CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History Set 1 with Solutions

Students must start practicing the questions from CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History with Solutions Set 1 are designed as per the revised syllabus.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History Set 1 with Solutions

Time : 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

General Instructions:

  1. Question paper comic prises five Sections -48, C, D, and E. There are 34 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Section A – Question 1 to 21 are MCQs of 1 mark each
  3. Section B – Question no 22 to 27 are Short Answer Type questions, carrying 3 marks each Answer fo each question should not exceed 60-80 words.
  4. Section C – Question no 28 to 30 are Long Answer Type questions, carrying 8 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 300-350 words.
  5. Section D – Question no.31 to 33 are Source-based questions with three sub-questions and are of 4 marks each.
  6. Section-E – Question no.34 is Map-based, carrying 5 marks that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
  7. There is no overall choice in the question Ixiper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions has to be attempted.

Objective Type Questions.

Question 1.
Consider the following statements: [1](i) Mesopotamia lacked mineral resources.
(ii) In most parts of the south there was a shortage of stones for making tools, seals (currencies) and jewellery.
(iii) The wood of Iraqi palm and poplar trees was not particularly good for making carts, wheelbarrows or boats.
(iv) There was no metal available for making tools, utensils, or ornaments.
Which of the following statements is correct? Choose the right option:
(A) i and ii
(B) ii and iii
(C) i, ii, and iii
(D) i, ii, iii, and iv
(D) i, ii, iii, and iv

Question 2.
Choose the correct answer from the given options. [1]Name of the Roman emperor who introduced the gold coin:
(A) Augustus
(B) Octavian
(C) Constantine
(D) Diocletian
Option (D) is correct.
Explanation: Diocletian introduced the solidus, a gold coin, that became the standard currency of the Roman Empire for centuries. He was the Roman emperor from 284 to 305 CE.

Question 3.
To which tribe did Genghis Khan belong to? [1](A) Kiyat
(B) Huna
(C) Finnish
(D) Qureshi
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Genghis Khan belonged to the Kiyat tribe that was a sub-clan of the Borjigin, a Mongolian tribe. The Kiyat tribe was a small but powerful tribe that was known for its military prowess. Genghis father, Yesugei, was a chieftain of the Kiyat tribe.

Question 4.
Read statements about Seal — An Urban Artefact. [1](i) In India, early stone seals were stamped.
(ii) A seal could be rolled on the clay.
(iii) Seal was the mark of a symbol of authority.
Choose the correct options
(A) (i), (ii), and (iii)
(B) (i) and (iii)
(C) (ii) and (iii)
(D) (iii) only
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Seals were used for stamping purposes and they were used for the authentication of the goods.

Question 5.
Match the facts related to Roman Empire [1]A. Pax-Romana 1. Writing material
B. Papyrus rolls 2. Heart of Roman Empire
C. Mediterranean Sea 3. Damascus
D. Syria 4. Roman peace
(A) A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4
(B) A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
(C) A-1, B-4, C-3, D-2
(D) A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3
(D) A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3

Question 6.
Which Mesopotamian ruler was a great hero who subdued people far and wide? He was said to have ruled the city of Uruk and was shocked when his heroic friend died. [1](A) Enmerkar
(B) Gilgamesh
(C) Zimrillim
(D) Nabonidus
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: Gilgamesh was a legendary king of Uruk in Sumer (southern Mesopotamia) during 2700 BCE. He is best known from the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem that tells the story of his life and adventures.

Question 7.
Workers who provided cheap labour in Australia were [1](A) Chinese immigrants
(B) African slaves
(C) Australian aboriginal
(D) Indian labourers
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The majority of the labour works in the Australia were carried out by the Chinese immigrants who were brought to Australia in the 19th century to work on the railways, gold mines, and other infrastructure projects.

Question 8.
Identify and write the name of the European estate with the help of the following information: [1]He had absolute control over his property.
He could raise troops called feudal levies.
He had his own court of justice and could even coin his own money.
(A) Nobles/Kings
(B) Clergy
(C) Slaves
(D) None of the above
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Nobles/kings were too powerful and had absolute control over their property and also had the right to raise the troops.

Question 9.
Read the following lines and recognise- [1]The ordinary members of a religious community as opposed to the priests or clergy who have official positions within the community.
(A) Laity
(B) Plebs
(C) Humiores
(D) Slave
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The Laity were the ordinary people who belonged to the religious communities. The word ‘laity’ comes from the Latin word “locus”, which means “of the people”.

