CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History Set 4 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History with Solutions Set 4 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History Set 4 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1. Question paper comprises five Sections – A, B, C, D and E. There are 34 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A – Question 1 to 21 are MCQs of 1 mark each.
  3. Section B – Question no. 22 to 27 are Short Answer Type questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 60-80 words.
  4. Section C – Question no 28 to 30 are Long Answer Type questions, carrying 8 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 300-350 words.
  5. Section D – Question no. 31 to 33 are Source based questions with three sub questions and are of 4 marks each.
  6. Section-E – Question no. 34 is Map based, carrying 5 marks that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in fezv questions. Only one of the choices in such questions has to be attempted.

Objective Type Questions.

Question 1.
The earliest cities developed in Mesopotamia around: [1](A) 5000 BCE
(B) 4000 BCE
(C) 3000 BCE
(D) 2000 BCE
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The earliest cities in the Mesopotamia developed around 5000 BCE. The first cities in Mesopotamia were Eridu Uruk and Ur. They were located in the fertile lands between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These cities were supporid by agriculture and trade. They also developed complex social and political structures.

Question 2.
The temples of Mesopotamia were known as ………………. . [1](A) Ziggurats
(B) Vimana
(C) Arcs
(D) Chaityas
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The temples of Mesopotamia were known as ziggurats. Ziggurats were massive stepped pyramids that were built in Mesopotamia
from the 3” millennium BCE to the 1 millennium BCE. They were dedicated to the gods of the city and were used for religious ceremonies and festivals. Ziggurats were built with mud bricks and were often decorated with glazed tiles.

Question 3.
The most common crop grown by Mesopotamians was …………………… . [1](A) Date palms
(B) Peanuts
(C) Pulses
(D) Jowar
Option (A) is correct
Explanation: The date palms was the most common crop which was grown by the Mesopotamian people.

Question 4.
Which of these sources is available for the reconstruction of Roman history? [1](A) Paintings
(B) Texts
(C) Music
(D) Rivers
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: Texts are the most important source for the reconstruction of Roman history. They include historical accounts, legal documents, inscriptions, and personal letters. These texts provide us with a wealth of information about the Roman government, society, economy, and culture.

Question 5.
Look at the given picture. Identify and write the name of the Roman ruler. [1]

(A) Constantine
(B) Augustus
(C) Julius Caesar
(D) Pompey
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The given statue is of Emperor Constantine who led the propagation of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Constantine the Great (c. 272-337) was a Roman emperor who ruled from 306 to 337 CE. He is known for legalizing Christianity in the Roman Empire.

Question 6.
Who were Nomads? [1](A) Fierce nomadic tribes of Central Asian Steppes
(B) A ruling class
(C) Labours
(D) Settled tribes
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Nomads were the fierce tribes of Central Asian Steppes. Nomads are groups of people who do not have a fixed or permanent settlement. They often move from place to place, typically in search of pasture for their livestock or in response to changing environmental conditions.

Question 7.
Fill in the blank.
After the death of Genghis Khan, the major territorial gains of Mongols were the conquest of ………………….. . [1](A) Japan
(B) China
(C) Austria
(D) Myanmar
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: After the death of Ghenghis Khan, the focus of the Mongol rulers shifted towards China. Genghis Khan died in 1227. His empire was divided among his four sons. The most successful of these Sons was Kublai Khan, who conquered China in 1271. Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty, which ruled China for over 100 years.

Question 8.
Which of these is not a source for the European history for the medieval period? [1](A) Official Documents
(B) Details of land ownerships, prices, and legal cases.
(C) Records kept at churches regarding births, marriages and deaths.
(D) Narratives of feudal lords
Option (D) is correct.
Explanation: Narratives of feudal lords are not considered to be reliable sources for the medieval period because they are often biased and inaccurate. Feudal lords were often interested in promoting their own power and prestige, and their narratives may not be an accurate reflection of the actual events of the time.

Question 9.
Who had complete control over the social orders of the society? [1](A) Clergy
(B) Nobles
(C) Serfs
(D) Both (A) & (B)
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: In the medieval Europe, the clergies were in the control of the social structure of the society.

