: The monastery should be laid out in such a way that all necessities be found within its bounds: water, mill, garden, workshops.
(a) Who were monks? [1](b) Mention any two differences between the two orders of the religious feudal category. [2](c) What were friars? [1]Answer:
(a) Monks were men who dedicated their lives to religious service. They lived in monasteries, which were self-sufficient communities that provided for all of their needs.

(b) Bishops took taxes; monks do not take any taxes in name of church. Bishops lived in the city area with luxuries, but monks lived in isolation in monasteries. Women cannot be bishops, but women can become nuns.

(c) Friar is a term for a member of a mendicant religious order. Mendicant orders are religious orders that rely on begging for their food and other necessities. They often preach, teach, and work with the poor and marginalised.

Question 33.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Niccolo Machiavelli wrote about human nature in the fifteenth chapter of his book, The Prince (1513). ‘So, leaving aside imaginary things, and referring only to those which truly exist, I say that whenever men are discussed (and especially princes, who are more exposed to view), they are noted for various qualities which earn them either praise or condemnation. Some, for example, are held to be generous, and others miserly.

Some are held to be benefactors, others are called grasping, some cruel, some compassionate; one man faithless, another faithful; one man effeminate and cowardly, another fierce and courageous; one man courteous, another proud; one man lascivious, another pure; one guileless, another crafty; one stubborn, another flexible; one grave, another frivolous; one religious, another skeptical; and so forth.’ Machiavelli believed that ‘all men are bad and ever ready to display their vicious nature partly because of the fact that human desires are insatiable’. The most powerful motive Machiavelli saw as the incentive for every human action is self-interest.
(a) Name the book written by Machiavelli. [1](b) Highlight the important aspect which the book depicts. [1](c) What did the author believe? [2]Answer:
(a) The book written by Machiavelli is “The Prince”(1513).

(b) The important aspect which the book depicts is the nature of man. Machiavelli believed that men are inherently selfish and ambitious and that they will always act in their own self-interest.

(c) Machiavelli believed that ‘all men are bad and ever ready to display their vicious nature partly because of the fact that human desires are insatiable’. The most powerful motive Machiavelli saw as the incentive for every human action is self-interest.

Section-E
Map-based Questions.

Question 34.1.
On a political map of West Asia locate the following: [3+2](a) Heart of Roman Empire
(b) A city badly destroyed by Genghis Khan
(c) Temple town of Mesopotamia
OR
Trading town of Mesopotamia [5]Answer:
(a) Mediterranean sea
(b) Nishapur
(c) Uruk
OR
Mari

Question 34.2.
On the same map, two water bodies has been marked as A & 8. Identify them and write their correct names. [5]

Answer:
A -Red sea
B – Persian Gulf


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