Question 10.
Japanese borrowed their written script from: [1](A) China
(B) Russia
(C) Korea
(D) Taiwan
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The Japanese borrowed their art of script writing from their neighbours, the Chinese. The Chinese writing system, called Hanzi, is a logographic system that uses characters to represent words or concepts.

Question 11.
Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R). Choose the correct answer from the given options related to the statement.
Assertion(A): Tithe was the tax collected by the church from the peasants. [1]Reason (R): It was fixed as 1110th of the total produce.
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(C) A is incorrect but R is correct.
(D) R is incorrect but A is correct.
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Tithe was the one-tenth tax collected by the Church from the peasants. The tithe was fixed as one-tenth of the total produce. This was based on the biblical principle of tithing, which is found in the Old Testament.

Question 12.
The Mongols imported …………………. from China. [1](A) Cotton
(B) Crude Oil
(C) Coffee
(D) Iron Utensils
Option (D) is correct.
Explanation: The Mongols used to import iron utensils from the China as it was not available in their own country.

Question 13.
Mao launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in which year? [1](A) 1966
(B) 1978
(C) 1989
(D) 1949
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The Communist Leader Mao Zedong led the initiation of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1966. It was a period of political and social upheaval in China that lasted until his death in 1976.

Question 14.
Who were regarded as Red Indians? [1](A) Native Americans
(B) Native Australians
(C) Native Africans
(D) Native Indians
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The Native Americans who were living in North America, when Europeans arrived there, used to be called as Red Indians.

Question 15.
The first president of the Chinese Republic was: [1](A) Dr. Sun Yat Sen
(B) Mao Ze Dong
(C) Chiang Kai-shek
(D) Deng Xiaoping
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: The first President of the Chinese Republic was Dr. Sun Yat-sen who played a pivotal role in making China a republic.

Question 16.
“The Problem of Indian Administration” was a survey conducted by:[1](A) Lewis Meriam
(B) Daniel Paul
(C) Thomas Paine
(D) Andrew Carnegie
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Lewis Meriam conducted a famous survey known as “The Problem of Indian Administration.” The survey was published in 1928.

Question 17.
Look at the picture. Identify and write the name of the artist who made this famous statue.[1]

(A) Michelangelo
(B) Da Vinci
(C) Erasmus
(D) Pablo Picasso
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Michelangelo’s ‘Pietà,’ a Masterpiece of Renaissance Sculpture is one of the most famous Renaissance time work. It is a marble sculpture.

Question 18.
The first agitation against Industrial pollution in 1897 was launched by …………………. .[1](A) Tanaka Shozo
(B) Toju
(C) Mao Zedong
(D) None of the above.
Option (A) is correct
Explanation: Tanaka Shz was a Japanese politician and activist who launched the first agitation against industrial pollution in 1897. He was a member of the Diet of Japan and represented the Iwate Prefecture.

Question 19.
Fill in the blank.
…………………………… propounded the theory of Earth as part of solar system.[1](A) Galileo Galilei
(B) Johannes Kepler
(C) Nicolas Copernicus
(D) Isaac Newton
Option (C) is correct.
Explanation: The Theory of Earth as part of the solar system was propounded by the famous astroscientist Nicolas Copernicus.

Question 20.
I am regarded as the father of Humanism in world History. Who am I? [1](A) Petrarch
(B) Giovanni Pica della
(C) Dante Alighieri
(D) Andreas Vesalius
Option (A) is correct.
Explanation: Petrarch was an Italian poet, scholar, and humanist who is considered as the father of Humanism. He was born in Arezzo, Italy, in 1304.

Question 21.
Identify the thinker who wrote this: “India was a country that was destroyed by a non-country that is the East India Company”. [1](A) Miyake Setsurei
(B) Liang Qichao
(C) Ueki Emori
(D) FukuzawaYukichi
Option (B) is correct.
Explanation: The thinker who wrote the quote “India was a country that was destroyed by a non-country that is the East India Company” is Liang Qichao. Liang Qichao was a Chinese thinker and political reformer who lived from 1873 to 1929.

Short answer Type Questions.