Question 10.
What is the name given to the economic, political and social relations that existed in Medieval Europe? [1](A) Socialism
(B) Communalism
(C) Feudalism
(D) Capitalism
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: In the medieval Europe there was existence of feudal system where the feudal lords were the owners of large estates and also possessed armies.

Question 11.
Which of these was a motivating factor behind voyages and discoveries? [1](A) The need to meet new people
(B) To spread different religions
(C) To visit new places
(D) The thirst to earn name and fame
Option (D) is correct.
Explanation: The thirst for earning name and fame led to the voyages and discoveries. Explorers and adventurers often embarked on voyages in search of recognition, glory, and the chance to make a name for themselves by discovering new lands, routes, and territories. While other factors like trade, religion, and curiosity also played roles in exploration, the desire for personal recognition and fame was a significant driving force.

Question 12.
The first printing press was made by: [1](A) Johannes Gutenberg
(B) Michelangelo
(C) Andreas Vesalius
(D) Giotto
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Johannes Gutenberg is credited with inventing the first printing press in Europe around 1440. He was a goldsmith and inventor from Mainz, Germany. Gutenberg’s printing press used movable type, which allowed for the mass production of books and other printed materials.

Question 13.
In 1954, the Indians of North America embraced citizenship in the United States of America by ………………………. . [1](A) Declaration of Indian Rights
(B) Declaration of British Rights
(C) Declaration of United States Rights
(D) Declaration of America Rights
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: In 1954, the natives of North America accepted citizenship of the United States by the Declaration of Indian Rights. The Declaration of Indian Rights included the condition that their reservations would not be taken away and their traditions would not be interfered with.

Question 14.
The book ‘Why Weren’t We Told’ was written by ………………. . [1](A) Rousseau
(B) W.E.H. Stanner
(C) Tesman
(D) Henry Reynolds
Option (D) is correct.
Explanation: The book “Why Weren’t We Told” was written by famous writer Henry Reynolds. Henry Reynolds is an Australian historian who has written extensively on the history of Indigenous Australians. He is the author of fourteen books, including An Indelible Stain? The Other Side of the Frontier, Black Pioneers, Fate of a Free People, This Whispering in Our Hearts, and the award-winning Why Weren’t We Told?

Question 15.
Who were the early European/British settlers in Australia? [1](A) Convicts who had been deported from Africa
(B) Convicts who had been deported from England
(C) The Australian tribals
(D) All of the above
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: The earliest settlers in Australia were the convicts who had been deported from England.

Question 16.
Which of the following countries made the ‘Touisiana purchase”? [1](A) USA
(B) France
(C) Canada
(D) England
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The famous Louisiana Purchase was made by the USA from France. The United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803. In the deal, the United States purchased approximately 828,000 square miles of land from France for $15 million.

Question 17.
……………………….. of 1934 considered to be a landmark in the history of USA because it gave natives the right to buy land and take loan. [1](A) Indian Reorganisation Act
(B) Indian Immigration Act
(C) Indian Migration Act
(D) Indian land Act
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 is considered to be a landmark in the history of the United States because it gave Native Americans the right to buy land and take loans. The Indian Reorganization Act, also known as the Wheeler- Howard Act, was passed by the US. Congress in 1934. The act was designed to reverse the assimilationist policies of the previous century and to promote self-government for Native American tribes.

Question 18.
Who is considered as the founder of modern China? [1](A) Mao Zedong
(B) Chiang Kai-shek
(C) Sun-Yat-Sen
(D) Lian Qichao
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader who is considered as the father of modern China. He was the leader of the movement that led to the overthrowing of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912. He was also the founder of the Kuomintang (KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party.

Question 19.
The new democracy was established in China in …………………… . [1](A) 1946
(B) 1947
(C) 1948
(D) 1949
Option (D) is correct.
Explanation: New Democracy, or the New Democratic Revolution, was a concept developed by Mao Zedong in post-revolutionary China. The goal of the New Democratic Revolution was to end the semi-feudal structure of Chinese society and the semi-colonial oppression by foreign imperial powers. New Democracy, or the New Democratic Revolution, was a concept developed by Mao Zedong in post-revolutionary China. The goal of the New Democratic Revolution was to end the semi-feudal structure of Chinese society and the semi-colonial oppression by foreign imperial powers.