Question 22.
The kingdom of Mari was not militarily strong, yet it was exceptionally prosperous. Discuss. [3]OR
‘The use of seals played a significant role in the trade of Mesopotamia’. Comment. [3]Answer:
After 2000 BCE, the capital of Mari flourished and was exceptionally prosperous. The main reasons were:

  • The southern plain, where it was situated, was agriculturally highly productive.
  • Animal rearing was another profitable occupation.
  • It occupied an advantageous position on the Euphrates as it profited from trade both upstream and downstream between Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon.
  • Clay tablets refer to the exchange of agricultural produce for metals like tin which was essential in making bronze. Therefore, the exchange was of great importance and a source of prosperity for Mari.

A number of seals have been excavated from Mesopotamia. Seals were small, carved objects that were used to identify and authenticate documents and goods. They were made from a variety of materials, including stone, clay and metal. Seals were used in Mesopotamia from the earliest times.

Here are some of the ways in which seals were used in the trade of Mesopotamia:

  • To mark ownership of property: Seals were used to mark the ownership of goods, such as jars of oil or bags of grain. This helped to prevent theft and fraud.
  • To seal documents: Seals were used to seal documents, such as contracts and receipts.
  • This helped to authenticate the documents and prevent them from being tampered with.
  • To authenticate goods: Seals were used to authenticate goods that were traded between merchants. This helped to ensure that the goods were genuine and not counterfeit.
  • To promote trust: The use of seals helped to promote trust between merchants. This was because seals made it more difficult to cheat or defraud one another.

Question 23.
What did the natives and the Europeans think of the goods they exchanged during the colonial era? What was the reaction of the natives? [3]Answer:
For the natives, the goods exchanged by them were gifts which had been given in friendship. For the Europeans, the fish and furs which they got in exchange were mere commodities. They used to sell these for profits in Europe. The natives had no idea of ‘market’ far away in Europe. They could not understand the way in which the gifts were exchanged because sometimes Europeans gave them a lot of things and sometimes very little.

They were surprised at the greed of the Europeans who had slaughtered hundreds of beavers so that they might get furs. The natives were afraid as they thought that the animals would take revenge for this destruction.

Question 24.
How satisfactory is a museum gallery display in explaining the culture of some particular class of people? [3]Answer:
From the 1970s, there was an eagerness in North America to understand the natives not as anthropological curiosity but as communities with different cultures from their own. Different understandings of nature and climate, their vast body of stories, textiles, paintings, and carving skills which should be understood, recorded, and respected. Henry Reynolds’ work “Why Weren’t We Told?” condemned the practice of writing Australian history as though it had begun with Captain Cook’s discovery. Since then university departments have been instituted to study the native cultures, galleries of native art have been added and museums have been enlarged to incorporate the artefacts of the native culture.

Even the natives have begun to write their own history. From 1974, the policy of ‘multiculturalism’ has been officially adopted in Australia which has helped integrate the native culture with the mainstream culture.

Question 25.
Highlight the vital notions of the first estate of early French society. [3]Answer:
The First Estate of early French society was the clergy. It comprised all ordained members of the Catholic Church, from cardinals and archbishops down to parish priests, monks, and nuns. The First Estate was a powerful and privileged group, enjoying a number of exemptions from taxation and other obligations.

Here are some of the vital notions of the First Estate:
Religious authority: The First Estate was the sole source of religious authority in France. The king was officially the “Most Christian King,” and his power was derived from God. The clergy were responsible for administering the sacraments, teaching the faith, and providing spiritual guidance to the people.

Land ownership: The First Estate owned a significant amount of land in France. This land was often exempted from taxation and the clergy used the income from it to support their lavish lifestyles.

Political power: The First Estate had a significant amount of political power in France. They were represented in the Estates-General, the highest legislative body in the country. The First Estate often used their political power to protect their own interests, even at the expense of the other estates.

Everyone could not become a priest:
Serfs were banned, as were the physically challenged. Women could not become priests. Men who became priests could not marry. Bishops were the religious nobility. Like lords who owned vast land estates, the bishops also had the use of vast estates and lived in grand palaces. The Church was entitled to a tenth share of whatever the peasants produced from their land over the course of the year, called ‘title’. Money also came in the form of endowments made by the rich for their own welfare and the welfare of their deceased relatives in the afterlife. (Any Three Points)

Question 26.
What were the effects of Japanese defeat in World War II? [3]Answer:
The effects of Japanese defeat in World War II were:

  • Japan’s attempt to become a colonial power ended.
  • Japan was demilitarised and a new constitution was introduced. A no-war clause was introduced as an instrument of state policy.
  • Agrarian reforms were carried out and trade unions were re-established.
  • The Zaibatsu or the large monopolistic business houses were dismantled.
  • Political parties were revived and the first post-war elections were held in 1946 in which women voted for the first time.
  • The social cohesion was strengthened, allowing for a close working of the government, bureaucracy, and industry. (Any three)

Question 27.
Describe the main causes and consequences of Renaissance. [3]OR
Explain the Scientific Revolution—the new approach to the knowledge of man and nature. [3]Answer:
By the mid-14th century, new towns had emerged that were characterized by prosperity and freedom of thought. Such an atmosphere was conducive to development of the Renaissance. As Constantinople had been occupied by Turks, many scholars and artists had migrated to Italy where they flourished. The invention of the printing press helped to spread their ideas rapidly. As a consequence, new geographical discoveries were made. Countries like America and India were discovered. Humanism was given preference in artistic and literary works. Many new discoveries and inventions were encouraged by the spirit of enquiry.
The experiments and investigations in the fields of physics, chemistry, and biology changed the approach to the knowledge of man and nature. The new approach was called the Scientific Revolution. God began to be replaced by nature as the sources of creation. It implied that the nature created everything. God did not regulate the lives of living beings in the world. Such ideas became popular with the establishment of scientific societies such as Paris Academy (1670) and the Royal Society in London (1662).

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 28.
Discuss the political structure of the Roman Empire. [8]OR
“Roman civilisation flourished in the Mediterranean region. it had contributed a lot to the world civilisation.” With the help of examples, describe the contribution of this civilisation. [8]Answer:
The political structure of the Roman Empire was a complex and evolving system that changed over time. However, there were some key features that remained constant throughout the empire’s history.

The most important institution in the Roman government was the Senate. The Senate was a body of 600 members, drawn from the wealthiest and most elite families in Rome. The Senate had a wide range of powers, including declaring war, making treaties, and appointing magistrates.

The other major institution in the Roman government was the emperor. The emperor was the supreme ruler of the empire, and he had absolute power over all aspects of government. However, the emperor was not a tyrant. He was expected to rule in accordance with the law and to consult with the Senate on important matters.

The regime established by Augustus, the first emperor, in 27 BCE was called the ‘Principate’ (which means he was ‘leading citizen’, ‘Princeps’ in Latin, not the absolute ruler). He ruled till 14 CE and brought to an end the chaotic conditions prevailing in Roman empire.

The Principate was advised by the Senate, which had existed in Rome for centuries. This body had controlled Rome earlier, in the days when it was a Republic, and remained a body representing the aristocracy, that is, the wealthiest families of Roman and, later, Italian descent, mainly landowners.

Next to the emperor and the Senate, the other key institution of imperial rule was the army. Rome had a professional conscripted army, which was forcibly recruited. Military service was compulsory for certain groups or categories of the population for a minimum of 25 years. The emperor, the aristocracy and the army were the three main ‘players’ in the political history of the empire. The success of individual emperors depended on their control of the army, and when the armies were divided, the result usually was civil war except for one notorious year (69 CE), when four emperors mounted the throne in quick succession. Roman Empire made unprecedented growth in the field of literature during Augustan age. Augustus played a significant role in expansion of Roman Empire. The ‘Augustan Age’ is remembered for the peace it ushered in after decades of internal strife and centuries of military conquest.

Territories: The Roman Empire had two types of territories-dependent kingdoms and provincial territory. The Near East was full of dependent kingdoms but they disappeared and were swallowed up by Rome. These kingdoms were exceedingly wealthy, for example, Herod’s kingdom yielded 5.4 million denarii per year, equal to over 125,000 kg of gold per year.

A city in the Roman Empire was an urban center with its own magistrates, city council, and a ‘territory’ containing villages which were under its jurisdiction. Thus, one city could not be in the territory of another city, but villages almost always were included. (Any Eight).
Roman civilisation was a great world civilisation.
It had contributed in the development of other civilisations. The following examples justify this fact:
(i) Law and Government: The Romans were great exponents of law. The Roman law did not make any discrimination among the citizens. Most of the countries owe their present legal systems to the Romans. The Romans were probably the first people who could exercise effective control upon the different dominions of their vast empire. The credit also goes to the Romans for the development of the idea of Republicanism.

(ii) Contribution in the fields of language, philosophy, and literature: Latin, the language of the Romans, became the language of all the educated people of Europe. Cicero was a great philosopher from Rome. He stressed upon the natural rights of all individuals. Ancient Rome also produced some great poets like Virgil and Horace, who spread the glory of the Roman civilisation through their immortal works.