Question 20.
When was the Cultural Revolution started in China? [1](A) 1962
(B) 1966
(C) 1976
(D) 1978
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: The Cultural Revolution was launched in China in 1966. The Cultural Revolution was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 to 1976. It was launched by Mao Zedong, the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The Cultural Revolution was a chaotic and violent period. Millions of people were persecuted, imprisoned, or killed. The Cultural Revolution ended with Mao Zedong’s death in 1976.

Question 21.
The CCP was founded in ……………………. . [1](A) 1911
(B) 1921
(C) 1931
(D) 1941
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: The CCP was founded on July 23, 1921, in Shanghai by a group of Chinese intellectuals and activists. The founding members of the CCP included Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu, and Li Dazhao. The CCP was initially a small and insignificant party. However, it grew rapidly in the 1930s and 1940s, as it led the Chinese people in their struggle against Japanese occupation and the Kuomintang (KMT) government.

Short answer Type Questions.

Question 22.
What was the contribution of Mesopotamia in the fields of Mathematics and time division?
Mention some of the important facts regarding the Mesopotamian seals. [3]Answer:
The scholarly tradition of time reckoning and mathematics has been the greatest legacy of the Mesopotamians. There are tablets with multiplication and division tables, square and square roots and even tables of compound interest. The year was divided into 12 months according to the revolution of the moon around the earth. The month was divided into four weeks, a day into 24 hours and the hour into 60 minutes. They also observed the solar and lunar eclipses and noted their occurrence according to year, month and day. There are a1o records about the observed positions of stars and constellations in the night sky.

These divisions were adopted by the successors of Alexander and from there transmitted to the Roman world, then to Islam, and then to medieval Europe.
Until the end of the first millennium BCE cylindrical stone seals, pierced down the centre, were fitted with a stick and rolled over wet clay so that a continuous picture was created. They were carved by skilled craftsmen and sometimes carried the name of the owner, his God, his official position, etc.

A seal could also be rolled on clay covering the string knot of a cloth package or the mouth of a pot keeping the contents safe. When rolled on a letter written on a clay tablet, it became the mark of authenticity. So, the seal was the mark of a city dweller’s role in public life.

Question 23.
Describe the role of the nobility in the feudal society in Europe. [3]Answer:
The nobility formed the second order and was linked to the king by the system of vassalage. As vassals of the king the nobles promised to remain loyal to the king and raised troops called feudal levies, and rendered military service to the king in wars, when called upon to do so. They administered the territory under them.

For the maintenance of the noble, and for the services rendered, the king made a grant of fief. By virtue of being land owners, the nobles enjoyed a privileged status and played a central role in the social processes. They lived in the manor house and had judicial and administrative authority of all the people settled on the manor.

Question 24.
Why was there a split in the Roman Catholic church because of Reformation? [3]Answer:
The Protestant Reformation was a religious reform movement that began in Western Europe in the 16th century. it resulted in the split of Western Christianity into two major branches: the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches.

There were many factors that led to the Protestant Reformation, including:
The corruption of the Roman Catholic Church:
The Catholic Church was seen by many as corrupt and worldly. There were widespread abuses, such as the sale of indulgences, which were believed to reduce the time a soul would spend in purgatory.

The rise of Humanism: Humanism was a movement that emphasized the importance of human reason and experience. This led to a questioning of the authority of the Catholic Church, which was seen as being too focused on tradition and dogma.
The translation of the Bible into vernacular languages: The Bible had previously been only available in Latin, which was a language that few people understood. The translation of the Bible into vernacular languages made it possible for people to read and interpret the Bible for themselves, which led to a questioning of Catholic doctrine.

The authority of the Pope: The Pope was the head of the Roman Catholic Church, and he was seen as having absolute authority over all Christians. However, many Protestants believed that the Bible was the only source of religious authority, and they rejected the Pope’s authority. Protestant form of Christianity was a modified form of the religion that did not recognise Pope as their spiritual head.

Question 25.
What is the significance of the year 1974 in Australian policy? [3]Answer:
The year 1974 was significant in Australian policy because it marked the shift from a non-white policy’ to multiculturalism becoming the official policy in Australia.

Initially, the European settlers employed natives on farms but many died due to exposure to germs, loss of their lands or in battles against the settlers and due to harsh working conditions which were hardly different from slavery.