(iii) Art: The Romans were the inventors of the concrete. They could firmly cement the bricks and stones. They were efficient engineers too. The art of painting murals was also highly developed in Rome.

(iv) Science and Technology: The Romans were the first to start the public services. Free medicines were given to the poor. The Roman physicians wrote a book containing information on surgery, they also compiled a medical encyclopedia.

(v) The Roman Calendar too, with a few changes, is still in practice in many parts of the world.

Question 29.
Describe the steps taken by Genghis Khan to reorganise people into more effective and disciplined military force. [8]OR
‘Genghis Khan was a godfather for Mongols but a destroyer for others’. Elucidate the statement. [8]Answer:
To remove the tribal identities in military, Genghis Khan erased the old tribal identities of different groups who had joined the confederacy. The army was reorganised on the basis of decimal units in divisions of 10s, 100s, 1000s and 10,000s. Genghis Khan changed this by dividing the old tribal grouping and distributing their members into new military units. The new military units now consisted of members from various clans and tribes. No one could change their group without permission.

(i) He placed his military contingents under the control of his four sons and specially chosen captains of his army units called ‘Noyan’.

(ii) He honoured his supporters publicly, those who had remained with him in adverse conditions. He gave them ranks such as his ‘blood brothers’ (Canada) or bondsmen (naukar). This led to the rise of a new aristocracy which had a close relationship with the Great Khan.

(iii) To give responsibility of governance, the new territories were divided into four ‘Ulus’ under his four Sons.

(iv) The Sons were required to rule the empire collectively, the military contingents (tama) of the individual princes were kept in each Ulus.

(v) All the decisions relating to the family or the state for the forthcoming seasons such as campaigns, distribution of plunder, pastures, etc. were collectively taken at the ‘Quriltais’ i.e. assemblies of chieftains.
For the Mongols, Genghis Khan was the greatest leader of all time. He united the Mongol people, freed them from interminable tribal wars and Chinese exploitation.

  • He brought them prosperity, fashioned a grand transcontinental empire, and restored trade routes and markets that attracted distant travellers.
  • Although the Mongol Khans themselves belonged to a variety of different faiths, Shaman, Buddhist, Christian and eventually Islam, they never let their personal beliefs dictate public policy.
  • The Mongol rulers recruited administrators and armed contingents from people of all ethnic groups and religions.
  • The historians are only now studying the ways in which the Mongols provided ideological models for later regimes (like the Mughals of India) to follow.
  • The nature of the documentation on the Mongols and any nomadic regime makes it virtually impossible to understand the inspiration that led to the confederation of fragmented groups of people in the pursuit of an ambition to create an empire.
  • At the end of the fourteenth century, Timur, another monarch who aspired to universal dominion, hesitated to declare himself monarch because he was not of Genghis Khan descent.
  • Today, after decades of Soviet control, the country of Mongolia is recreating its identity as an independent nation.
  • It has seized upon Genghis Khan as a great national hero who is publicly venerated and whose achievements are recounted with pride.
  • At a crucial juncture in the history of Mongolia, Genghis Khan has once again appeared as an iconic figure for the Mongol people, mobilising memories of a great past in the forging of national identity that can carry the nation into the future.

Question 30.
Describe the conditions of Japan before the Meiji Restoration. [8]OR
What was the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution? What was its result? [8]Answer:
Political condition: Japan was ruled by an emperor from Kyoto while the actual powers were in the hands of the Shoguns. From 1603 to 1867, the members of the Tokugawa family held the position of the Shogun, the country was divided into 250 domains each ruled by a Daimyo. The Daimyos was given a large degree of autonomy and were ordered to live in the capitals of their domains.

Social condition: Edo was the most populated city in the world by the mid-17th century. Osaka and Kyoto were the other large cities in Japan.
There were about half a dozen castle towns with population over 50,000. A person’s merit was valued more than his status. A vibrant culture grew around the towns. The habit of reading increased among the people and many writers could earn their living solely by writing.

Economic conditions: The growth of cities led to the growth of a commercial economy. Financial and credit systems came into existence. Japan was considered rich as it began to import luxury goods like silk from China and textiles from India. There was an increased use of money. There was a stock market in rice which was a sign of economic prosperity in those days. Conflicts became common among Mao’s supporters, who focussed on socialism, and those who objected to his stress on ideology. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution of 1965 was the result of this conflict. Mao started this revolution to face these critics.