Later the Chinese immigrants provided cheap labour but the Europeans feared dependence on non-whites and therefore Chinese immigrants were banned. Till 1974, this was the popular fear that dark people from South Asia or South East Asia might migrate in large numbers that the government had adopted the policy of keeping the non-whites out.

Growing awareness and sympathy for the natives was furthered by a lecture by anthropologist W.E.H. Stanner titled “The Great Australian Silence” and by the book “Why Weren’t We Told?” by Henry Reynolds There was a curiosity to understand them as communities and their skills like textile painting and carving. University departments were established for the study of native cultures. Art galleries and museums curated what was known of their life and culture. ‘Human Rights’ were associated with giving their culture an equal respect in meetings at the UNO and other International agencies. This finally led Australia to adopt multiculturalism as the official policy. This gave equal respect to native cultures and to different cultures of the immigrants from Europe and Asia.

Question 26.
When and how did things improve for the natives of the USA and Canada? Discuss. [3]Answer:
Things began to improve for the natives of the USA and Canada from the 1920s. In 1928 a survey report by social scientist, Lewis Merlan titled, “The Problems of Indian Administration” painted a grim picture of the poor health and education facilities for natives in reservations. Sympathy among “whites” for the natives who were denied benefits of citizenship and being discouraged from the full exercise of their cultures led to a landmark law in the USA, the Indian Re- organisation Act of 1934. This gave the natives the hitherto denied right to buy land and take loans in reservations. Attempts by the USA and Canadian governments to end the special provisions for the natives and make them join the mainstream ended in failures. In 1954, in the “Declaration of Indian Rights” prepared by them, the native people accepted the citizenship of the USA but on the condition that their reservation would not be taken away and their traditions would not be interfered with.

In Canada, the government announced in 1969 that they would ‘not recognise aboriginal rights” the natives mustered support and organised opposition by holding debates and a series of demonstrations. Ultimately the government relented, and by the Constitutional Act of 1982 accepted the existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the natives. Today while the natives in both the countries are much reduced in numbers they have been able to assert their right to their own cultures and particularly in Canada to their ‘sacred lands’ in a way their ancestors could not have done in the 1880s.

Question 27.
Highlight the role of Tanaka Shozo (1841-19i3) in the political history of Japan. [3]OR
How did Korea deal with the foreign currency crisis in 1997? [3]Answer:
Tanaka Shozo was a self-taught son of a farmer, who rose to become a major political figure. He participated in the popular rights movement in the 1880s, which demanded constitutional government in Japan. He was elected to the Diet. He believed that people’s lives should not be sacrificed for industrial progress. He therefore led an agitation against the Ashio Mine that was polluting the Watarase River.

It forced the company to take pollution control measures so that by 1904 harvests were normal. Thus, he played an important role in the movement towards environmental destruction.
Korea faced a foreign currency crisis in 1997. The crisis was addressed through emergency financial support provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Simultaneous efforts were also made to improve the country’s economic constitution as the citizens actively contributed towards foreign toan repayment through the Gold Collection Movement.

Long Answer Type Questions.

Question 28.
Discuss the institution of marriage and the position of women in the Roman society? [8]OR
What were some of the regions in the Roman Empire that were known for the exceptional fertility? [8]Answer:
In ancient Roman society, the institution of marriage played a significant role and was regarded as a fundamental social institution. Marriage was considered essential for the stability of society, the production of legitimate heirs, and the continuation of family lines. The position of women within the Roman society, however, was complex and evolved over time.

Marriage in Roman Society:
Marriage in ancient Rome was primarily a legal and social contract rather than a romantic union. It was seen as a means to establish alliances between families, consolidate wealth, and ensure the legitimacy of heirs.

Marriages were often arranged by families and were guided by considerations of social status, wealth, and political connections.
Marriages were typically arranged between a man of higher social status (usually older) and a woman of lower status. This was especially true among the elite classes. Marriage was expected to produce children, especially male heirs, who would inherit the family’s name, property and social standing.

Position of Women:
The position of women in Roman society varied depending on factors such as class, wealth, and time period. Early Roman society was characterized by a patriarchal structure where men held considerable authority over women and family affairs.