The Red Guards, mainly the students and the army, were used to start a campaign against the old culture, old customs, and old habits. Ideology of being a communist became more important than having professional knowledge. Rational debates were replaced by denunciations and slogans. As a result, there was turmoil in the country with the cultural revolution. The economy and educational system were disrupted but the situation started to change from the late 1960s. In 1975, the party once again started to give stress on strict social discipline and the need to build a strong nation.

Source-based Questions.

Question 31.
Read the passages carefully and answer the following questions.
William Tyndale (1494-1536), an English Lutheran who translated the Bible into English in 1506, defended Protestantism thus: ‘In this they be all agreed, to drive you from the knowledge of this scripture, and that you shall not have the text thereof in the mother tongue, and to keep the world still in darkness, to the intent they might sit in the consciousness of the people through vain superstition and false doctrine, to satisfy their proud ambition and in Satiable covetousness, and to exalt their own honor above King and Emperor. Yea, and above God himself…. Which thing only moved me to translate the New Testament because I had perceived by experience, how would that be impossible to establish the lay people in any Truth, except the scripture were plainly laid before their eyes in their mother tongue, that they might see the process, order, and meaning of the text Self-made.
(a) What do you know about William Tyndale? (1)
(b) What were his objectives to translate the Bible into English? (1)
(c) What were the issues on which the Protestants criticised the Catholic Church? Write any two issues? (2)
(a) William Tyndale was an English Lutheran who is considered as the Father of the English Bible. He translated the Bible into English.
(b) Tyndale’s objectives to translate the Bible into English were two-fold:

  • To make the Bible accessible to the common people, who did not speak Latin, the language in which the Bible was traditionally written.
  • To challenge the authority of the Catholic Church, which controlled the interpretation of the Bible.

(c) They criticised the Catholic Church on following issues:
The Protestants criticised the Catholic Church because of immoral and luxurious life led by the churchmen. Sale of ‘Letter of Indulgence’ by the church to those people who had committed sins. Self-made

Question 32.
Because of the inadequacy which we often felt on feast days, for the narrowness of the place forced the women to run towards the altar upon the heads of the men with much anguish and noisy confusion, [we decided] to enlarge and amplify the noble church. We also caused to be painted, by the exquisite hands of many masters from different regions, a splendid variety of new windows… Because these windows are very valuable on account of their wonderful execution and the profuse expenditure of painted glass and sapphire glass, we appointed an official master craftsman for their protection, and also a goldsmith. . .who would receive their allowances, namely, coins from the altar and flour from the common storehouse of the brethren, and who would never neglect their duty, to look after these [works of art]. Abbot Suger (1081-1151) about the Abbey of St Denis, near Paris. Self-made
(a) Define cathedral. (1)
(b) What purpose did the stained windows serve? (1)
(c) What were the vital features of a cathedral and cathedral towns? (2)
(a) Large/big churches in the cities.
(b) So that, those who were not educated can understand the real essence of bible as these windows were very valuable on account of their wonderful execution.
(c) Cathedrals were the big churches and cathedral towns were the new established towns/cities near these cathedral. These were the sign of the fourth town i.e., end of feudalism.

Question 33.
The Warka Head
This woman’s head was sculpted in white marble at Uruk before 3000 BCE. The eyes and eyebrows would probably have taken lapis lazuli (blue) and shell (white) and bitumen (black) inlays, respectively. There is a groove along the top of the head, perhaps for an ornament. This is a world-famous piece of sculpture, admired for the delicate modelling of the woman’s mouth, chin and cheeks. And it was modelled in a hard stone that could have been imported from a distance.
(a) What is a Warka Head? (1)
(b) In what manner were the eyes and eyebrows of the Warka Head completed? (1)
(c) Why is the Warka Head admired all over the world? (2)
(a) This was woman’s head which was sculpted in white marble at Uruk before 3000 BCE.
(b) The eyes and eyebrows would probably have taken lapis lazuli (blue) and shell (white) and bitumen (black) inlays, respectively.
(c) This is a world-famous piece of sculpture, admired for the delicate modeling of the woman’s mouth, chin and cheeks.

Map-based Questions.

Question 34.1
On a political map of West Asia locate and mark the following: 3+2
(a) Persian Gulf
(b) Babylon
(c) Caspian sea
Black sea


Question 34.2
On the same map, A & B has been marked as an important city of Mesopotamia. Identify and write their names. 5
(a) Mari
(b) Ur

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