Women were under the legal control of their fathers or male guardians until they married, at which point their authority was transferred to their husbands.

In terms of social roles, women from elite families had more opportunities for education and participation in cultural activities. Some women held significant influence over their families and even the political sphere, such as mothers of prominent figures. However, their influence was often wielded indirectly through their male relatives.

As Rome transitioned from the Republic to the Empire, the social position of women shifted somewhat. Some women gained more legal rights and freedom, especially as property laws evolved. They could own property, engage in business, and even manage their own finances to some extent.

The Roman Empire had numerous places that were known for their exceptional fertility. Some of them were:

  • Campania in Italy, Sicily was a very fertile land that was suitable for the large scale agricultural activities.
  • Some other fertile areas are Fayum in Egypt, Galilee, Byzacium (Tunisia), southern Gaul (called Gaffla Narbonensis) and Baetica (Southern Spain).
  • These places were the densest and the most wealthiest places in the Roman Empire as per the writers like Strabo and Pliny.
  • Campania was known for the best quality of wine. Sicily and Byzacium exported large quantities of wheat.
  • The city of Galilee was densely cultivated and it is said that every inch of soil in this city was sown with some crop.

Question 29.
Discuss the methods adopted by the Mongols that facilitated their control over the vast empire. [8]OR
Give a brief account of the military system of Genghis Khan.[8]Answer:
The factors That facilitated their control over the vast empire were:
Alteration of the old steppe social order, integration of different lineages and clans and new identity of the Mongols derived from its progenitor Genghis Khan.

Replacement of old chieftains by the new aristocracy that derived its status not by virtue of being clan chieftain but based on a close relationship with the Great Khan. This ensured commitment and subordination. Division of the empire into four ‘Ulus’ with each flexible frontiers under his sons. He envisaged that his sons would rule over the Mongolian empire collectively. For effective and collective governance, military contingents ‘tama’ of each prince were placed in each ‘ulus’. To avoid any wars of succession, the even indicated that his third son Ogodei would succeed him as the Great Khan.

All decision pertaining to the state was taken collectively at the assembly of chieftains called the ‘quilters’. A rapid courier system ‘Yam’ was established that connected distant areas of the empire and enabled the Khans to keep a check on the developments at the farthest end of the empire.

From the reign of Genghis Khan itself, the Mongols recruited civil administrators from the conquered territories who were sometimes moved around. For example, Chinese secretaries were deployed in Iran, and Persians in China. This helped in the integration of the conquered territories and blunting the harsher edges of the nomadic predation on sedentary life.

By referring to the ‘Yasa’ as Genghis Khan’s code of law, the Mongol people sought to lay claim to a lawgiver like Moses and Solomon, whose authoritative code could be imposed on the subjects. The ‘Yasa’ binded the Mongol people together and enabled the Mongols to retain their ethnic identity while imposing their ‘laws’ upon the defeated subjects.
The astute leadership and organisational skills of Genghis Khan, the Mongols of Central Asia, established one of the largest nomadic, transcontinental empires that included Europe and Asia during the 13th,14th centuries. His astounding military achievements were a result of his innovative skills to transform different aspects of steppe combat into effective military strategies.

Genghis Khan systematically erased old tribal identities of different groups who joined the confederacy by dividing the old tribal grouping (decimal units) and distributing their members into new military units. He enforced and ensured strict discipline within the units by administering harsh punishments on any individual who tried to move from his original or allotted group without permission.

The largest unit of soldiers approximating 10,000 soldiers included fragmented groups.
By integrating different lineages and clans Genghis Khan provided the military system with a new identity.
Since the new identity was derived from Genghis Khan, this ensured the allegiance of the armed forces. The new military contingents were required to serve under his four sons and specially chosen captains of his army units called ‘noyan’.
Those who served Genghis Khan loyally through adversities for many years were publicly honoured as his blood brothers and.
This set an example for others to follow.
Free men of humbler rank were given special ranking as his bandsmen (naukar) a title that marked their close relationship with their master and set them apart from the rest.
Thus, ranking did not preserve the rights of old chieftains. The new aristocracy derived its status from a close relationship with the Great Khan.

Question 30.
Discuss the steps taken by the Meiji government to integrate the nation. State the outcomes of these measures. [6+2]OR
‘Communists established themselves in power by defeating Guomindang’. Substantiate the statement. [8]Answer:

  • To integrate the nation, the Meiji government imposed a new administrative structure by altering old village and domain boundaries.
  • The administrative unit had to have revenue adequate to maintain the local schools and health facilities, as well as to serve as a recruitment centre for the military.
  • All young men over twenty had to serve for a certain period of military service. A modern military force was developed.
  • A legal system was set up to regulate the formation of political groups, control the holding of meetings and impose strict censorship. In all these measures, the government had to face opposition.
  • The military nd the bureaucracy were put under the direct command of the emperor.
  • This meant that even after a constitution was enacted, these two groups remained outside the control of the government.
  • In all these measures, the government faced opposition. The tension between these different ideals represented by a democratic constitution and a modern army was to have far-reaching consequences.
  • The army pressed for a vigorous foreign policy to acquire more territory.
  • This Led to wars with China and Russia, in both of which Japan was the victor.
  • Japan’s first railway line, between Tokyo and the Port of Yokohama was built in 1870-72.
  • Funds were raised by levying an agricultural tax.

Textile machinery was imported from Europe and foreign technicians were also employed to train workers and also to teach in universities and schools. Japanese students were also sent to abroad.

  • In 1872, modem banking institutions were also launched.
  • Companies like Mitsubishi and Sumitomo were also helped through subsidies and tax benefits to become major shipbuilders so that Japanese trade was carried through Japanese ships.
  • The number of industrial labourer in Japan was 7,00,000 in 1870 which reached up to four million in 1913. Most of the labourers worked in units having less than 5 people.
  • By 1925, 21 percent of the population lived in cities. By 1935, this figure had gone up to 32 percent.


  • In 1925, after the death of Sun Yat-sen, the Guomindang was headed by Chiang Kai-shek Previously, the Communist Party of China was founded in 1921.
  • He tried his best to strengthen the rule of the Guomindang. But no initiatives were taken to achieve the three revolutionary principles of Sun Yat-sen, i.e., nationalism, democracy and socialism.
  • He also made an attempt to raise a new class of landlords. They always exploited the peasantry.
  • Mao Zedong, a Communist leadèr formed the Red Army. It was formed to strengthen the Peasant Movement. He became its chairperson in 1930. He also started a guerrilla war against Chiang Kai-shek’s army.
  • He defeated Chiang’s army four times. But for the fifth time, he left the idea of war and started the long March.
  • Mao Zedong formed a Communist front against Japan in 1935. It was his opinion that his struggle against Japan would make his mass movement more effective.
  • He suggested that a United Front be formed in collaboration with Red Army. But Chiang completely denied his proposal and he was imprisoned by his own soldiers.
  • The increasing power of Mao Zedong worried Chiang-Kai-shek He was not interested in working with him.
  • Even then he came with Mao in the war against Japan. After the end of war, Mao put the proposal of coalition govt before Chiang but he declined.
  • Mao continued his struggle and was elected the chairman of the Chinese government.
  • Chiang Kai-shek was worried about increasing power of Mao Zedong. After many persuasions, he became ready to stand by Mao against Japan.
  • In 1949, Chiang fled to Formosa to seek asylum. Mao was elected the Chairman of the Chinese government. He held his office till his death.

Source-based Questions.

Question 31.
Read the below passage and answer the following questions.
‘Soon afterwards the City Prefect, Lucius Pedanius Secundus, was murdered by one of his slaves. After the murder, ancient custom required that every slave residing under the same roof must be executed. But a crowd gathered, eager to save so many innocent lives; and rioting began. The senate-house was besieged. Inside, there was feeling against excessive severity, but the majority opposed any change. The senators favouring execution prevailed. However, great crowds ready with stones and torches prevented the order from being carried out. Nero rebuked the population by edict, and lined with troops the whole route along which those condemned were taken for execution.’
(a) In whose reign did the incident occur? What does the passage reflect about the treatment of slaves? [1](b) Why did the slave labour declined after the first century? [1](c) Was Roman society a slave society. Give 2 points in support of your argument. [2]Answer:
(a) This occurred in the reign of emperor Nero. The slaves were treated as property of the master, his authority over the slave was absolute. Slaves had no identity of their own and suffered complete legal deprivation and this denied them any sort of place in the society.

(b) Slave labour declined after the first century because it was a period of peace, Usually, it was the war prisoners who were made slaves. AS the wars decreased, so did the number of war prisoners.

(c) Slaves were found in all sectors of the economy, agriculture, handicrafts production, mining, etc.

yet it was not a Slave society because:

  • Bulk of the labour may have been performed by the slaves in the republican period in large parts of Italy but it was not true for the empire as a whole.
  • There were other kinds of labour also like peasants, small freeholders, labourers, tenants, share croppers.

Question 32.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Olduvai Gorge was first ‘discovered’ in the early twentieth century by a German butterfly collector. However, Olduvai has come to be identified with Mary and Louis Leakey, who worked here for over 40 years. It was Mary Leakey who directed archaeological excavations at Olduvai and Laet oli and she made some of the most exciting discoveries. This is what Louis Leakey wrote about one of their most remarkable finds: ‘That morning I woke with a headache and a slight fever. Reluctantly, I agreed to spend the day in camp.

With one of us out of commission, it was even more vital for the other to continue the work, for our precarious seven-week season was running out. So Mary departed for the diggings with Sally and Toots [two of their dogs] in the land-Rover la jeep-like vehicle], and I settled back to a restless day off. Sometime later – perhaps I dozed off — I heard the Land Rover coming up fast to camp. I had a momentary vision of Mary stung by one of our hundreds of resident scorpions or bitten by a snake that had slipped past the dogs.

The Land-Rover rattled to a stop, and I heard Mary’s voice calling over and over: “I’ve got him! I’ve got him! I’ve got him!” Still groggy from the headache, I couldn’t make her out. “Got what? Are you hurt?” I asked. “Him, the man! Our man,” Mary said. “The one we’ve been looking for 23 years. Come quick, I’ve found his teeth!”
(a) With whom is the Olduvai Gorge find associated with? [1](b) How did the genus derive his name? [1](c) Give four differences between the genus and the modern human. [2]Answer:
(a) The Olduvai gorge find is associated with Mary Leakay and Louis Leakay.
(b) The word Australopithecus is derived from Latin and Greek words. ‘Austrail’ means southern and pithekos’ means ape. The earliest form of humans still retained many features of the ape and hence was given this name.
(c) The differences between the genus and the modem humans are as follows:

  • Their brain size is smaller than the humans.
  • They had large black teeth.
  • Their hand movement was limited.
  • As the genus spent a long time on trees which is evident from their long forelimbs, curved hands and foot bones and mobile joints.

Question 33.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.
These revolutionary ideas attracted attention in many other universities, particularly in the newly established university in Petrarch’s own hometown of Florence. Till the end of the thirteenth century, this city had not made a mark as a centre of trade or of learning, but things changed dramatically in the fifteenth century. A city is known by its great citizens as much as by its wealth, and Florence had come to be known because of Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), a layman who wrote on religious themes, and Giotto (1267-1337), an artist who painted life-like portraits, very different from the stiff figures done by earlier artists. From then it developed as the most exciting intellectual city in Italy and as a centre of artistic creativity. The term ‘Renaissance Man’ is often used to describe a person with many interests and skills, because many of the individuals who became well known at this time were people of many parts. They were scholar diplomat-theologian-artist combined in one.
(a) What is the literal meaning of the term Renaissance? [1](b) Who was Petrarch? [1](c) Who were referred as ‘Renaissance men’? [2]Answer:
(a) The literal meaning of the term Renaissance is Rebirth.
(b) He was a great poet and historian of Italy.
(c) The term ‘Renaissance Man’ is often used to describe a person with many interests and skills, because many of the individuals who became well known at this time were people of many parts. They were scholar diplomat-theologian artists combined in one.

Map-based Questions.

Question 34.1.
On a political map of West Asia locate the following: [3+2](a) Southern region of Mesopotamia
(b) A city badly destroyed by Genghis Khan
(c) City town of Mesopotamia
Trading town of Mesopotamia. [5]Answer:
(a) Babylon
(b) Nishapur
(c) Ur

Question 34.2.
On the same map. two water bodies has been marked as A & B. Identify them and write their correct names. [5]


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